Lightning serves as the dominant source of nitrogen oxides (

Nitrogen oxides (

In view of the regionally dependent lifetime of

Recent studies have determined and quantified L

As these methods focus on monthly or annual mean

Based on the approach used by

More recently

On the other hand,

To apply the approach used by

In this paper, we focus on the estimation of L

OMI is carried on the Aura satellite (launched in 2004), a member of the A-train satellite group

The main steps of calculating the

SCDs are determined by the OMI-optimized differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) spectral fit.

A corrected (“de-striped”) SCD is obtained by subtracting the cross-track bias caused by an instrument artifact from the measured slant column.

The AMF for stratospheric (AMF

The stratospheric

V

Based on this method, we developed a new AMF

Details of this algorithm are discussed in Sect.

The Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) operates a system of over 1500 ground-based stations around the world with more than 900 sensors installed in the CONUS

The present study uses WRF-Chem version 3.5.1

Domain and terrain height (m) of the WRF-Chem simulation with

Comparison between total flash densities from ENTLN and WRF-Chem during MJJA 2014.

The V

Please note that the CP is a reflectance-weighted pressure retrieved by the collision-induced

To compare our results with those of

V

CRFs (CRF

Besides cloud properties, a time period and sufficient flashes (or strokes) are required for fresh L

To ensure that lightning flashes are simulated successfully by WRF-Chem, the threshold of simulated total lightning flashes (TL) per box is set to 1000, which is fewer than that used by the ENTLN lightning observation, considering the uncertainty of lightning parameterization.
In view of other

Finally, the

summation method, dividing the sum of L

linear regression method, applying the linear regression to daily mean values of L

To determine the suitable criteria from the conditions defined in Sect.

Definitions of the abbreviations for the criteria used in this study.

L

A daily search of the

L

Figure

In order to compare our result with that of

The profile (v3.0B) closest to the OMI overpass time was selected instead of the last profile (v3.0A) before the OMI overpass.

The AMF uses a variable tropopause height as opposed to the fixed 200 hPa tropopause.

The surface pressure is now calculated according to

Meanwhile, L

The mean and standard deviation of L

With respect to the L

Table

Comparisons of mean WRF-Chem

Kernel density estimation of the

Same as Fig.

Figure

The percent changes in the estimated production when using different methods based on the same a priori profiles.

The LNO production settings in WRF-Chem varied in different studies.

Figure

Figure

Average percent differences in

To clarify this, we applied the same sensitivity test of different simulating LNO amounts for all four methods mentioned in Sect.

LNO and L

Average percent differences in

The uncertainties of the L

Uncertainties for the estimation of L

PE

The GEOS-5 monthly tropopause pressure, which is consistent with the NASA standard product, is applied instead of the variable WRF tropopause height to evaluate the uncertainty (6 % for L

The error in cloud radiance fraction is transformed from cloud fraction using

The accuracy of the 500 m MODIS albedo product is usually within 5 % of albedo observations at the validation sites, and those exceptions with low-quality flags have been found to be primarily within 10 % of the field data

As discussed at the end of Sect.

Compared to the NASA standard product v2,

Based on the standard deviation of the detection efficiency estimation over the CONUS relative to LIS, ENTLN detection efficiency uncertainties are

Recent studies revealed that the modeled

In addition, the estimation of L

The overall uncertainty is estimated as the square root of the sum of the squares of all individual uncertainties in Table

In this study, a new algorithm for retrieving L

Compared with

Since other regions, like China and India, have much more

Simple forms of abbreviations for AMFs.

While we used 2400 flashes per box and 8160 strokes per box per 2.4 h time window for detecting L

Similarly, the order of estimated daily PEs is L

Instead of using the nonlinear regression of power function

Linear regressions with CRF

Same as Fig.

The retrieval algorithm used in Sect.

YY directed the research and RvdA, XZ, and YY designed the research with feedback from the other co-authors; RvdA and XZ developed the algorithm; JLL provided guidance and supporting data on the ENTLN data; XZ performed simulations and analysis with the help of YY, RvdA, QC, XK, SY, JC, CH, and RS; YY, RvdA, JLL, and XZ interpreted the data and discussed the results. XZ drafted the manuscript with comments from the co-authors; JLL, RvdA, and YY edited the manuscript.

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

We acknowledge use of the computational resources provided by the National Supercomputer Centre in Guangzhou (NSCC-GZ).
We thank the University of California Berkeley Satellite Group for the basic BEHR algorithm.
We also thank Earth Networks Company for providing the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) datasets.
We appreciate the discussions with Joshua L. Laughner for BEHR codes and Mary Barth for the WRF-Chem lightning

This research has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 91644224 and 41705118).

This paper was edited by Steffen Beirle and reviewed by three anonymous referees.

_{x}and its vertical distribution calculated from three-dimensional cloud-scale chemical transport model simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, 4711,