Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

IF value: 3.668
IF 5-year value: 3.707
IF 5-year
CiteScore value: 6.3
SNIP value: 1.383
IPP value: 3.75
SJR value: 1.525
Scimago H <br class='widget-line-break'>index value: 77
Scimago H
h5-index value: 49
Volume 4, issue 10
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2105–2124, 2011
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2105–2124, 2011
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 11 Oct 2011

Research article | 11 Oct 2011

The Level 2 research product algorithms for the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES)

P. Baron1, J. Urban2, H. Sagawa1, J. Möller2, D. P. Murtagh2, J. Mendrok3, E. Dupuy1, T. O. Sato1,4, S. Ochiai1, K. Suzuki1, T. Manabe5, T. Nishibori6, K. Kikuchi1,6, R. Sato6, M. Takayanagi6, Y. Murayama1, M. Shiotani7, and Y. Kasai1 P. Baron et al.
  • 1National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo, 184-8795, Japan
  • 2Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg, Sweden
  • 3Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 98128 Kiruna, Sweden
  • 4Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 226-8503, Japan
  • 5Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531, Japan
  • 6Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8505, Japan
  • 7Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan

Abstract. This paper describes the algorithms of the level-2 research (L2r) processing chain developed for the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES). The chain has been developed in parallel to the operational chain for conducting researches on calibration and retrieval algorithms. L2r chain products are available to the scientific community. The objective of version 2 is the retrieval of the vertical distribution of trace gases in the altitude range of 18–90 km. A theoretical error analysis is conducted to estimate the retrieval feasibility of key parameters of the processing: line-of-sight elevation tangent altitudes (or angles), temperature and ozone profiles. While pointing information is often retrieved from molecular oxygen lines, there is no oxygen line in the SMILES spectra, so the strong ozone line at 625.371 GHz has been chosen. The pointing parameters and the ozone profiles are retrieved from the line wings which are measured with high signal to noise ratio, whereas the temperature profile is retrieved from the optically thick line center. The main systematic component of the retrieval error was found to be the neglect of the non-linearity of the radiometric gain in the calibration procedure. This causes a temperature retrieval error of 5–10 K. Because of these large temperature errors, it is not possible to construct a reliable hydrostatic pressure profile. However, as a consequence of the retrieval of pointing parameters, pressure induced errors are significantly reduced if the retrieved trace gas profiles are represented on pressure levels instead of geometric altitude levels. Further, various setups of trace gas retrievals have been tested. The error analysis for the retrieved HOCl profile demonstrates that best results for inverting weak lines can be obtained by using narrow spectral windows.

Publications Copernicus