A miniDOAS instrument optimised for ammonia field measurements
Abstract. We present a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument, called "miniDOAS", optimised for optical open-path field-measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3) alongside nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The instrument is a further development of the miniDOAS presented by Volten et al. (2012). We use a temperature-controlled spectrometer, a deuterium light source and a modified optical arrangement. The system was set up in a robust, field-deployable, temperature-regulated housing. For the evaluation of light spectra we use a new high-pass filter routine based upon robust baseline extraction with local regression. Multiple linear regression including terms of an autoregressive–moving-average model is used to determine concentrations. For NH3 the random uncertainty is about 1.4 % of the concentration, and not better than 0.2 µg m−3. Potential biases for the slope of the calibration are given by the precision of the differential absorption cross sections (±3 %) and for the offset by the precision of the estimation of concentration offsets (cref) introduced by the reference spectrum Iref. Comparisons of miniDOAS measurements to those by NH3 acid trap devices showed good agreement. The miniDOAS can be flexibly used for a wide range of field trials, such as micrometeorological NH3 flux measurements with approaches based upon horizontal or vertical concentration differences. Results from such applications covering concentration dynamics of less than one up to several hundreds of µg m−3 are presented.