Ozone profiles above Kiruna from two ground-based radiometers
- 1Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada
- 2Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 812, 981 28 Kiruna, Sweden
- 3Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Tähteläntie 62, 99600 Sodankylä, Finland
- 4Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
- 5NorthWest Research Associates, Socorro, New Mexico, USA
- 6Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801, USA
Abstract. This paper presents new atmospheric ozone concentration profiles retrieved from measurements made with two ground-based millimetre-wave radiometers in Kiruna, Sweden. The instruments are the Kiruna Microwave Radiometer (KIMRA) and the Millimeter wave Radiometer 2 (MIRA 2). The ozone concentration profiles are retrieved using an optimal estimation inversion technique, and they cover an altitude range of ∼ 16–54 km, with an altitude resolution of, at best, 8 km. The KIMRA and MIRA 2 measurements are compared to each other, to measurements from balloon-borne ozonesonde measurements at Sodankylä, Finland, and to measurements made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. KIMRA has a correlation of 0.82, but shows a low bias, with respect to the ozonesonde data, and MIRA 2 shows a smaller magnitude low bias and a 0.98 correlation coefficient. Both radiometers are in general agreement with each other and with MLS data, showing high correlation coefficients, but there are differences between measurements that are not explained by random errors. An oscillatory bias with a peak of approximately ±1 ppmv is identified in the KIMRA ozone profiles over an altitude range of ∼ 18–35 km, and is believed to be due to baseline wave features that are present in the spectra. A time series analysis of KIMRA ozone for winters 2008–2013 shows the existence of a local wintertime minimum in the ozone profile above Kiruna. The measurements have been ongoing at Kiruna since 2002 and late 2012 for KIMRA and MIRA 2, respectively.