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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  20 Jan 2020

20 Jan 2020

Review status
This preprint is currently under review for the journal AMT.

A new method for operating a continuous flow diffusion chamber to investigate immersion freezing: assessment and performance study

Gourihar Kulkarni1, Naruki Hiranuma2, Ottmar Möhler3, Kristina Höhler3, Swarup China1, Daniel J. Cziczo4, and Paul J. DeMott5 Gourihar Kulkarni et al.
  • 1Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA
  • 2Department of Life, Earth and Environmental Sciences, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, TX, USA
  • 3Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-AAF), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
  • 4Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Purdue University, IN, USA
  • 5Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA

Abstract. Glaciation in mixed-phase clouds predominately occurs through the immersion freezing mode where ice nucleating particles (INPs) immersed within supercooled droplets induce nucleation of ice. Currently, model representations of this process are a large source of uncertainty in simulating cloud radiative properties, and to constrain these estimates, continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC)-style INP devices are commonly used to assess the immersion freezing efficiencies of INPs. In this study, a new approach was explored to operating such an ice chamber that provides maximum activation of particles without droplet breakthrough and correction factor ambiguity to obtain high-quality INP measurements in a manner that has not been demonstrated as possible previously. The conditioning section of the chamber was maintained at ~ −20 °C and water relative humidity (RHw) ~ 113 % conditions to maximize the droplet activation, and the droplets were supercooled with an independently temperature-controlled nucleation section at a steady cooling rate (0.5 °C min−1) to induce the freezing of droplets and evaporation of unfrozen droplets. The performance of the modified ice chamber was evaluated using four INP species: K-feldspar, illite-NX, Argentinian soil dust, and airborne arable dust that had shown ice nucleation over a wide span of supercooled temperatures. Dry dispersed and size-selected K-feldspar particles were generated in the laboratory. Illite-NX and soil dust particles were sampled during the second phase of the Fifth International Ice Nucleation Workshop (FIN-02) campaign, and airborne arable dust particles were sampled from the aerosol inlet located on the rooftop of the laboratory. The measured ice nucleation efficiencies of model aerosols with a surface active site density (ns) metric were higher, but mostly agreed within one order of magnitude compared to literature results.

Gourihar Kulkarni et al.

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Gourihar Kulkarni et al.

Gourihar Kulkarni et al.


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Latest update: 24 Oct 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
This laboratory study presents a new approach to operate commonly used ice nucleation chambers that are used to measure the freezing efficiency of atmospheric particles. Modified chamber operation allowed to obtain maximum droplet freezing efficiency at higher time resolution, and its evaluation was performed by reproducing the published data from the recent ice nucleation workshop and the past laboratory data for standard and airborne ice nucleating particles. A good agreement was observed.
This laboratory study presents a new approach to operate commonly used ice nucleation chambers...