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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Short summary
We assessed atmospheric aerosol and ocean surface wind speed remote sensing capability with NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), using synthetic data and a Bayesian inference technique called Generalized Nonlinear Retrieval Analysis (GENRA). We found success using three aerosol parameters plus wind speed. This shows that MISR can perform an atmospheric correction for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same spacecraft (Terra).
Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2020-423
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2020-423

  28 Nov 2020

28 Nov 2020

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal AMT.

Analysis of simultaneous aerosol and ocean glint retrieval using multi-angle observations

Kirk Knobelspiesse1, Amir Ibrahim1,2, Bryan Franz1, Sean Bailey1, Robert Levy1, Ziauddin Ahmad1,3, Joel Gales1,3, Meng Gao1,2, Michael Garay4, Samuel Anderson1,2, and Olga Kalashnikova4 Kirk Knobelspiesse et al.
  • 1NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
  • 2Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, MD, USA
  • 3Science Applications International Corp., Greenbelt, MD, USA
  • 4JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA

Abstract. Since early 2000, NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been performing remote sensing retrievals of aerosol optical properties from the polar orbiting Terra spacecraft. A noteworthy aspect of MISR observations over the ocean is that, for much of the Earth, some of the multi-angle views have contributions from solar reflection by the ocean surface (glint, or glitter), while others do not. Aerosol retrieval algorithms often discard these glint influenced observations because they can overwhelm the signal and are difficult to predict without knowledge of the (wind speed driven) ocean surface roughness. However, theoretical studies have shown that multi-angle observations of a location at geometries with and without reflected sun glint can be a rich source of information, sufficient to support simultaneous retrieval of both the aerosol state and the wind speed at the ocean surface. We are in the early stages of creating such an algorithm. In this manuscript, we describe our assessment of the appropriate level of parameterization for simultaneous aerosol and ocean surface property retrievals using sun glint. For this purpose, we use Generalized Nonlinear Retrieval Analysis (GENRA), an information content assessment (ICA) technique employing Bayesian inference, and simulations from the Ahmad-Fraser iterative radiative transfer code.

We find that four parameters are suitable: aerosol optical depth (τ), particle size distribution (expressed as the fine mode fraction f of small particles in a bimodal size distribution), surface wind speed (w), and relative humidity (r, to define the aerosol water content and complex refractive index). None of these parameters define ocean optical properties, as we found that the aerosol state could be retrieved with the nine MISR near-infrared views alone, where the ocean body is black in the open ocean. We also found that retrieval capability varies with observation geometry, and that as τ increases so does the ability to determine aerosol intensive optical properties (r and f, while it decreases for w). Increases in wind speed decrease the ability to determine the true value of that parameter, but have minimal impact on retrieval of aerosol properties. We explored the benefit of excluding the two most extreme MISR view angles for which radiative transfer with the plane parallel approximation is less certain, but found no advantage in doing so. Finally, the impact of treating wind speed as a scalar parameter, rather than as a two parameter directional wind, was tested. While the simpler scalar model does contribute to overall aerosol uncertainty, it is not sufficiently large to justify the addition of another dimension to parameter space.

An algorithm designed upon these principles is in development. It will be used to perform an atmospheric correction with MISR for coincident ocean color (OC) observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, also on the NASA Terra spacecraft. Unlike MISR, MODIS is a single view angle instrument, but it has a more complete set of spectral channels ideal for determination of ocean optical properties. The atmospheric correction of MODIS OC data can therefore benefit from MISR aerosol retrievals. Furthermore, higher spatial resolution data from coincident MISR observations may also improve glint screening.

Kirk Knobelspiesse et al.

 
Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment

Kirk Knobelspiesse et al.

Kirk Knobelspiesse et al.

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Short summary
We assessed atmospheric aerosol and ocean surface wind speed remote sensing capability with NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), using synthetic data and a Bayesian inference technique called Generalized Nonlinear Retrieval Analysis (GENRA). We found success using three aerosol parameters plus wind speed. This shows that MISR can perform an atmospheric correction for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same spacecraft (Terra).
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