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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Long-term (2005–2017) aerosol particulate matter (PM) concentration measurements at Finland at Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II, Hyytiälä) have been measured with three different measurement equipment. The comparison revealed an equivalence among the three methods. Mass concentrations were generally highest in summer. The descending trend was visible here in spring, summer and winter. This might have resulted at least partly from air quality legislation.
Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2020-447
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2020-447

  14 Dec 2020

14 Dec 2020

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal AMT.

Long-term aerosol mass concentrations in southern Finland: instrument validation, seasonal variation and trends

Helmi-Marja Keskinen1,2, Ilona Ylivinkka1, Liine Heikkinen1, Pasi P. Aalto1, Tuomo Nieminen1,3, Katrianne Lehtipalo1, Juho Aalto1, Janne Levula1, Jutta Kesti1,4, Lauri R. Ahonen1, Ekaterina Ezhova1, Markku Kulmala1, and Tuukka Petäjä1 Helmi-Marja Keskinen et al.
  • 1INAR/Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Tampere University, Tampere, FI-33720, Finland
  • 3INAR/Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
  • 4Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland

Abstract. Long-term high-quality aerosol particulate matter (PM) concentration measurements have been conducted in southern Finland at Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II, Hyytiälä) with different, yet comparable measurement equipment since 1995. In this paper, the mass concentrations measured between 2005 and 2017 using three different independent methods: i.e. 1. the cascade impactor, 2. Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) and Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS) and 3. Synchronized Hybrid Ambient Real-time Particulate Monitor (SHARP) are compared and analysed. First, the mass concentrations of the different size classes, i.e. PM1 (PM within sub-micrometer particle diameter size range), PM2.5 (sub-2.5 µm) and PM10 (sub-10 µm), are reported. These data were further cross-compared through a bivariate fitting method. The comparison revealed an excellent equivalence among the three methods with slopes approaching unity and reasonable intercepts (≤ 1 µg m−3). An analysis of the seasonal variability of PM concentrations revealed that the mass concentrations were generally highest in summer in different size classes. The mean mass concentrations were 5.3, 5.4, and 6.5 µg m−3 for PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The 2nd highest loadings were attained in spring, which were ca. 80–88 % of those in summer. The lowest loadings were measured in autumn and winter, when the mass concentrations were ca. 74–78 % of those in summer. Temperature had strong influence on the measured concentrations. While the high late spring and summertime temperatures promote secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and pollen emissions, the lowest wintertime temperatures enhance the need of residential heating processes yielding anthropogenic aerosol emissions (e.g. from traffic/industry/wood burning). The wintertime concentrations can also be expected to be influenced by boundary layer dynamics, which keep the PM emissions concentrated near Earth surface especially in winter. It is noteworthy that the mass concentrations were lower than those reported prior to 2005 (at SMEAR II). The descending trend (~−0.1–0.2 µg m3 y−1) was clearly visible here for all PM size classes in spring, summer and winter, while the trend in autumn remained statistically insignificant. This might have resulted at least partly from more stringent EU air quality legislation.

Helmi-Marja Keskinen et al.

 
Status: open (until 02 Mar 2021)
Status: open (until 02 Mar 2021)
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Helmi-Marja Keskinen et al.

Helmi-Marja Keskinen et al.

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Short summary
Long-term (2005–2017) aerosol particulate matter (PM) concentration measurements at Finland at Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II, Hyytiälä) have been measured with three different measurement equipment. The comparison revealed an equivalence among the three methods. Mass concentrations were generally highest in summer. The descending trend was visible here in spring, summer and winter. This might have resulted at least partly from air quality legislation.
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