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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Short summary
The multi-frequency observations collected during the 25-February-2020 deployment of the VIPR radar at Stony Brook Radar Observatory support theoretical hypothesis that G-band radar have i) increased sensitivity to smaller amounts of liquid and ice water mass and sizes and ii) potential for sizing sub-millimeter ice crystals and drizzle droplet. As such, multi-frequency observations including G-band radars could provide additional insights in ice and rain formation processes.
Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2020-493
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2020-493

  17 Dec 2020

17 Dec 2020

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal AMT.

First Light Multi-Frequency Observations with a G-band radar

Katia Lamer1, Mariko Oue2, Alessandro Battaglia3,4,5, Richard J. Roy6, Ken B. Cooper6, Ranvir Dhillon5, and Pavlos Kollias1,2 Katia Lamer et al.
  • 1Department of Environmental and Climate Sciences, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA
  • 2Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, NY, USA
  • 3National Centre for Earth Observation, Leicester, UK
  • 4Politecnico of Turin, Turin, Italy
  • 5University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
  • 6Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA, USA

Abstract. Observations collected during the 25-February-2020 deployment of the Vapor In-Cloud Profiling Radar at the Stony Brook Radar Observatory clearly demonstrate the potential of G-band radars for cloud and precipitation research, something that until now was only discussed in theory. The field experiment, which coordinated an X-, Ka, W- and G-band radar, revealed that the Ka-G pairing can generate differential reflectivity signal several decibels larger than the traditional Ka-W pairing underpinning an increased sensitivity to smaller amounts of liquid and ice water mass and sizes. The observations also showed that G-band signals experience non-Rayleigh scattering in regions where Ka- and W-band signal don’t, thus demonstrating the potential of G-band radars for sizing sub-millimeter ice crystals and droplets. Observed peculiar radar reflectivity patterns also suggest that G-band radars could be used to gain insight into the melting behavior of small ice crystals.

G-band signal interpretation is challenging because attenuation and non-Rayleigh effects are typically intertwined. An ideal liquid-free period allowed us to use triple frequency Ka-W-G observations to test existing ice scattering libraries and the results raise questions on their comprehensiveness.

Overall, this work reinforces the importance of deploying radars with 1) sensitivity sufficient to detect small Rayleigh scatters at cloud top in order to derive estimates of path integrated hydrometeor attenuation, a key constraint for microphysical retrievals, 2) sensitivity sufficient to overcome liquid attenuation, to reveal the larger differential signals generated from using G-band as part of a multifrequency deployment, and 3) capable of monitoring atmospheric gases to reduce related uncertainty.

Katia Lamer et al.

 
Status: open (until 11 Feb 2021)
Status: open (until 11 Feb 2021)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Katia Lamer et al.

Katia Lamer et al.

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Short summary
The multi-frequency observations collected during the 25-February-2020 deployment of the VIPR radar at Stony Brook Radar Observatory support theoretical hypothesis that G-band radar have i) increased sensitivity to smaller amounts of liquid and ice water mass and sizes and ii) potential for sizing sub-millimeter ice crystals and drizzle droplet. As such, multi-frequency observations including G-band radars could provide additional insights in ice and rain formation processes.
Citation