Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2021-196
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2021-196

  02 Sep 2021

02 Sep 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal AMT.

The FORUM End-to-End Simulator project: architecture and results

Luca Sgheri1, Claudio Belotti2, Maya Ben-Yami3, Giovanni Bianchini2, Bernardo Carnicero Dominguez3, Ugo Cortesi4, William Cossich5, Samuele Del Bianco4, Gianluca Di Natale2, Tomás Guardabrazo6, Dulce Lajas3, Tiziano Maestri5, Davide Magurno5, Hilke Oetjen3, Piera Raspollini4, and Cristina Sgattoni1 Luca Sgheri et al.
  • 1IAC – CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy
  • 2INO – CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy
  • 3ESA – ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
  • 4IFAC – CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy
  • 5Università di Bologna – Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40126 Bologna, Italy
  • 6DEIMOS Space S.L.U., Ronda de Pte. 19, 28760 Tres Cantos – Madrid, Spain

Abstract. FORUM (Far-infrared Outgoing Radiation Understanding and Monitoring) will flight as the 9th ESA’s Earth Explorer mission, and an End-to-End Simulator (E2ES) has been developed as a support tool for the mission selection process and the subsequent development phases. The current status of the FORUM E2ES project is presented, together with the characterization of the capabilities of a full physics retrieval code applied to FORUM data. We show how the instrument characteristics and5the observed scene conditions impact on the spectrum measured by the instrument, accounting for the main sources of error related to the entire acquisition process, and the consequences on the retrieval algorithm. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous case studies are simulated in clear and cloudy conditions, validating the E2ES against two independent codes: KLIMA (clear sky) and SACR (cloudy sky). The performed tests show that the performance of the retrieval algorithm is compliant with the project requirements both in clear and cloudy conditions. The far infrared (FIR) part of the FORUM spectrum is shown to be10sensitive to surface emissivity, in dry atmospheric conditions, and to cirrus clouds, resulting in improved performance of the retrieval algorithm in these conditions. The retrieval errors increase with increasing the scene heterogeneity, both in terms of surface characteristics and in terms of fractional cloud cover of the scene.

Luca Sgheri et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comments on amt-2021-196 entitled "The FORUM End-to-End Simulator project: architecture and results" by Sgheri, L. et al.', Anonymous Referee #1, 23 Sep 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Luca Sgheri, 03 Nov 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on amt-2021-196', Anonymous Referee #2, 23 Sep 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Luca Sgheri, 03 Nov 2021

Luca Sgheri et al.

Luca Sgheri et al.

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Short summary
FORUM is an instrument which will look at the earth atmosphere from a satellite. It will cover a spectral range which is responsible for about one half of the radiation lost by our planet. Its measurements will help predicting the climate changes, in particular the earth heating. The End-to-End simulator is a chain of codes that simulate the FORUM measurement process. The goal of the project is to study how the instrument reacts to different retrieval conditions.