Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2021-209
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2021-209

  16 Aug 2021

16 Aug 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal AMT and is expected to appear here in due course.

Measurement of Black Carbon Emissions from Multiple Engine and Source Types using Laser-Induced Incandescence: Sensitivity to Laser Fluence

Ruoyang Yuan1, Prem Lobo2, Greg J. Smallwood2, Mark P. Johnson3, Matthew C. Parker3, Daniel Butcher4, and Adrian Spencer4 Ruoyang Yuan et al.
  • 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD, United Kingdom
  • 2Metrology Research Centre, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6, Canada
  • 3Rolls-Royce plc, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom
  • 4Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, United Kingdom

Abstract. A new regulatory standard for non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) mass concentration emissions from aircraft engines has been adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organisation. One of the instruments used for the regulatory nvPM mass emissions measurements in aircraft engine certification tests is the Artium Technologies LII 300, which is based on laser-induced incandescence. The LII 300 has been shown in some cases to demonstrate a variation in response to the type of black carbon particle measured. Hence it is important to identify a suitable black carbon emission source for instrument calibration. In this study, the relationship between the nvPM emissions produced by different engine sources and the response of the LII 300 instrument utilising auto-compensating laser-induced incandescence (AC-LII) method was investigated. Six different sources were used, including a turboshaft helicopter engine, a diesel generator, an intermediate pressure test rig of a single sector combustor, an auxiliary power unit gas turbine engine, a medium-sized diesel engine, and a downsized turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine. Optimum LII 300 laser fluence levels were determined for each source and operating condition evaluated. It was found that an optimised laser fluence can be valid for real-time measurements from a variety of sources, where the mass concentration was independent of laser fluence levels covering the typical operating ranges for the various sources. However, it is important to perform laser fluence sweeps to determine the optimum fluence range, as differences were observed in the laser fluence required, between sources and fuels. We discuss the measurement merits, variability, and best practices in the real-time quantification of nvPM mass concentration using the LII 300 instrument, and compare that with other diagnostic techniques, namely absorption–based methods such as photoacoustic spectroscopy using a photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX) and a Micro Soot Sensor (MSS), and thermal-optical analysis (TOA). Particle size distributions were also measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Overall, the LII 300 provides robust and consistent results when compared with the other diagnostic techniques across multiple engine sources and fuels. The results from this study will inform the development of updated calibration protocols to ensure repeatable and reproducible measurements of nvPM mass emissions from aircraft engines using the LII 300.

Ruoyang Yuan et al.

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on amt-2021-209', Anonymous Referee #2, 02 Sep 2021
    • AC4: 'Reply on RC 1', Ruoyang Yuan, 20 Oct 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on amt-2021-209', Anonymous Referee #1, 04 Sep 2021
    • AC5: 'Reply on RC 2', Ruoyang Yuan, 20 Oct 2021

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on amt-2021-209', Anonymous Referee #2, 02 Sep 2021
    • AC4: 'Reply on RC 1', Ruoyang Yuan, 20 Oct 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on amt-2021-209', Anonymous Referee #1, 04 Sep 2021
    • AC5: 'Reply on RC 2', Ruoyang Yuan, 20 Oct 2021

Ruoyang Yuan et al.

Ruoyang Yuan et al.

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Short summary
New standards and practices adopted by ICAO require particulate emissions from aircraft engines to be quantified during emissions certification tests. This study investigated the sensitivity of the LII technique to the type of black carbon sources using multiple rigs as emissions sources. It is found that optimised laser fluence can be valid for real-time measurements, providing robust and consistent results when compared with other diagnostic techniques across multiple engine sources and fuels.