12 Oct 2021

12 Oct 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal AMT.

The NO2 camera based on Gas Correlation Spectroscopy

Leon Kuhn1,2, Jonas Kuhn1,2, Thomas Wagner1,2, and Ulrich Platt1,2 Leon Kuhn et al.
  • 1Institute for Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Germany
  • 2Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany

Abstract. Monitoring of NO2 is in the interest of public health, because NO2 contributes to the decline of air quality in many urban regions. Its abundance can be a direct cause of asthmatic and cardiovascular diseases and plays a significant part in forming other pollutants such as ozone or particulate matter. Spectroscopic methods have proven to be reliable and of high selectivity by utilizing the characteristic spectral absorption signature of trace gasses such as NO2. However, they typically lack the spatio-temporal resolution required for real-time imaging measurements of NO2 emissions. We propose imaging measurements of NO2 in the visible spectral range using a novel instrument, an NO2 camera based on the principle of Gas Correlation Spectroscopy (GCS). For this purpose two gas cells (cuvettes) are placed in front of two camera modules. One gas cell is empty, while the other is filled with a high concentration of the target gas. The filled gas cell operates as a non-dispersive spectral filter to the incoming light, maintaining the two-dimensional imaging capability of the sensor arrays. NO2 images are generated on the basis of the signal ratio between the two images in the spectral window between 430 and 445 nm, where the NO2 absorption cross section is strongly structured. The capabilities and limits of the instrument are investigated in a numerical forward model. The predictions of this model are verified in a proof-of-concept measurement, in which the column densities in specially prepared reference cells were measured with the NO2 camera and a conventional DOAS instrument. Finally, results from measurements at a large power plant, the Großkraftwerk Mannheim (GKM), are presented. NO2 column densities of the plume emitted from a GKM chimney are quantified at a spatio-temporal resolution of 1/6 frames per second (FPS) and 0.92 m × 0.92 m. A detection limit of 1.89 · 1016 molec cm−2 was reached. An NO2 mass flux of Fm = (7.41 ± 4.23) kg h−1 was estimated on the basis of momentary wind speeds obtained from consecutive images. The camera results are verified by comparison to NO2 slant column densities obtained from elevation scans with a MAX-DOAS instrument. The instrument prototype is highly portable and cost-efficient at building costs of below 2,000 Euro.

Leon Kuhn et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Review of the GCS-based NO2 camera by Kuhn et al.', Emmanuel Dekemper, 10 Nov 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Leon Kuhn, 09 Jan 2022
  • RC2: 'Review of the GCS-based NO2 camera manuscript by Kuhn et al.', Anonymous Referee #2, 14 Dec 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Leon Kuhn, 09 Jan 2022

Leon Kuhn et al.

Video supplement

A GCS NO2 Camera image series of the emissions of the Großkraftwerk Mannheim Leon Kuhn

Leon Kuhn et al.


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Short summary
We present a novel instrument for imaging measurements of NO2 with high spatio-temporal resolution based on Gas Correlation Spectroscopy, called the GCS NO2 camera. The instrument works by placing two gas cells (cuvettes) in front of two photosensor arrays, one filled with air and one filled with a high concentration of NO2, acting as a non-dispersive spectral filter. NO2 images are then generated on the basis of the signal ratio of the two channels in the spectral region of 430–445 nm.