Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2021-94
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2021-94

  26 May 2021

26 May 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal AMT.

Methodology to obtain highly resolved SO2 vertical profiles for representation of volcanic emissions in climate models

Oscar S. Sandvik, Johan Friberg, Moa K. Sporre, and Bengt G. Martinsson Oscar S. Sandvik et al.
  • Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden

Abstract. In this study we describe a methodology to create high vertical resolution SO2 profiles from volcanic emissions. We demonstrate the method’s performance for the volcanic clouds following the eruption of Sarychev in June 2009. The resulting profiles are based on a combination of satellite SO2 and aerosol retrievals together with trajectory modelling. We use satellite-based measurements, namely lidar back-scattering profiles from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite instrument to create vertical profiles for SO2 swaths from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the Aqua satellite. Vertical profiles are created by transporting the air containing volcanic aerosol seen in CALIOP observations using the dispersion model FLEXPART, while preserving the high vertical resolution by using the potential temperatures from the MERRA-2 meteorological data for the original CALIOP swaths. For the Sarychev eruption, air tracers from 75 CALIOP swaths within 9 days after the eruption are transported forwards and backwards, and then combined at a point in time when AIRS swaths cover the complete volcanic SO2 cloud. Our method creates vertical distributions for column density observations of SO2 for individual AIRS swaths. The resulting dataset gives insight to the height distribution in the different sub-clouds of SO2 within the stratosphere. We have compiled a gridded high vertical resolution SO2 inventory that can be used in Earth system models, with vertical resolution of 1 K in potential temperature or 61 ± 56 m and 1.8 ± 2.9 mbar.

Oscar S. Sandvik et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • CC1: 'Comment on amt-2021-94', Xue Wu, 11 Jun 2021
  • RC1: 'Comment on amt-2021-94', Marc von Hobe, 16 Jun 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on amt-2021-94', Anonymous Referee #2, 16 Jun 2021

Oscar S. Sandvik et al.

Oscar S. Sandvik et al.

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Short summary
A method to form SO2 profiles in the stratosphere with high vertical resolution following volcanic eruptions is introduced. The method combines space-based high-resolution vertical aerosol profiles and SO2 measurements the first two weeks after an eruption with air trajectory analyses. The profile agrees with a published high-resolution aerosol profile when most of the SO2 is converted to sulphate aerosol. The detailed resolution of the SO2 profile is unprecedented compared to other methods.