25 Jul 2022
25 Jul 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal AMT.

Complementarity of Wind Measurements from Co-located X-band Weather Radar and Doppler Lidar

Jenna Ritvanen1,2, Ewan O'Connor1, Dmitri Moisseev1,2, Raisa Lehtinen3, Jani Tyynelä1, and Ludovic Thobois4 Jenna Ritvanen et al.
  • 1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  • 3Vaisala Oyj, Vantaa, Finland
  • 4Vaisala France SAS, Paris-Saclay, France

Abstract. Accurate wind profile measurements are important for applications ranging from aviation to numerical weather prediction. The spatial pattern of winds can be obtained with ground-based remote sensing instruments, such as weather radars and Doppler lidars. As the return signal in weather radars is mostly due to hydrometeors or insects, and in Doppler lidars due to aerosols, the instruments provide wind measurements in different weather conditions. However, the effect of various weather conditions on the measurement capabilities of these instruments has not been previously extensively quantified. Here we present results from a 7-month measurement campaign that took place in Vantaa, Finland, where a co-located Vaisala WRS400 X-band weather radar and WindCube400S Doppler lidar were employed continuously to perform wind measurements. Both instruments measured plan-position-indicator (PPI) scans at 2.0 degrees elevation from horizontal. Direct comparison of radial Doppler velocities from both instruments showed good agreement with R2 = 0.96. We then examined the effect of horizontal visibility, cloud base height, and precipitation intensity on the measurement availability of each instrument. The Doppler lidar displayed good availability in clear air situations and the X-band radar in precipitation. Both instruments exhibited high availability in clear air conditions in summer when insects were present. The complementary performance in measurement availability of the two instruments means that their combination substantially increases the spatial coverage of wind observations across a wide range of weather conditions.

Jenna Ritvanen et al.

Status: open (until 10 Sep 2022)

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  • CC1: 'Bias in Doppler Velocity due to Insect Migration', Sebastian Kauczok, 01 Aug 2022 reply

Jenna Ritvanen et al.

Jenna Ritvanen et al.


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Short summary
Doppler lidars and weather radars provide accurate wind measurements, with Doppler lidar usually performing better in dry weather conditions and weather radar performing better when there is precipitation. Operating both instruments together should therefore improve the overall performance. We investigate how well a co-located Doppler lidar and X-band radar perform with respect to various weather conditions, including changes in horizontal visibility, cloud altitude and precipitation.