Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2023-171
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2023-171
19 Sep 2023
 | 19 Sep 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal AMT and is expected to appear here in due course.

Identifying the seeding signature in cloud particles from hydrometeor residuals

Mahen Konwar, Benjamin Werden, Edward C. Fortner, Sudarsan Bera, Mercy Varghese, Subharthi Chowdhuri, Kurt Hibert, Philip Croteau, John Jayne, Manjula Canagaratna, Neelam Malap, Sandeep Jayakumar, Shivsai A. Dixit, Palani Murugavel, Duncan Axisa, Darrel Baumgardner, Peter F. DeCarlo, Doug R. Worsnop, and Thara Prabhakaran

Abstract. Cloud seeding experiments for modifying cloud and precipitation have been underway for nearly a century; yet practically all the attempts to link precipitation enhancement or suppression to the presence of seeding materials remained inclusive. In 2019, the Cloud-Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) implemented a novel method to detect seeded clouds during its operations in Solapur, India. In this experiment, residuals of cloud hydrometeors in seeded and non-seeded clouds were analyzed with an airborne mini-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (mAMS). The mAMS instrument was utilized in conjunction with a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet, which had a cutoff diameter size of approximately 7 µm. Upon traversing the CVI inlet, the cloud droplets underwent a drying process, enabling the subsequent examination of cloud residuals through the mAMS instrument to identify potential seeding signatures. The Chlorine (Cl) associated with hygroscopic materials, i.e., Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) and potassium (K), which serve as the oxidizing agents in the flares, is found in relatively higher concentrations in the seeded clouds compared to the non-seeded clouds. After seeding, small-size cloud droplet concentrations increased in the convective and stratus clouds. In the convective clouds, flare particles propagated to higher cloud depths (≈ 2.25 km, vertical distance from cloud base) and modulate cloud microphysical properties to initiate warm rain. This new technique help to trace activated flare particles in seeded clouds and identify the post-seeding chain of cloud microphysical processes.

Mahen Konwar, Benjamin Werden, Edward C. Fortner, Sudarsan Bera, Mercy Varghese, Subharthi Chowdhuri, Kurt Hibert, Philip Croteau, John Jayne, Manjula Canagaratna, Neelam Malap, Sandeep Jayakumar, Shivsai A. Dixit, Palani Murugavel, Duncan Axisa, Darrel Baumgardner, Peter F. DeCarlo, Doug R. Worsnop, and Thara Prabhakaran

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on amt-2023-171', Anonymous Referee #1, 07 Oct 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on amt-2023-171', Anonymous Referee #2, 12 Oct 2023

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on amt-2023-171', Anonymous Referee #1, 07 Oct 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on amt-2023-171', Anonymous Referee #2, 12 Oct 2023
Mahen Konwar, Benjamin Werden, Edward C. Fortner, Sudarsan Bera, Mercy Varghese, Subharthi Chowdhuri, Kurt Hibert, Philip Croteau, John Jayne, Manjula Canagaratna, Neelam Malap, Sandeep Jayakumar, Shivsai A. Dixit, Palani Murugavel, Duncan Axisa, Darrel Baumgardner, Peter F. DeCarlo, Doug R. Worsnop, and Thara Prabhakaran
Mahen Konwar, Benjamin Werden, Edward C. Fortner, Sudarsan Bera, Mercy Varghese, Subharthi Chowdhuri, Kurt Hibert, Philip Croteau, John Jayne, Manjula Canagaratna, Neelam Malap, Sandeep Jayakumar, Shivsai A. Dixit, Palani Murugavel, Duncan Axisa, Darrel Baumgardner, Peter F. DeCarlo, Doug R. Worsnop, and Thara Prabhakaran

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Short summary
In a warm cloud seeding experiment hygroscopic particles are released to alter cloud processes to induce early raindrops. During Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment, airborne mini-Aerosol Mass Spectrometers analyze the particles on which clouds form. The seeded clouds showed higher concentrations of Chlorine (Cl) and potassium (K), the oxidizing agents of flares. Small cloud droplet concentrations increased, and seeding particles were detected in deep cloud depths.