03 May 2023
 | 03 May 2023
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal AMT.

Adjustment of one-minute rain gauge time series using co-located drop size distribution and wind speed measurements

Arianna Cauteruccio, Mattia Stagnaro, Luca G. Lanza, and Pak-Wai Chan

Abstract. A procedure to adjust rainfall intensity (RI) measurements to account for the wind-induced measurement bias of traditional catching-type gauges is proposed and demonstrated with application to a suitable case study. The objective is to demonstrate that adjustment curves derived from numerical simulation and disdrometer measurements allows for a-posteriori correction of rainfall time series based on the wind velocity measurements alone. One-minute RI measurements from a cylindrical tipping-bucket rain gauge installed at the Hong Kong Observatory are adjusted to quantify the impact of wind on long-term records. Catch ratios deriving from the instrument aerodynamic behaviour under varying wind speed and drop size combinations are obtained by fitting computational fluid-dynamic simulation results already available in the literature. Co-located high-resolution wind speed measurements from a cup and vane sensor and drop size distribution measurements from an optical video disdrometer (the 2DVD) are used to infer the collection efficiency of the gauge as a function of wind speed and RI alone, and to adjust raw data from a four-year dataset (2018–2021) of one-minute RI measurements. Due to the specific local climatology, where strong wind is often associated with intense precipitation, adjustments are limited to 4 % of the RI values in 80 % of the dataset. This however results in a significant amount of available freshwater resources that would be missing from the calculated hydrological and water management budget of the region should the adjustments be neglected. This work raises the need of quantifying the impact of the wind-induced bias in other sites where disdrometer data support characterizing the relationship between the drop size distribution and the measured RI. Depending on the local rain and wind climatology the correction may account for a significant portion of the annual rainfall amount.

Arianna Cauteruccio et al.

Status: open (until 07 Jun 2023)

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Arianna Cauteruccio et al.

Arianna Cauteruccio et al.


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Short summary
Adjustments for the wind-induced bias of traditional rainfall gauges are applied to data from the Hong Kong Observatory using numerical simulation results. An optical disdrometer (the 2DVD sensor) allows inferring the collection efficiency of the rainfall gauge. Due to the local climatology, adjustments are limited but result in a significant amount of available freshwater resources that would be missing from the calculated hydrological budget of the region should the adjustments be neglected.