27 Jul 2023
 | 27 Jul 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal AMT.

Drone-based photogrammetry combined with deep-learning to estimate hail size distributions and melting of hail on the ground

Martin Lainer, Killian P. Brennan, Alessandro Hering, Jérôme Kopp, Samuel Monhart, Daniel Wolfensberger, and Urs Germann

Abstract. Hail is a major threat associated with severe thunderstorms and an estimation of the hail size is important for issuing warnings to the public. Operational radar products exist that estimate the size of the expected hail. For the verification of such products, ground based observations are necessary. Automatic hail sensors, as for example within the Swiss hail network, record the kinetic energy of hailstones and can estimate with this the hail diameters. However, due to the small size of the observational area of these sensors (0.2 m2) the estimation of the hail size distribution (HSD) can have large uncertainties. To overcome this issue, we combine drone-based aerial photogrammetry with a state-of-the-art custom trained deep-learning object detection model to identify hailstones in the images and estimate the HSD in a final step. This approach is applied to photogrammetric image data of hail on the ground from a supercell storm, that crossed central Switzerland from southwest to northeast in the afternoon of June 20, 2021. The hail swath of this intense right-moving supercell was intercepted a few minutes after the passage at a soccer field near Entlebuch (Canton Lucerne, Switzerland) and aerial images of the hail on the ground were taken by a commercial DJI drone, equipped with a 50 megapixels full frame camera system. The average ground sampling distance (GSD) that could be reached was 1.5 mm per pixel, which is set by the mounted camera objective with a focal length of 35 mm and a flight altitude of 12 m above ground. A 2D orthomosaic model of the survey area (750 m2) is created based on 116 captured images during the first drone mapping flight. Hail is then detected by using a region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Mask R-CNN). We first characterize the hail sizes based on the individual hail segmentation masks resulting from the model detections and investigate the performance by using manual hail annotations by experts to generate validation and test data sets. The final HSD, composed of 18209 hailstones, is compared with nearby automatic hail sensor observations, the operational weather radar based hail product MESHS (Maximum Expected Severe Hail Size) and some crowdsourced hail reports. Based on the retrieved drone hail data set, a statistical assessment of sampling errors of hail sensors is carried out. Furthermore, five repetitions of the drone-based photogrammetry mission within about 18 min give the unique opportunity to investigate the hail melting process on the ground for this specific supercell hailstorm and location.

Martin Lainer et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on amt-2023-89', Anonymous Referee #1, 07 Aug 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC1', Martin Lainer, 19 Oct 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on amt-2023-89', Anonymous Referee #2, 31 Aug 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC2', Martin Lainer, 19 Oct 2023

Martin Lainer et al.

Martin Lainer et al.


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Short summary
We present an approach for hail size estimation combining drone-based photogrammetry with a deep-learning object detection model. The method is applied to a hail event of a supercell that crossed Switzerland on June 20, 2021, allowing an accurate estimation of the hail size distribution (>18000 samples). Results are then compared with data from nearby automatic hail sensors and radar-based hail products. The opportunity to monitor the hail melting on the ground is also investigated.