Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2024-46
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2024-46
15 Apr 2024
 | 15 Apr 2024
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal AMT.

Testing Ion Exchange Resin for quantifying bulk and throughfall deposition of macro and micro-elements on forests

Marleen A. E. Vos, Wim de Vries, G. F. Ciska Veen, Marcel Hoosbeek, and Frank J. Sterck

Abstract. Atmospheric deposition is a major nutrient influx in ecosystems and high anthropogenic deposition may disrupt ecosystem functioning. Quantification of the deposition flux is required to understand the impact of such anthropogenic pollution. However, current methods to measure nutrient deposition are costly, labor intensive and potentially inaccurate.

Ion Exchange Resin (IER) appears a promising cost-and labor-effective method. The IER-method is potentially suited for deposition measurements on coarse time scales and for areas with little rainfall and/or low elemental concentrations. The accuracy of the IER-method is, however, hardly classified beyond nitrogen. We tested the IER-method for bulk deposition and throughfall measurements of macro and micro-elements, assessing resin adsorption capacity, recovery efficiency, and field behavior.

We show that IER is able to adsorb 100 % of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, Zn and NO3 and >96 % of P and Na. Loading the resin beyond the capacity resulted mainly in losses of Na, P, NH4 while losses of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn were hardly detected. Heat (40 °C), drought and frost (-15 °C) reduced the adsorption of P by 25 %. Recovery was close to 100 % for NH4 and NO3 using KCl (1 or 2M) while high (83–93 %) recoveries of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and S were found using HCl as an extractant (2–4M). We found good agreement between the conventional and the IER-method for field conditions.

Overall, IER is a powerful tool for the measurement of atmospheric deposition of a broad range of elements as the measurements showed high accuracy. The IER-method has therefore the potential to expand current monitoring networks and increase the number of sampling sites.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Marleen A. E. Vos, Wim de Vries, G. F. Ciska Veen, Marcel Hoosbeek, and Frank J. Sterck

Status: open (until 04 Jun 2024)

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  • RC1: 'Comment on amt-2024-46', Anonymous Referee #1, 14 May 2024 reply
  • RC2: 'Comment on amt-2024-46', Anonymous Referee #2, 15 May 2024 reply
  • RC3: 'Comment on amt-2024-46', Anonymous Referee #3, 20 May 2024 reply
Marleen A. E. Vos, Wim de Vries, G. F. Ciska Veen, Marcel Hoosbeek, and Frank J. Sterck
Marleen A. E. Vos, Wim de Vries, G. F. Ciska Veen, Marcel Hoosbeek, and Frank J. Sterck

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Short summary
Atmospheric deposition poses risks with high anthropogenic inputs. Current deposition measurement methods are labor-intensive. Ion Exchange Resin (IER) offers a promising, cost-effective alternative. We assessed IER for bulk deposition and throughfall, testing adsorption capacity, recovery efficiency, and field performance. IER showed good adsorption and recovery and was unaffected by environmental conditions, showing potential for robust and efficient measurements of atmospheric deposition.