Articles | Volume 14, issue 2
Research article 03 Mar 2021
Research article | 03 Mar 2021
A robust low-level cloud and clutter discrimination method for ground-based millimeter-wavelength cloud radar
Xiaoyu Hu et al.
No articles found.
Jingyu Yao, Zhongming Gao, Jianping Huang, Heping Liu, and Guoyin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15589–15603,Short summary
Gap-filling usually accounts for a large source of uncertainties in the annual CO2 fluxes, though gap-filling CO2 fluxes is challenging at dryland sites due to small fluxes. Using data collected from a semiarid site, four machine learning methods are evaluated with different lengths of artificial gaps. The artificial neural network and random forest methods outperform the other methods. With these methods, uncertainties in the annual CO2 flux at this site are estimated to be within 16 g C m−2.
Bida Jian, Jiming Li, Guoyin Wang, Yuxin Zhao, Yarong Li, Jing Wang, Min Zhang, and Jianping Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9809–9828,Short summary
We evaluate the performance of the AMIP6 model in simulating cloud albedo over marine subtropical regions and the impacts of different aerosol types and meteorological factors on the cloud albedo based on multiple satellite datasets and reanalysis data. The results show that AMIP6 demonstrates moderate improvement over AMIP5 in simulating the monthly variation in cloud albedo, and changes in different aerosol types and meteorological factors can explain ~65 % of the changes in the cloud albedo.
Zhiyuan Hu, Jianping Huang, Chun Zhao, Qinjian Jin, Yuanyuan Ma, and Ben Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1507–1529,Short summary
This study investigates intercontinental transport of dust plums and distribution characteristics of dust at different altitudes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The results show that dust particles are emitted into atmosphere and then transport to the TP. The East Asian dust trasnports southward and is lifted up to the TP in northern slop, while the North Afican dust and Middle East dust transport eastward and concentrate in both northern and southern slops, then is lifted up to the TP.
Zhiyuan Hu, Jianping Huang, Chun Zhao, Yuanyuan Ma, Qinjian Jin, Yun Qian, L. Ruby Leung, Jianrong Bi, and Jianmin Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12709–12730,Short summary
This study investigates aerosol chemical compositions and relative contributions to total aerosols in the western US. The results show that trans-Pacific aerosols have a maximum concentration in the boreal spring, with the greatest contribution from dust. Over western North America, the trans-Pacific aerosols dominate the column-integrated aerosol mass and number concentration. However, near the surface, aerosols mainly originated from local emissions.
Xiaoyue Liu, Jianping Huang, Jiping Huang, Changyu Li, and Lei Ding
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Atmospheric oxygen is crucial to life on earth. In this paper, we quantify oxygen consumption and production processes under the impact of human activities to build a dynamic global oxygen budget on a grid scale. Our result shows that the oxygen consumption related to human activities has risen significantly in recent decades while the oxygen production only displays a faint increase. Regionally, boreal forest and Tibetan plateau become the most important sources of atmospheric oxygen.
Jiming Li, Qiaoyi Lv, Bida Jian, Min Zhang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Qiang Fu, Kazuaki Kawamoto, and Hua Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7329–7343,Short summary
The accurate representation of cloud vertical overlap in atmospheric models is very important for predicting the total cloud cover and calculating the radiative budget. We propose a valid scheme for quantifying the degree of overlap over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The new scheme parameterizes decorrelation length scale L as a function of wind shear and atmospheric stability and improves the simulation of total cloud cover over TP when the separations between cloud layers are greater than 1 km.
Kai Tang, Zhongwei Huang, Jianping Huang, Teruya Maki, Shuang Zhang, Atsushi Shimizu, Xiaojun Ma, Jinsen Shi, Jianrong Bi, Tian Zhou, Guoyin Wang, and Lei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7131–7148,Short summary
To our knowledge, this is the first simultaneous field measurement of bioaerosols in dust events at four sites along the transport pathway of Asian dust. The samples were analyzed by means of fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and MiSeq sequencing analysis. The results indicate that dust clouds can carry many bacteria of various types into downwind regions, the alpha and beta diversity of which were investigated.
Zhijuan Zhang, Bin Chen, Jianping Huang, Jingjing Liu, Jianrong Bi, Tian Zhou, and Zhongwei Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Environmental problems caused by aerosols such as dust aerosols are influencing people's lives and work. Due to different radiative effects of different types of aerosols, detection of the aerosol type is vital for improving our air quality. In this study, the optical properties of pure dust and transported anthropogenic dust are compared by using ground-based Lidar data. Based on our conclusion, detection of different dust aerosols will be more accurate using satellite-based Lidar.
Siyu Chen, Jianping Huang, Nanxuan Jiang, Zhou Zang, Xiaodan Guan, Xiaojun Ma, Zhuo Jia, Xiaorui Zhang, Yanting Zhang, Kangning Huang, Xiaocong Xu, Guolong Zhang, Jiming Li, Ran Yang, and Shujie Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Jinming Ge, Zeen Zhu, Chuang Zheng, Hailing Xie, Tian Zhou, Jianping Huang, and Qiang Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9035–9047,Short summary
A modified method with a new noise reduction scheme that can reduce the noise distribution to a narrow range is proposed to distinguish clouds and other hydrometeors from noise and recognize more features with weak signal in cloud radar observations. It was found that our method has significant advantages in reducing the rates of both failed negative and false positive hydrometeor identifications in simulated clouds and recognizing clouds with weak signal from our cloud radar observations.
Jianrong Bi, Jianping Huang, Jinsen Shi, Zhiyuan Hu, Tian Zhou, Guolong Zhang, Zhongwei Huang, Xin Wang, and Hongchun Jin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7775–7792,Short summary
We conducted a field campaign on exploring dust aerosol in Dunhuang farmland nearby Gobi deserts. The anthropogenic dust produced by agricultural cultivations exerted a significant superimposed effect on elevated dust loadings. Strong south wind in daytime scavenged the pollution and weak northeast wind at night favorably accumulated air pollutants near the surface. The local emissions remarkably modified the absorptive and optical characteristics of mineral dust in desert source region.
Ling Qi, Qinbin Li, Cenlin He, Xin Wang, and Jianping Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7459–7479,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is the second only to CO2 in heating the planet, but the simulation of BC is associated with large uncertainties. BC burden is largely underestimated over land and overestimated over ocean. Our study finds that a missing process in current Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen models largely explains the discrepancy in BC simulation over land. We call for more observations of BC in mixed-phase clouds to understand this process and improve the simulation of global BC.
Siyu Chen, Jianping Huang, Litai Kang, Hao Wang, Xiaojun Ma, Yongli He, Tiangang Yuan, Ben Yang, Zhongwei Huang, and Guolong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2401–2421,Short summary
Compared with the TD dust, the importance of the GD dust in eastern China, Japan, and Korea is always neglected. We focused primarily on the dynamic and thermodynamics mechanisms of dust emission and transport over TD and GD and further elucidate the influence of TD and GD dust on the entire East Asia based on a case study using WRF-Chem model in the study.
Jianrong Bi, Jianping Huang, Brent Holben, and Guolong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15501–15516,Short summary
Dating absorptive capacity of Asian dust is still an outstanding issue. In this study, we identify two types of Asian dust: Pure Dust (PDU) and Transported Anthropogenic Dust (TDU). Overall average SSA, ASY, Re, and Ri at 550 nm for PDU are 0.935, 0.742, 1.526, and 0.00226, respectively, with 0.921, 0.723, 1.521, and 0.00364 for TDU. Our results promise to update and improve accuracy of Asian dust characteristics in present-day remote sensing applications and regional climate models.
Jianzhong Xu, Jinsen Shi, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Matthias Vonwiller, Sönke Szidat, Jinming Ge, Jianmin Ma, Yanqing An, Shichang Kang, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14937–14957,Short summary
This study deployed an AMS field study in Lanzhou, a city in northwestern China, evaluating the chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during wintertime. In comparison with the results during summer in Lanzhou, the air pollution during winter was more severe and the sources were more complex. In addition, this paper estimates the contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon to primary and secondary organic carbon using the carbon isotopic method.
Jin Ming Ge, Huayue Liu, Jianping Huang, and Qiang Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7773–7783,Short summary
Nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ), which refers to a narrow zone of strong winds, occurs frequently over the Taklimakan Desert. It is found that the NLLJ contains more momentum than without NLLJ, and the downward momentum transfer process is more intense and rapid in the warm season. The coincidence of the larger surface winds during NLLJ days with an enhancement of aerosol optical depth indicates that the NLLJ is an important mechanism for dust emission and transport over this region.
Zhiyuan Hu, Chun Zhao, Jianping Huang, L. Ruby Leung, Yun Qian, Hongbin Yu, Lei Huang, and Olga V. Kalashnikova
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1725–1746,Short summary
This study conducts the simulation of WRF-Chem with the quasi-global configuration for 2010–2014, and evaluates the simulation with multiple observation datasets for the first time. This study demonstrates that the WRF-Chem quasi-global simulation can be used for investigating trans-Pacific transport of aerosols and providing reasonable inflow chemical boundaries for the western USA to further understand the impact of transported pollutants on the regional air quality and climate.
Xiaodan Guan, Jianping Huang, Yanting Zhang, Yongkun Xie, and Jingjing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5159–5169,Short summary
An obvious peak in the total anthropogenic dust column, with much higher magnitude than those of wet regions, was observed in semi-arid regions. The anthropogenic dust column burden of semi-arid takes a positively correlated with the population and population change, indicating the production of anthropogenic dust in semi-arid regions is partly induced by human activities.
X. Guan, J. Huang, R. Guo, H. Yu, P. Lin, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13777–13786,Short summary
Dynamical adjustment methodology has been applied to the raw surface air temperature and has successfully identified and separated the contribution of dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT). It found that regional anthropogenic radiative forcing caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities.
R. Zhang, H. Wang, D. A. Hegg, Y. Qian, S. J. Doherty, C. Dang, P.-L. Ma, P. J. Rasch, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12805–12822,Short summary
We use a global climate model with an explicit source tagging technique to quantify contributions of emissions from various geographical regions and sectors to BC in North America. Model results are evaluated against measurements of near-surface and in-snow BC. We found strong spatial variations of BC and its radiative forcing that can be quantitatively attributed to the various source origins, and also identified a significant source of BC in snow that is likely missing in most climate models.
Y. Liu, Y. Sato, R. Jia, Y. Xie, J. Huang, and T. Nakajima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12581–12594,Short summary
We firstly evaluated the Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species combined with a non-hydrostatic regional model through comparing the simulation results and satellite observations, both in horizontal and vertical. The dust and anthropogenic aerosols in summer over the Tibetan Plateau are evaluated, and their distributions over the TP are presented. The transport of these aerosols over the Tibetan Plateau is also explored via combining the simulation results and reanalysis data.
W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11909–11918,Short summary
A method is reported for retrieving super-thin cloud optical depth with polarized light. It is found that near-backscatter p-polarized light is sensitive to clouds, but not to ocean conditions. Near-backscatter p-polarized intensity linearly relates to super-thin cloud optical depth. Based on these findings, super-thin cloud optical depth can be retrieved with little effect from surface reflection.
J. P. Huang, J. J. Liu, B. Chen, and S. L. Nasiri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11653–11665,Short summary
To understand the contribution of anthropogenic dust to the total global dust load, a new technique for distinguishing anthropogenic dust from natural dust is proposed by using CALIPSO dust measurements and PBL height retrievals along with a land use data set. Results reveal that local anthropogenic dust aerosol accounts for about 25% of the global continental dust load.
Q. Jin, J. Wei, Z.-L. Yang, B. Pu, and J. Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9897–9915,Short summary
Satellite data show that Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall is closely associated with Middle East dust aerosols. Numerical modeling shows that the increased ISM rainfall is related to the enhanced southwesterly flow and moisture transport from the Arabian Sea to the Indian subcontinent, associated with the development of an anomalous low-pressure system over the Iranian Plateau and the Arabian Sea due to dust-induced atmospheric heating.
R. Zhang, H. Wang, Y. Qian, P. J. Rasch, R. C. Easter, P.-L. Ma, B. Singh, J. Huang, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6205–6223,Short summary
We use the CAM5 model with a novel source-tagging technique to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors and their transport pathways to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP). We show a comprehensive picture of the seasonal and regional dependence of BC source attributions, and find strong seasonal and spatial variations in BC-in-snow radiative forcing in the HTP that can be quantitatively attributed to the various regional/sectoral sources.
J. Li, J. Huang, K. Stamnes, T. Wang, Q. Lv, and H. Jin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 519–536,
L. Geng, J. Cole-Dai, B. Alexander, J. Erbland, J. Savarino, A. J. Schauer, E. J. Steig, P. Lin, Q. Fu, and M. C. Zatko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13361–13376,Short summary
Examinations on snowpit and firn core results from Summit, Greenland suggest that there are two mechanisms leading to the observed double nitrate peaks in some years in the industrial era: 1) long-rang transport of nitrate and 2) enhanced local photochemical production of nitrate. Both of these mechanisms are related to pollution transport, as the additional nitrate from either direct transport or enhanced local photochemistry requires enhanced nitrogen sources from anthropogenic emissions.
C. Zhao, Z. Hu, Y. Qian, L. Ruby Leung, J. Huang, M. Huang, J. Jin, M. G. Flanner, R. Zhang, H. Wang, H. Yan, Z. Lu, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11475–11491,
Hongru Yan, Zhanqing Li, Jianping Huang, Maureen Cribb, and Jianjun Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7113–7124,
C. Zhao, S. Chen, L. R. Leung, Y. Qian, J. F. Kok, R. A. Zaveri, and J. Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10733–10753,
S. Feng and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10081–10094,
R. Zhang, D. A. Hegg, J. Huang, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6091–6099,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalTriple frequency radar retrieval of microphysical properties of snowPhysical characteristics of frozen hydrometeors inferred with parameter estimationCloud height measurement by a network of all-sky imagersIncreasing the spatial resolution of cloud property retrievals from Meteosat SEVIRI by use of its high-resolution visible channel: implementation and examplesWhy we need radar, lidar, and solar radiance observations to constrain ice cloud microphysicsEstimating the optical extinction of liquid water clouds in the cloud base regionW-band radar observations for fog forecast improvement: an analysis of model and forward operator errorsRetrieving microphysical properties of concurrent pristine ice and snow using polarimetric radar observationsIdentification of snowfall microphysical processes from Eulerian vertical gradients of polarimetric radar variablesIdentifying insects, clouds, and precipitation using vertically pointing polarimetric radar Doppler velocity spectraMICRU: an effective cloud fraction algorithm designed for UV–vis satellite instruments with large viewing anglesA simplified method for the detection of convection using high-resolution imagery from GOES-16Introducing hydrometeor orientation into all-sky microwave and submillimeter assimilationVersion 4 CALIPSO Imaging Infrared Radiometer ice and liquid water cloud microphysical properties – Part II: Results over oceansVersion 4 CALIPSO Imaging Infrared Radiometer ice and liquid water cloud microphysical properties – Part I: The retrieval algorithmsObservation of cirrus clouds with GLORIA during the WISE campaign: detection methods and cirrus characterizationComparison of mid-latitude single and mixed-phase cloud optical depth from co-located infrared spectrometer and backscatter LiDAR measurementsApplying machine learning methods to detect convection using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-16 (GOES-16) advanced baseline imager (ABI) dataA new method to detect and classify polar stratospheric nitric acid trihydrate clouds derived from radiative transfer simulations and its first application to airborne infrared limb emission observationsA study of polarimetric error induced by satellite motion: application to the 3MI and similar sensorsTwo-dimensional and multi-channel feature detection algorithm for the CALIPSO lidar measurementsAnalysis of 3D cloud effects in OCO-2 XCO2 retrievalsImproving cloud type classification of ground-based images using region covariance descriptorsGlobal cloud property models for real-time triage on board visible–shortwave infrared spectrometersApplying deep learning to NASA MODIS data to create a community record of marine low-cloud mesoscale morphologyMicrowave single-scattering properties of non-spheroidal raindropsDetermining cloud thermodynamic phase from the polarized Micro Pulse LidarImproved cloud detection over sea ice and snow during Arctic summer using MERIS dataA kernel-driven BRDF model to inform satellite-derived visible anvil cloud detectionCloud-top pressure retrieval with DSCOVR EPIC oxygen A- and B-band observationsEstimating total attenuation using Rayleigh targets at cloud top: applications in multilayer and mixed-phase clouds observed by ground-based multifrequency radarsA new Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 cloud flagging method and rapid retrieval of marine boundary layer cloud propertiesCALIOP V4 cloud thermodynamic phase assignment and the impact of near-nadir viewing anglesDetection of the cloud liquid water path horizontal inhomogeneity in a coastline area by means of ground-based microwave observations: feasibility studySynergistic radar and radiometer retrievals of ice hydrometeorsImprovement in cloud retrievals from VIIRS through the use of infrared absorption channels constructed from VIIRS+CrIS data fusionUsing two-stream theory to capture fluctuations of satellite-perceived TOA SW radiances reflected from clouds over oceanExploration of machine learning methods for the classification of infrared limb spectra of polar stratospheric cloudsThree-dimensional wind profiles using a stabilized shipborne cloud radar in wind profiler modeLow-level liquid cloud properties during ORACLES retrieved using airborne polarimetric measurements and a neural network algorithmA machine-learning-based cloud detection and thermodynamic-phase classification algorithm using passive spectral observationsSegCloud: a novel cloud image segmentation model using a deep convolutional neural network for ground-based all-sky-view camera observationSpatial distribution of cloud droplet size properties from Airborne Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter (AirHARP) measurementsTowards objective identification and tracking of convective outflow boundaries in next-generation geostationary satellite imageryCloud detection over snow and ice with oxygen A- and B-band observations from the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC)Ground-based observations of cloud and drizzle liquid water path in stratocumulus cloudsIncreasing the spatial resolution of cloud property retrievals from Meteosat SEVIRI by use of its high-resolution visible channel: evaluation of candidate approaches with MODIS observationsEstimation of cloud optical thickness, single scattering albedo and effective droplet radius using a shortwave radiative closure study in PayerneTowards an operational Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) retrieval productIce crystal number concentration from lidar, cloud radar and radar wind profiler measurements
Kamil Mroz, Alessandro Battaglia, Cuong Nguyen, Andrew Heymsfield, Alain Protat, and Mengistu Wolde
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
A method for estimating microphysical properties of ice clouds based on the radar measurements is presented. The algorithm exploits the information provided by differences in the radar response at different frequency bands in a relation to changes in the snow morphology. The inversion scheme is based on a statistical relation between the radar simulations and the properties of snow calculated from in cloud samplings.
Alan J. Geer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5369–5395,Short summary
Satellite observations sensitive to cloud and precipitation help improve the quality of weather forecasts. However, they are sensitive to things that models do not forecast, such as the shapes and sizes of snow and ice particles. These details can be estimated from the observations themselves and then incorporated in the satellite simulators used in weather forecasting. This approach, known as parameter estimation, will be increasingly useful to build models of poorly known physical processes.
Niklas Benedikt Blum, Bijan Nouri, Stefan Wilbert, Thomas Schmidt, Ontje Lünsdorf, Jonas Stührenberg, Detlev Heinemann, Andreas Kazantzidis, and Robert Pitz-Paal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5199–5224,Short summary
Cloud base height (CBH) is important, e.g., to forecast solar irradiance and, with it, photovoltaic production. All-sky imagers (ASIs), cameras monitoring the sky above their point of installation, can provide such forecasts and also measure CBH. We present a network of ASIs to measure CBH. The network provides numerous readings of CBH simultaneously. We combine these with a statistical procedure. Validation attests to significantly higher accuracy of the combination compared to two ASIs alone.
Hartwig Deneke, Carola Barrientos-Velasco, Sebastian Bley, Anja Hünerbein, Stephan Lenk, Andreas Macke, Jan Fokke Meirink, Marion Schroedter-Homscheidt, Fabian Senf, Ping Wang, Frank Werner, and Jonas Witthuhn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5107–5126,Short summary
The SEVIRI instrument flown on the European geostationary Meteosat satellites acquires multi-spectral images at a relatively coarse pixel resolution of 3 × 3 km2, but it also has a broadband high-resolution visible channel with 1 × 1 km2 spatial resolution. In this study, the modification of an existing cloud property and solar irradiance retrieval to use this channel to improve the spatial resolution of its output products as well as the resulting benefits for applications are described.
Florian Ewald, Silke Groß, Martin Wirth, Julien Delanoë, Stuart Fox, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5029–5047,Short summary
In this study, we show how solar radiance observations can be used to validate and further constrain ice cloud microphysics retrieved from the synergy of radar–lidar measurements. Since most radar–lidar retrievals rely on a global assumption about the ice particle shape, ice water content and particle size biases are to be expected in individual cloud regimes. In this work, we identify and correct these biases by reconciling simulated and measured solar radiation reflected from these clouds.
Karolina Sarna, David P. Donovan, and Herman W. J. Russchenberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4959–4970,Short summary
We show a method for obtaining cloud optical extinction with a lidar system. We use a scheme in which a lidar signal is inverted based on the estimated value of cloud extinction at the far end of the cloud and apply a correction for multiple scattering within the cloud and a range resolution correction. By applying our technique, we show that it is possible to obtain the cloud optical extinction with an error better than 5 % up to 90 m within the cloud.
Alistair Bell, Pauline Martinet, Olivier Caumont, Benoît Vié, Julien Delanoë, Jean-Charles Dupont, and Mary Borderies
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4929–4946,Short summary
This paper presents work towards making retrievals on the liquid water content in fog and low clouds. Future retrievals will rely on a radar simulator and high-resolution forecast. In this work, real observations are used to assess the errors associated with the simulator and forecast. A selection method to reduce errors associated with the forecast is proposed. It is concluded that the distribution of errors matches the requirements for future retrievals.
Nicholas J. Kedzuf, J. Christine Chiu, V. Chandrasekar, Sounak Biswas, Shashank S. Joshil, Yinghui Lu, Peter Jan van Leeuwen, Christopher Westbrook, Yann Blanchard, and Sebastian O'Shea
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Ice clouds play a key role in our climate system, due to their strong controls on precipitation and radiation budget. However, it is difficult to characterize co-existing ice species using radar observations. We present a new method that separates the radar signals of pristine ice embedded in snow aggregates and retrieves their respective abundances and sizes for the first time. The ability to provide their quantitative microphysical properties will open many research opportunities.
Noémie Planat, Josué Gehring, Étienne Vignon, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4543–4564,Short summary
We implement a new method to identify microphysical processes during cold precipitation events based on the sign of the vertical gradient of polarimetric radar variables. We analytically asses the meteorological conditions for this vertical analysis to hold, apply it on two study cases and successfully compare it with other methods informing about the microphysics. Finally, we are able to obtain the main vertical structure and characteristics of the different processes during these study cases.
Christopher R. Williams, Karen L. Johnson, Scott E. Giangrande, Joseph C. Hardin, Ruşen Öktem, and David M. Romps
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4425–4444,Short summary
In addition to detecting clouds, vertically pointing cloud radars detect individual insects passing over head. If these insects are not identified and removed from raw observations, then radar-derived cloud properties will be contaminated. This work identifies clouds in radar observations due to their continuous and smooth structure in time, height, and velocity. Cloud masks are produced that identify cloud vertical structure that are free of insect contamination.
Holger Sihler, Steffen Beirle, Steffen Dörner, Marloes Gutenstein-Penning de Vries, Christoph Hörmann, Christian Borger, Simon Warnach, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3989–4031,Short summary
MICRU is an algorithm for the retrieval of effective cloud fractions (CFs) from satellite measurements. CFs describe the amount of clouds, which have a significant impact on the vertical sensitivity profile of trace gases like NO2 and HCHO. MICRU retrieves small CFs with an accuracy of 0.04 over the entire satellite swath. It features an empirical surface reflectivity model accounting for physical anisotropy (BRDF, sun glitter) and instrumental effects. MICRU is also applicable to imager data.
Yoonjin Lee, Christian D. Kummerow, and Milija Zupanski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3755–3771,Short summary
This study suggests two methods to detect convection using 1 min data from GOES-16: one method detects early convective clouds using their vertical growth rate and the other method detects mature convective clouds using their lumpy cloud top surfaces. Applying the two methods to 1-month data showed that the accuracy of the combined methods was 85.8 % and showed their potential to be used in regions where radar data are not available.
Vasileios Barlakas, Alan J. Geer, and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3427–3447,Short summary
Oriented nonspherical ice particles induce polarization that is ignored when cloud-sensitive satellite observations are used in numerical weather prediction systems. We present a simple approach for approximating particle orientation, requiring minor adaption of software and no additional calculation burden. With this approach, the system realistically simulates the observed polarization patterns, increasing the physical consistency between instruments with different polarizations.
Anne Garnier, Jacques Pelon, Nicolas Pascal, Mark A. Vaughan, Philippe Dubuisson, Ping Yang, and David L. Mitchell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3277–3299,Short summary
The IIR Level 2 data products include cloud effective emissivities and cloud microphysical properties such as effective diameter (De) and ice or liquid water path estimates. This paper (Part II) shows retrievals over ocean and describes the improvements made with respect to version 3 as a result of the significant changes implemented in the version 4 algorithms, which are presented in a companion paper (Part I).
Anne Garnier, Jacques Pelon, Nicolas Pascal, Mark A. Vaughan, Philippe Dubuisson, Ping Yang, and David L. Mitchell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3253–3276,Short summary
The IIR Level 2 data products include cloud effective emissivities and cloud microphysical properties such as effective diameter (De) and ice or liquid water path estimates. This paper (Part I) describes the improvements in the V4 algorithms compared to those used in the version 3 (V3) release, while results are presented in a companion paper (Part II).
Irene Bartolome Garcia, Reinhold Spang, Jörn Ungermann, Sabine Griessbach, Martina Krämer, Michael Höpfner, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3153–3168,Short summary
Cirrus clouds contribute to the general radiation budget of the Earth. Measuring optically thin clouds is challenging but the IR limb sounder GLORIA possesses the necessary technical characteristics to make it possible. This study analyses data from the WISE campaign obtained with GLORIA. We developed a cloud detection method and derived characteristics of the observed cirrus-like cloud top, cloud bottom or position with respect to the tropopause.
Gianluca Di Natale, Marco Barucci, Claudio Belotti, Giovanni Bianchini, Francesco D'Amato, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Alessio Montori, Ralf Sussmann, Silvia Viciani, Hannes Vogelmann, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The importance of the cirrus and mixed phase clouds in the Earth Radiation Budget has been proven by many studies, since they interact with the shortwave and thermal radiation coming from the sun and the Earth. In this paper the main properties which characterize cirrus clouds are retrieved from the far infrared spectral and lidar measurements performed on field during Winter 2018–2019 on the Zugspitze Mount (Germany) within the FIRMOS project, founded by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Yoonjin Lee, Christian D. Kummerow, and Imme Ebert-Uphoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2699–2716,Short summary
Convective clouds are usually associated with intense rain that can cause severe damage, and thus it is important to accurately detect convective clouds. This study develops a machine learning model that can identify convective clouds from five temporal visible and infrared images as humans can point at convective regions by finding bright and bubbling areas. The results look promising when compared to radar-derived products, which are commonly used for detecting convection.
Christoph Kalicinsky, Sabine Griessbach, and Reinhold Spang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1893–1915,Short summary
For an airborne viewing geometry, radiative transfer simulations of infrared limb emission spectra in the presence of polar stratospheric clouds – nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), supercooled ternary solution, ice, and mixtures – were used to develop a size-sensitive NAT detection algorithm. Characteristic size-dependent spectral features in the 810–820 cm−1 region were exploited to subgroup the NAT into three size regimes: small NAT (≤ 1.0 μm), medium NAT (1.5–4.0 μm), and large NAT (≥ 3.5 μm).
Souichiro Hioki, Jérôme Riedi, and Mohamed S. Djellali
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1801–1816,Short summary
This research estimates the magnitude of a motion-induced error in the measurement of polarimetric state of light by a planned instrument on a future satellite. We discovered that the motion-induced error can not be cancelled out by spatiotemporal averaging, but it can be predicted from the along-track change of the intensity of light. With the estimated statistics and the simulation model, this research paves a way to provide pixel-level quality information in the future satellite products.
Thibault Vaillant de Guélis, Mark A. Vaughan, David M. Winker, and Zhaoyan Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1593–1613,Short summary
We introduce a new lidar feature detection algorithm that dramatically improves the fine details of layers identified in the CALIOP data. By applying our two-dimensional scanning technique to the measurements in all three channels, we minimize false positives while accurately identifying previously undetected features such as subvisible cirrus and the full vertical extent of dense smoke plumes. Multiple comparisons to version 4.2 CALIOP retrievals illustrate the scope of the improvements made.
Steven T. Massie, Heather Cronk, Aronne Merrelli, Christopher O'Dell, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Hong Chen, and David Baker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1475–1499,Short summary
The OCO-2 science team is working to retrieve CO2 measurements that can be used by the carbon cycle community to calculate regional sources and sinks of CO2. The retrieved data, however, are in need of improvements in accuracy. This paper discusses several ways in which 3D cloud metrics (such as the distance of a measurement to the nearest cloud) can be used to account for cloud effects in the OCO-2 CO2 data files.
Yuzhu Tang, Pinglv Yang, Zeming Zhou, Delu Pan, Jianyu Chen, and Xiaofeng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 737–747,Short summary
An automatic cloud classification method on whole-sky images is presented. We first extract multiple pixel-level features to form region covariance descriptors (RCovDs) and then encode RCovDs by the Riemannian bag-of-feature (BoF) method to output the histogram representation. Reults show that a very high prediction accuracy can be obtained with a small number of training samples, which validate the proposed method and exhibit the competitive performance against state-of-the-art methods.
Macey W. Sandford, David R. Thompson, Robert O. Green, Brian H. Kahn, Raffaele Vitulli, Steve Chien, Amruta Yelamanchili, and Winston Olson-Duvall
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7047–7057,Short summary
We demonstrate an onboard cloud-screening approach to significantly reduce the amount of cloud-contaminated data transmitted from orbit. We have produced location-specific models that improve performance by taking into account the unique cloud statistics in different latitudes. We have shown that screening clouds based on their location or surface type will improve the ability for a cloud-screening tool to improve the volume of usable science data.
Tianle Yuan, Hua Song, Robert Wood, Johannes Mohrmann, Kerry Meyer, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and Steven Platnick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6989–6997,Short summary
We use deep transfer learning techniques to classify satellite cloud images into different morphology types. It achieves the state-of-the-art results and can automatically process a large amount of satellite data. The algorithm will help low-cloud researchers to better understand their mesoscale organizations.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6933–6944,Short summary
Raindrops become flattened due to aerodynamic drag as they increase in mass and fall speed. This study calculated the electromagnetic interaction between microwave radiation and non-spheroidal raindrops. The calculations are made publicly available to the scientific community, in order to promote accurate representations of raindrops in measurements. Tests show that the drop shape can have a noticeable effect on microwave observations of heavy rainfall.
Jasper R. Lewis, James R. Campbell, Sebastian A. Stewart, Ivy Tan, Ellsworth J. Welton, and Simone Lolli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6901–6913,Short summary
In this work, the authors describe a process to determine the thermodynamic cloud phase using the Micro Pulse Lidar Network volume depolarization ratio measurements and temperature profiles from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office GEOS-5 model. A multi-year analysis and comparisons to supercooled liquid water fractions derived from CALIPSO satellite measurements are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.
Larysa Istomina, Henrik Marks, Marcus Huntemann, Georg Heygster, and Gunnar Spreen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6459–6472,
Benjamin R. Scarino, Kristopher Bedka, Rajendra Bhatt, Konstantin Khlopenkov, David R. Doelling, and William L. Smith Jr.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5491–5511,Short summary
This paper highlights a technique for facilitating anvil cloud detection based on visible observations that relies on comparative analysis with expected cloud reflectance for a given set of angles. A 1-year database of anvil-identified pixels, as determined from IR observations, from several geostationary satellites was used to construct a bidirectional reflectance distribution function model to quantify typical anvil reflectance across almost all expected viewing, solar, and azimuth angles.
Bangsheng Yin, Qilong Min, Emily Morgan, Yuekui Yang, Alexander Marshak, and Anthony B. Davis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5259–5275,Short summary
Cloud-top pressure (CTP) is an important cloud property for climate and weather studies. Based on differential oxygen absorption, both oxygen A-band and B-band pairs can be used to retrieve CTP. However, it is currently very challenging to perform a CTP retrieval accurately due to the complicated in-cloud penetration effect. To address this issue, we propose an analytic transfer inverse model for DSCOVR EPIC observations to retrieve CTP considering in-cloud photon penetration.
Frédéric Tridon, Alessandro Battaglia, and Stefan Kneifel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5065–5085,Short summary
The droplets and ice crystals composing clouds and precipitation interact with microwaves and can therefore be observed by radars, but they can also attenuate the signal they emit. By combining the observations made by two ground-based radars, this study describes an original approach for estimating such attenuation. As a result, the latter can be not only corrected in the radar observations but also exploited for providing an accurate characterization of droplet and ice crystal properties.
Mark Richardson, Matthew D. Lebsock, James McDuffie, and Graeme L. Stephens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4947–4961,Short summary
We previously combined CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) lidar data and reflected-sunlight measurements from OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2) for information about low clouds over oceans. The satellites are no longer formation-flying, so this work is a step towards getting new information about these clouds using only OCO-2. We can rapidly and accurately identify liquid oceanic clouds and obtain their height better than a widely used passive sensor.
Melody A. Avery, Robert A. Ryan, Brian J. Getzewich, Mark A. Vaughan, David M. Winker, Yongxiang Hu, Anne Garnier, Jacques Pelon, and Carolus A. Verhappen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4539–4563,Short summary
CALIOP data users will find more cloud layers detected in V4, with edges that extend further than in V3, for an increase in total atmospheric cloud volume of 6 %–9 % for high-confidence cloud phases and 1 %–2 % for all cloudy bins, including cloud fringes and unknown cloud phases. In V4 there are many fewer cloud layers identified as horizontally oriented ice, particularly in the 3° off-nadir view. Depolarization at 532 nm is the predominant parameter determining cloud thermodynamic phase.
Vladimir S. Kostsov, Dmitry V. Ionov, and Anke Kniffka
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4565–4587,Short summary
Previously, observations from satellites provided evidence for systematic differences between the values of the cloud liquid water path over land and water areas in northern Europe. An attempt is made to detect such differences by means of ground-based microwave measurements performed near the coastline of the Gulf of Finland. The results demonstrate the existence of the cloud liquid water path gradient, which is positive as in the case of the satellite measurements (larger values over land).
Simon Pfreundschuh, Patrick Eriksson, Stefan A. Buehler, Manfred Brath, David Duncan, Richard Larsson, and Robin Ekelund
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4219–4245,Short summary
The next generation of European operational weather satellites will carry a novel microwave sensor, the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI), which will provide observations of clouds at microwave frequencies that were not available before. We investigate the potential benefits of combining observations from ICI with that of a radar. We find that such combined observations provide additional information on the properties of the cloud and help to reduce uncertainties in retrieved mass and number densities.
Yue Li, Bryan A. Baum, Andrew K. Heidinger, W. Paul Menzel, and Elisabeth Weisz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4035–4049,Short summary
Use of VIIRS+CrIS fusion products, which provide VIIRS with MODIS-like IR sounding channels, improves cloud mask, cloud phase, and cloud top height retrievals when compared to those using VIIRS data only. NOAA CLAVR-x cloud retrievals for both S-NPP and NOAA-20 data are evaluated through comparisons to the CALIPSO v4 and MODIS Collection 6.1 cloud products. Cloud height retrievals show significant improvement for semitransparent ice clouds, with a reduction in retrieval uncertainties.
Florian Tornow, Carlos Domenech, Howard W. Barker, René Preusker, and Jürgen Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3909–3922,Short summary
Clouds reflect sunlight unevenly, which makes it difficult to quantify the portion reflected back to space via satellite observation. To improve quantification, we propose a new statistical model that incorporates more satellite-inferred cloud and atmospheric properties than state-of-the-art models. We use concepts from radiative transfer theory that we statistically optimize to fit observations. The new model often explains past satellite observations better and predicts reflection plausibly.
Rocco Sedona, Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Gabriele Cavallaro, Sabine Griessbach, Michael Höpfner, Matthias Book, and Morris Riedel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3661–3682,Short summary
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in polar ozone depletion in the stratosphere. In this paper, we explore the potential of applying machine learning (ML) methods to classify PSC observations of infrared spectra to classify PSC types. ML methods have proved to reach results in line with those obtained using well-established approaches. Among the considered ML methods, random forest (RF) seems to be the most promising one, being able to produce explainable classification results.
Alain Protat and Ian McRobert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3609–3620,Short summary
Three-dimensional (3D) wind motions play a major role in driving the life cycle of clouds. In this pilot study we have developed a technique to measure the 3D winds in clouds, using a shipborne Doppler cloud radar on a stabilized platform. The stabilized platform is driven to point in a series of predefined directions to collect the required measurements. Comparisons with radiosondes demonstrate that accurate 1 min resolution 3D wind motions can be obtained from this instrumental setup.
Daniel J. Miller, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Kirk Knobelspiesse, Jens Redemann, Brian Cairns, Mikhail Alexandrov, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, and Andrzej Wasilewski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3447–3470,Short summary
A neural network (NN) is developed and used to retrieve cloud microphysical properties from multiangular and multispectral polarimetric remote sensing observations. The NN is applied to research scanning polarimeter (RSP) observations obtained during the ORACLES field campaign and compared to other co-located remote sensing retrievals of cloud effective radius and optical thickness. A NN approach can advance more complex iterative search retrieval algorithms by providing a quick initial guess.
Chenxi Wang, Steven Platnick, Kerry Meyer, Zhibo Zhang, and Yaping Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2257–2277,Short summary
A machine-learning (ML)-based approach that can be used for cloud mask and phase detection is developed. An all-day model that uses infrared (IR) observations and a daytime model that uses shortwave and IR observations from a passive instrument are trained separately for different surface types. The training datasets are selected by using reference pixel types from collocated space lidar. The ML approach is validated carefully and the overall performance is better than traditional methods.
Wanyi Xie, Dong Liu, Ming Yang, Shaoqing Chen, Benge Wang, Zhenzhu Wang, Yingwei Xia, Yong Liu, Yiren Wang, and Chaofan Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1953–1961,
Brent A. McBride, J. Vanderlei Martins, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, William Birmingham, and Lorraine A. Remer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1777–1796,Short summary
Clouds play a large role in the way our Earth system distributes energy. The measurement of cloud droplet size distribution (DSD) is one way to connect small-scale cloud processes to scattered radiation. Our small satellite instrument, the Airborne Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter, is the first to infer DSDs over a wide spatial cloud field using polarized light. This study improves the way we interpret cloud properties and shows that high-quality science does not require a large taxpayer cost.
Jason M. Apke, Kyle A. Hilburn, Steven D. Miller, and David A. Peterson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1593–1608,Short summary
Objective identification of deep convection outflow boundaries (OFBs) in next-generation geostationary satellite imagery is explored here using motion derived from a tuned advanced optical flow algorithm. Motion discontinuity preservation within the derivation is found crucial for successful OFB tracking between images, which yields new meteorological data for objective systems to use. These results provide the first step towards a fully automated satellite-based OFB identification algorithm.
Yaping Zhou, Yuekui Yang, Meng Gao, and Peng-Wang Zhai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1575–1591,Short summary
Satellite cloud detection over snow and ice has been difficult for passive remote sensing instruments due to the lack of contrast between clouds and the bright and cold surfaces; the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on board the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) has very limited channels. This study investigates the methodology of applying EPIC's two oxygen absorption band pair ratios for cloud detection over snow and ice surfaces.
Maria P. Cadeddu, Virendra P. Ghate, and Mario Mech
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1485–1499,Short summary
A combination of ground-based active and passive observations is used to partition cloud and precipitation liquid water path in precipitating stratocumulous clouds. Results show that neglecting scattering effects from drizzle drops leads to 8–15 % overestimation of the liquid amount in the cloud. In closed-cell systems only ~20 % of the available drizzle in the cloud falls below the cloud base, compared to ~40 % in open-cell systems.
Frank Werner and Hartwig Deneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1089–1111,Short summary
The reliability of remotely sensed cloud variables from space depends on the horizontal resolution of the instrument. This study presents and evaluates several candidate approaches for increasing the spatial resolution of observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) from the native 3 km scale to a horizontal resolution of 1 km. It is shown that uncertainties in the derived cloud products can be significantly mitigated by applying an appropriate downscaling scheme.
Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, Stelios Kazadzis, Laurent Vuilleumier, Antonis Gkikas, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 907–923,Short summary
Clouds are one of the largest sources of uncertainties in climate models. The current study estimates the cloud optical thickness (COT), the effective droplet radius and the single scattering albedo of stratus–altostratus and cirrus–cirrostratus clouds in Payerne, Switzerland, by combining ground- and satellite-based measurements and radiative transfer models. The estimated values are thereafter compared with data retrieved from other methods. The mean COT is distinct for different seasons.
Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Vinia Mattioli, Anke Thoss, Christophe Accadia, Ulf Klein, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 53–71,Short summary
The Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) will be the first operational satellite sensor operating at sub-millimetre wavelengths and this novel mission will thus provide important new data to weather forecasting and climate studies. The series of ICI instruments will together cover about 20 years. This article presents the basic technical characteristics of the sensor and outlines the day-one operational retrievals. An updated estimation of the expected retrieval performance is also presented.
Johannes Bühl, Patric Seifert, Martin Radenz, Holger Baars, and Albert Ansmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6601–6617,Short summary
In the present paper, we present a novel remote-sensing technique for the measurement of ice crystal number concentrations in clouds. The fall velocity of ice crystals measured with values from cloud radar and a radar wind profiler is used in order to derive information about ice crystal size and number concentration. In contrast to existing methods based on the combination of lidar and cloud radar, the present method can also be used in optically thick clouds.
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Johnson, C. A., Coutinho, R. M., Berlin, E., Dolphin, K. E., Heyer, J., Kim, B., Leung, A., Sabellon, J. L., Amarasekare, P., and Carroll, S.: Effects of temperature and resource variation on insect population dynamics: the bordered plant bug as a case study, Funct. Ecol., 30, 1122–1131, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12583, 2016.
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Cloud radars are powerful instruments that can probe detailed cloud structures. However, radar echoes in the lower atmosphere are always contaminated by clutter. We proposed a multi-dimensional probability distribution function that can effectively discriminate low-level clouds from clutter by considering their different features in several variables. We applied this method to the radar observations at the SACOL site and found the results have good agreement with lidar detection.
Cloud radars are powerful instruments that can probe detailed cloud structures. However, radar...