Articles | Volume 10, issue 11
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4491–4505, 2017

Special issue: Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 2016 – Status and trends...

Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4491–4505, 2017

Research article 22 Nov 2017

Research article | 22 Nov 2017

Temperature dependence of the Brewer global UV measurements

Ilias Fountoulakis1, Alberto Redondas2, Kaisa Lakkala3,5, Alberto Berjon4, Alkiviadis F. Bais1, Lionel Doppler5, Uwe Feister5, Anu Heikkila6, Tomi Karppinen3, Juha M. Karhu3, Tapani Koskela6,a, Katerina Garane1, Konstantinos Fragkos1,7, and Volodya Savastiouk8 Ilias Fountoulakis et al.
  • 1Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • 2Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Izaña Atmospheric Research Center, Tenerife, Spain
  • 3Finnish Meteorological Institute – Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä, Finland
  • 4Department of Industrial Engineering, University of La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
  • 5Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg – Richard Assmann Observatorium (DWD, MOL-RAO), Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg, Germany
  • 6Climate Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
  • 7National Institute of R&D for Optoelectronics, Magurele, Romania
  • 8International Ozone Services Inc, Toronto, Canada
  • anow independent researcher

Abstract. Spectral measurements of global UV irradiance recorded by Brewer spectrophotometers can be significantly affected by instrument-specific optical and mechanical features. Thus, proper corrections are needed in order to reduce the associated uncertainties to within acceptable levels. The present study aims to contribute to the reduction of uncertainties originating from changes in the Brewer internal temperature, which affect the performance of the optical and electronic parts, and subsequently the response of the instrument. Until now, measurements of the irradiance from various types of lamps at different temperatures have been used to characterize the instruments' temperature dependence. The use of 50 W lamps was found to induce errors in the characterization due to changes in the transmissivity of the Teflon diffuser as it warms up by the heat of the lamp. In contrast, the use of 200 or 1000 W lamps is considered more appropriate because they are positioned at longer distances from the diffuser so that warming is negligible. Temperature gradients inside the instrument can cause mechanical stresses which can affect the instrument's optical characteristics. Therefore, during the temperature-dependence characterization procedure warming or cooling must be slow enough to minimize these effects. In this study, results of the temperature characterization of eight different Brewer spectrophotometers operating in Greece, Finland, Germany and Spain are presented. It was found that the instruments' response changes differently in different temperature regions due to different responses of the diffusers' transmittance. The temperature correction factors derived for the Brewer spectrophotometers operating at Thessaloniki, Greece, and Sodankylä, Finland, were evaluated and were found to remove the temperature dependence of the instruments' sensitivity.

Short summary
Results of the temperature characterization of the global UV spectral measurements of eight different Brewer spectrophotometers operating in Greece, Finland, Germany and Spain are presented. Different temperature characterization methods are evaluated and an improved methodology for the correction of the measurements for the effects of temperature is presented.