Articles | Volume 13, issue 12
Research article 23 Dec 2020
Research article | 23 Dec 2020
A single-beam photothermal interferometer for in situ measurements of aerosol light absorption
Bradley Visser et al.
No articles found.
Vera Bernardoni, Luca Ferrero, Ezio Bolzacchini, Alice Corina Forello, Asta Gregorič, Dario Massabò, Griša Močnik, Paolo Prati, Martin Rigler, Luca Santagostini, Francesca Soldan, Sara Valentini, Gianluigi Valli, and Roberta Vecchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2919–2940,Short summary
An instrument-dependent wavelength-independent parameter (C) is often used to face multiple-scattering issues affecting aerosol light absorption measurements by Aethalometers. Instead, we determined multi-wavelength C by comparison with absorption measurements of samples collected in parallel performed by an instrument developed in-house. Considering C wavelength dependence, harmonized results were obtained applying source and component apportionment models to data from different Aethalometers.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Francesco Canonaco, Griša Močnik, Pragati Rai, Gang Chen, Jakub Bartyzel, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Katarzyna Styszko, Jaroslaw Nęcki, Markus Furger, Kazimierz Różański, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Krakow is among the cities with the highest particulate matter levels within Europe. We conducted long-term and highly time resolved measurements of the chemical composition of submicron particlulate matter (PM1). Combined with advanced source apportionment techniques, which allow for time-dependent factor profiles, our data elucidate key emission sources that influence the PM1 concentrations in Krakow.
Luca Ferrero, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Martin Rigler, Sergio Cogliati, Francesca Barnaba, Luca Di Liberto, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Niccolò Losi, and Ezio Bolzacchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4869–4897,Short summary
The work experimentally quantifies the impact of cloudiness and cloud type on the atmospheric heating rate of black and brown carbon. The most impacting clouds were stratocumulus, altostratus and stratus. Clouds caused a decrease of the heating rate of about 12 % per okta. The black carbon decease was slightly higher with respect to that of brown carbon. This study highlights the need to take into account the role of cloudiness when modelling light-absorbing aerosol climate forcing.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Vera Bernardoni, Griša Močnik, Andrés Alastuey, Davide Ciniglia, Matic Ivančič, Xavier Querol, Noemí Perez, Cristina Reche, Martin Rigler, Roberta Vecchi, Sara Valentini, and Marco Pandolfi
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Here we characterize the multiple scattering factor, C, of the dual-spot aethalometer AE33, its cross-sensitivity to scattering and wavelength dependence for 3 background stations: urban, regional, and mountain-top. The C was obtained for two set of filter tapes: M8020 and M8060. The cross-sensitivity to scattering and wavelength dependence of C were determined by intercomparing with other absorption and scattering measurements including multi-angle offline absorption measurements.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marina Ealo, Marco Pandolfi, Noemí Perez, Gloria Titos, Griša Močnik, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 431–455,Short summary
Here we describe the vertical profiles of extensive (scattering and absorption) and intensive (e.g. albedo and asymmetry parameter) aerosol optical properties from coupling ground-based measurements from two sites in north-eastern Spain and airborne measurements performed with an aircraft. We analyse different aerosol layers along the vertical profile for a regional pollution episode and a Saharan dust intrusion. The results show a change with height depending on the different measured layers.
Gloria Titos, María A. Burgos, Paul Zieger, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Ernest Weingartner, Bas Henzing, Krista Luoma, Colin O'Dowd, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This manuscript investigates the impact of water uptake on the aerosol optical properties, in particular the aerosol light-scattering coefficient. Although in-situ measurements are performed at low relative humidity (typically at RH < 40 %), to address the climatic impact of aerosol particles it is necessary to take into account the effect that water uptake may have on the aerosol optical properties.
Asta Gregorič, Luka Drinovec, Irena Ježek, Janja Vaupotič, Matevž Lenarčič, Domen Grauf, Longlong Wang, Maruška Mole, Samo Stanič, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14139–14162,Short summary
We present a new method for the determination of highly time-resolved and source-separated black carbon emission rates. The atmospheric dynamics is quantified using the atmospheric radon concentration. Different intensity and daily dynamics of black carbon emission rates for two different environments are presented: urban and rural area. The method can be used to assess the efficiency of pollution mitigation measures, thereby avoiding the influence of variable meteorology.
María A. Burgos, Elisabeth Andrews, Gloria Titos, Angela Benedetti, Huisheng Bian, Virginie Buchard, Gabriele Curci, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, Julie Letertre-Danczak, Marianne T. Lund, Hitoshi Matsui, Gunnar Myhre, Cynthia Randles, Michael Schulz, Twan van Noije, Kai Zhang, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Junying Sun, Ernest Weingartner, and Paul Zieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10231–10258,Short summary
We investigate how well models represent the enhancement in scattering coefficients due to particle water uptake, and perform an evaluation of several implementation schemes used in ten Earth system models. Our results show the importance of the parameterization of hygroscopicity and model chemistry as drivers of some of the observed diversity amongst model estimates. The definition of dry conditions and the phenomena taking place in this relative humidity range also impact the model evaluation.
Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, María Cruz Minguillón, Briel Björn, Paul Buckley, Vadimas Dudoitis, Javier Fernández-García, María Fernández-Amado, Joel Ferreira De Brito, Harald Flentje, Eimear Heffernan, Nikolaos Kalivitis, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Hannes Keernik, Luminita Marmureanu, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Michael Pikridas, Gerhard Schauer, Norbert Serfozo, Henri Servomaa, Gloria Titos, Jesús Yus-Díez, Natalia Zioła, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Twenty-three aethalometers from European monitoring networks of black carbon mass concentrations, were characterized and intercompared. Measurements of black carbon must be conducted with instruments operating in a quality checked and assured conditions to generate reliable and comparable data. The influence of different aerosol sources, maintenance activities, and the filter material, in the instrumental variabilities were investigated. Good agreements and in general low deviations were seen.
Martin Rigler, Luka Drinovec, Gašper Lavrič, Athanasia Vlachou, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Iasonas Stavroulas, Jean Sciare, Judita Burger, Irena Kranjc, Janja Turšič, Anthony D. A. Hansen, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4333–4351,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols are a large fraction of fine particulate matter. They are extremely diverse, and they directly impact air quality, visibility, cloud formation and public health. In this paper we present a new instrument and new method to measure carbon content in particulate matter in real time and at a high time resolution. The new method was validated in a 1-month winter field campaign in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Luka Drinovec, Jean Sciare, Iasonas Stavroulas, Spiros Bezantakos, Michael Pikridas, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Bojana Višić, Maja Remškar, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3799–3813,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust influences Earth's radiative budget, has adverse health effects, and affects regulatory PM10 concentrations. We present a highly time resolved online technique for quantification of mineral dust concentration in ambient air. The technique uses a virtual impactor to concentrate coarse particles, where absorption is then measured using a filter photometer. The method was tested in the field at a regional background site on Cyprus.
Aurélien Chauvigné, Diego Aliaga, Karine Sellegri, Nadège Montoux, Radovan Krejci, Griša Močnik, Isabel Moreno, Thomas Müller, Marco Pandolfi, Fernando Velarde, Kay Weinhold, Patrick Ginot, Alfred Wiedensohler, Marcos Andrade, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14805–14824,Short summary
The study presents for the first time the analysis of aerosol optical properties at the unique high-altitude station of Chacaltaya, Bolivia. Ideally located, the station allows us to better understand influences of urban areas and the Amazon Forest on tropospheric properties. An emerging method is applied to characterize aerosol origins and permits us to illustrate evidence of natural and anthropogenic influences.
Michael Pikridas, Spiros Bezantakos, Griša Močnik, Christos Keleshis, Fred Brechtel, Iasonas Stavroulas, Gregoris Demetriades, Panayiota Antoniou, Panagiotis Vouterakos, Marios Argyrides, Eleni Liakakou, Luka Drinovec, Eleni Marinou, Vassilis Amiridis, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6425–6447,Short summary
This work evaluates the performance of three sensors that monitor black carbon (soot). These sensors exhibit similar behavior to their rack-mounted counterparts and are therefore promising for more extended use. A reconstruction of the black carbon mass vertical distribution above Athens, Greece, is shown using drones, similar to those acquired by remote-sensing techniques. The potential of combining miniature sensors with drones for at least the lower part of the atmosphere is exhibited.
Nivedita K. Kumar, Joel C. Corbin, Emily A. Bruns, Dario Massabó, Jay G. Slowik, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Paolo Prati, Athanasia Vlachou, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17843–17861,Short summary
It is clear that considerable uncertainties still exist in understanding the magnitude of aerosol absorption on a global scale and its contribution to global warming. This manuscript provides a comprehensive assessment of the optical absorption by organic aerosols (brown carbon) from residential wood combustion as a function of atmospheric aging.
Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Aude Calas, Florie Chevrier, Jean-Luc Besombes, Aurélie Charron, Dalia Salameh, Irena Ježek, Griša Močnik, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9617–9629,Short summary
The oxidative potential (OP) of the PM appears to be a relevant proxy of health outcomes from PM exposure. We developed a new statistical model using a coupled approach with positive matrix factorization (PMF) and multiple linear regressions to attribute a redox activity per PM sources. Our results highlight the importance of biomass burning and vehicular sources to explain the observed OP of PM. A different contribution of the sources is observed when considering OP or the mass of the PM10.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Peter Zotter, Hanna Herich, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, Yanlin Zhang, Griša Močnik, Christoph Hüglin, Urs Baltensperger, Sönke Szidat, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4229–4249,Short summary
Most studies use a single Ångström exponent for wood burning (αWB) and traffic (αTR) emissions in the Aethalometer model, used for source apportionment of black carbon, derived from previous work. However, accurate determination of the α values is currently lacking. Comparing radiocarbon measurements (14C) with the Aehtalometer model, good agreement was found, indicating that the Aethalometer model reproduces reasonably well the 14C results using our best estimate of a single αWB and αTR.
Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Peter Zotter, Robert Wolf, Emily Anne Bruns, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Jean Sciare, Ian J. Arnold, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Agnes Filep, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1043–1059,Short summary
Black carbon measurements are usually conducted with absorption filter photometers, which are prone to the filter-loading effect – a saturation of the instrumental response due to the accumulation of the sample in the filter matrix. In this paper, we conducted several field campaigns to investigate the hypothesis that this filter-loading effect depends on the optical properties of particles present in the filter matrix, especially on the coating of black carbon particles.
Monique Teich, Dominik van Pinxteren, Michael Wang, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Thomas Müller, Griša Močnik, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1653–1672,Short summary
This study provides a large data set on concentrations of individual brown carbon constituents, i.e., nitrated aromatic compounds, in diverse atmospheric environments and their relative contribution to water-soluble and particulate light absorption. It extends the existing knowledge on the abundance of brown carbon and its molecular composition and provides scientific motivation for further studies on ambient brown carbon constituents.
Luca Ferrero, David Cappelletti, Maurizio Busetto, Mauro Mazzola, Angelo Lupi, Christian Lanconelli, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Laura Caiazzo, Fabio Giardi, Beatrice Moroni, Stefano Crocchianti, Martin Fierz, Griša Močnik, Giorgia Sangiorgi, Maria G. Perrone, Marion Maturilli, Vito Vitale, Roberto Udisti, and Ezio Bolzacchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12601–12629,Short summary
This study reports results from systematic vertical aerosol profiles measured in the Arctic using a tethered balloon platform. The collected data allowed for finding common rules of aerosol behavior along height and seasons. Transport events, secondary aerosol formation and ship impact are examples of the issues investigated along height. The importance of these issues is related to their climatic implications in reference to the aerosol direct and indirect effects in the Arctic atmosphere.
Bernadette Rosati, Martin Gysel, Florian Rubach, Thomas F. Mentel, Brigitta Goger, Laurent Poulain, Patrick Schlag, Pasi Miettinen, Aki Pajunoja, Annele Virtanen, Henk Klein Baltink, J. S. Bas Henzing, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Ernest Weingartner, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7295–7315,Short summary
This study presents PEGASOS project data from field campaigns in the Po Valley, Italy and the Netherlands. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition were investigated with airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT airship. A special focus was on the evolution of different mixing layers within the PBL as a function of daytime. A closure study showed that variations in aerosol hygroscopicity can well be explained by the variations in chemical composition.
Joonas Enroth, Sanna Saarikoski, Jarkko Niemi, Anu Kousa, Irena Ježek, Griša Močnik, Samara Carbone, Heino Kuuluvainen, Topi Rönkkö, Risto Hillamo, and Liisa Pirjola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5497–5512,Short summary
This paper presents a comprehensive summary of roadside measurements using a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Pollution gradients were observed for particle number, black carbon, organics, some metals, and gases at four different highway environments. Flow dynamics appeared to be an important factor, however, at the most open site, condensation of semi-volatile organics was observed. The fleet average NO2 emission factor increased over the last decade.
Bernadette Rosati, Erik Herrmann, Silvia Bucci, Federico Fierli, Francesco Cairo, Martin Gysel, Ralf Tillmann, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Luca Di Liberto, Guido Di Donfrancesco, Alfred Wiedensohler, Ernest Weingartner, Annele Virtanen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4539–4554,Short summary
We present vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties, which were explored within the planetary boundary layer in a case study in 2012 in the Po Valley region. A comparison of in situ measurements recorded aboard a Zeppelin NT and ground-based remote-sensing data was performed yielding good agreement. Additionally, the role of ambient relative humidity for the aerosol particles' optical properties was investigated.
Christopher R. Hoyle, Clare S. Webster, Harald E. Rieder, Athanasios Nenes, Emanuel Hammer, Erik Herrmann, Martin Gysel, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Ernest Weingartner, Martin Steinbacher, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4043–4061,Short summary
A simple statistical model to predict the number of aerosols which activate to form cloud droplets in warm clouds has been established, based on regression analysis of data from the high-altitude site Jungfraujoch. It is found that cloud droplet formation at the Jungfraujoch is predominantly controlled by the number concentration of aerosol particles. A statistical model based on only the number of particles larger than 80nm can explain 79 % of the observed variance in droplet numbers.
Z. Jurányi, H. Burtscher, M. Loepfe, M. Nenkov, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5213–5222,Short summary
Volcanic eruption can be a serious security risk for airplanes. We develop a new aerosol sensor for the reliable detection of volcanic ash on airplanes. We introduce here the laboratory prototype of this instrument, which is able to distinguish between water droplets and volcanic ash particles by measuring the scattered light at two distinct wavelengths simultaneously. The different optical behaviour of volcanic ash and water at these wavelengths makes this differentiation possible.
V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. L. Croteau, S. Verlhac, R. Fröhlich, C. A. Belis, W. Aas, M. Äijälä, A. Alastuey, B. Artiñano, D. Baisnée, N. Bonnaire, M. Bressi, M. Canagaratna, F. Canonaco, C. Carbone, F. Cavalli, E. Coz, M. J. Cubison, J. K. Esser-Gietl, D. C. Green, V. Gros, L. Heikkinen, H. Herrmann, C. Lunder, M. C. Minguillón, G. Močnik, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, J.-E. Petit, E. Petralia, L. Poulain, M. Priestman, V. Riffault, A. Ripoll, R. Sarda-Estève, J. G. Slowik, A. Setyan, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. T. Jayne, and O. Favez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5063–5087,Short summary
A large intercomparison study of 13 Q-ACSM was conducted for a 3-week period in the region of Paris to evaluate the performance of this instrument and to monitor the major NR-PM1 chemical components. Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were found to be 9, 15, 19, 28, and 36% for NR-PM1, NO3, OM, SO4, and NH4, respectively. Some recommendations regarding best calibration practices, standardized data processing and data treatment are also provided.
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
I. Ježek, T. Katrašnik, D. Westerdahl, and G. Močnik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11011–11026,Short summary
On-road measurement of black carbon (BC), NOx and particle number (PN) emission factors (EF) by chasing vehicles is the first such study where BC EFs of many individual diesel cars were determined in real-world conditions. Median BC EF of diesel and gasoline cars in use for <5 years, decreased by 60% and 47% from those in use for 5–10 years. Reductions for goods vehicles' NOx and PN EFs were 52% and 67%. We found an increase of BC EFs in newer goods vehicle fleet compared to 5 – 10 year old one.
E. Hammer, N. Bukowiecki, B. P. Luo, U. Lohmann, C. Marcolli, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, and C. R. Hoyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10309–10323,Short summary
An important quantity which determines aerosol activation and cloud formation is the effective peak supersaturation. The box model ZOMM was used to simulate the effective peak supersaturation experienced by an air parcel approaching a high-alpine research station in Switzerland. With the box model the sensitivity of the effective peak supersaturation to key aerosol and dynamical parameters was investigated.
A. Karanasiou, M. C. Minguillón, M. Viana, A. Alastuey, J.-P. Putaud, W. Maenhaut, P. Panteliadis, G. Močnik, O. Favez, and T. A. J. Kuhlbusch
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
P. Kupiszewski, E. Weingartner, P. Vochezer, M. Schnaiter, A. Bigi, M. Gysel, B. Rosati, E. Toprak, S. Mertes, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3087–3106,
R. Fröhlich, V. Crenn, A. Setyan, C. A. Belis, F. Canonaco, O. Favez, V. Riffault, J. G. Slowik, W. Aas, M. Aijälä, A. Alastuey, B. Artiñano, N. Bonnaire, C. Bozzetti, M. Bressi, C. Carbone, E. Coz, P. L. Croteau, M. J. Cubison, J. K. Esser-Gietl, D. C. Green, V. Gros, L. Heikkinen, H. Herrmann, J. T. Jayne, C. R. Lunder, M. C. Minguillón, G. Močnik, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, E. Petralia, L. Poulain, M. Priestman, A. Ripoll, R. Sarda-Estève, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, J. Sciare, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2555–2576,Short summary
Source apportionment (SA) of organic aerosol mass spectrometric data measured with the Aerodyne ACSM using PMF/ME2 is a frequently used technique in the AMS/ACSM community. ME2 uncertainties due to instrument-to-instrument variations are elucidated by performing SA on ambient data from 14 individual, co-located ACSMs, recorded during the first ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison study at SIRTA near Paris (France). The mean uncertainty was 17.2%. Recommendations for future studies using ME2 are provided.
L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. Ruckstuhl, E. Coz, M. Rupakheti, J. Sciare, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, and A. D. A. Hansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1965–1979,Short summary
We present a new real-time algorithm for compensation of the filter-loading effect in filter photometers, based on a two parallel spot measurement of optical absorption. This algorithm has been incorporated into the new Aethalometer AE33. Intercomparison studies show excellent reproducibility of the AE33 measurements and very good agreement with post-processed data obtained using earlier aethalometer models and other filter-based absorption photometers.
A. Worringen, K. Kandler, N. Benker, T. Dirsch, S. Mertes, L. Schenk, U. Kästner, F. Frank, B. Nillius, U. Bundke, D. Rose, J. Curtius, P. Kupiszewski, E. Weingartner, P. Vochezer, J. Schneider, S. Schmidt, S. Weinbruch, and M. Ebert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4161–4178,
J.-E. Petit, O. Favez, J. Sciare, V. Crenn, R. Sarda-Estève, N. Bonnaire, G. Močnik, J.-C. Dupont, M. Haeffelin, and E. Leoz-Garziandia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2985–3005,
E. A. Bruns, M. Krapf, J. Orasche, Y. Huang, R. Zimmermann, L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, I. El-Haddad, J. G. Slowik, J. Dommen, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2825–2841,Short summary
Residential wood combustion contributes significantly to the total atmospheric particulate burden; however, uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. The effects of wood loading on freshly emitted and aged emissions were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which negatively impact health, contributed more to the total organic aerosol under highly loaded burner conditions, which has significant implications for burner operation protocols.
B. Rosati, G. Wehrle, M. Gysel, P. Zieger, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 921–939,Short summary
Only few measurements focused on vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopic and optical properties in airborne studies. For this purpose the white-light optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS) was developed. It allows a relatively fast measurement of the particles hygroscopicity, mixing state and index of refraction of particles in the optically relevant size range. This paper presents a detailed technical description and characterization of the WHOPS and first results from the field.
I. Ježek, L. Drinovec, L. Ferrero, M. Carriero, and G. Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 43–55,Short summary
We used two methods - the stationary method and the chasing method - for measuring emission factors (EF) of black carbon and particle number concentration in real driving conditions in a controlled environment. We further developed the data processing for both methods. The comparison of emission factors determined by the two methods showed good agreement. EFs of a single car measured with either method have a specific distribution with a characteristic value and a long tail of super emissions.
J.-E. Petit, O. Favez, J. Sciare, F. Canonaco, P. Croteau, G. Močnik, J. Jayne, D. Worsnop, and E. Leoz-Garziandia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13773–13787,
A. D. Griffiths, F. Conen, E. Weingartner, L. Zimmermann, S. D. Chambers, A. G. Williams, and M. Steinbacher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12763–12779,Short summary
Radon detectors at Bern and Jungfraujoch were used to monitor the transport of radon-rich boundary layer air from the Swiss Plateau to the Alpine ridge. Radon was successfully used to discriminate between different types of vertical transport, using the shape of the diurnal cycle to identify days with upslope mountain winds. For many air-mass properties, however, the total land-surface influence (indicated by the radon concentration) was more decisive than the type of vertical transport.
E. Hammer, M. Gysel, G. C. Roberts, T. Elias, J. Hofer, C. R. Hoyle, N. Bukowiecki, J.-C. Dupont, F. Burnet, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10517–10533,
L. Ferrero, M. Castelli, B. S. Ferrini, M. Moscatelli, M. G. Perrone, G. Sangiorgi, L. D'Angelo, G. Rovelli, B. Moroni, F. Scardazza, G. Močnik, E. Bolzacchini, M. Petitta, and D. Cappelletti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9641–9664,
S. Segura, V. Estellés, G. Titos, H. Lyamani, M. P. Utrillas, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, G. Močnik, L. Alados-Arboledas, and J. A. Martínez-Lozano
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2373–2387,
D. C. S. Beddows, M. Dall'Osto, R. M. Harrison, M. Kulmala, A. Asmi, A. Wiedensohler, P. Laj, A.M. Fjaeraa, K. Sellegri, W. Birmili, N. Bukowiecki, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, V. Zdimal, N. Zikova, J.-P. Putaud, A. Marinoni, P. Tunved, H.-C. Hansson, M. Fiebig, N. Kivekäs, E. Swietlicki, H. Lihavainen, E. Asmi, V. Ulevicius, P. P. Aalto, N. Mihalopoulos, N. Kalivitis, I. Kalapov, G. Kiss, G. de Leeuw, B. Henzing, C. O'Dowd, S. G. Jennings, H. Flentje, F. Meinhardt, L. Ries, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, and A. J. H. Visschedijk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4327–4348,
E. Hammer, N. Bukowiecki, M. Gysel, Z. Jurányi, C. R. Hoyle, R. Vogt, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1123–1139,
P. Zieger, R. Fierz-Schmidhauser, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10609–10631,
S. M. Platt, I. El Haddad, A. A. Zardini, M. Clairotte, C. Astorga, R. Wolf, J. G. Slowik, B. Temime-Roussel, N. Marchand, I. Ježek, L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, O. Möhler, R. Richter, P. Barmet, F. Bianchi, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9141–9158,
Z. Jurányi, T. Tritscher, M. Gysel, M. Laborde, L. Gomes, G. Roberts, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6431–6446,
M. Laborde, M. Crippa, T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, P. F. Decarlo, B. Temime-Roussel, N. Marchand, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and M. Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5831–5856,
H. Keskinen, A. Virtanen, J. Joutsensaari, G. Tsagkogeorgas, J. Duplissy, S. Schobesberger, M. Gysel, F. Riccobono, J. G. Slowik, F. Bianchi, T. Yli-Juuti, K. Lehtipalo, L. Rondo, M. Breitenlechner, A. Kupc, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, E. M. Dunne, A. J. Downard, S. Ehrhart, A. Franchin, M.K. Kajos, J. Kirkby, A. Kürten, T. Nieminen, V. Makhmutov, S. Mathot, P. Miettinen, A. Onnela, T. Petäjä, A. Praplan, F. D. Santos, S. Schallhart, M. Sipilä, Y. Stozhkov, A. Tomé, P. Vaattovaara, D. Wimmer, A. Prevot, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, R.C. Flagan, E. Weingartner, Y. Viisanen, I. Riipinen, A. Hansel, J. Curtius, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, H. Wex, F. Stratmann, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5587–5600,
M. Frosch, M. Bilde, A. Nenes, A. P. Praplan, Z. Jurányi, J. Dommen, M. Gysel, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2283–2297,
C. Chou, Z. A. Kanji, O. Stetzer, T. Tritscher, R. Chirico, M. F. Heringa, E. Weingartner, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, and U. Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 761–772,
M. Collaud Coen, E. Andrews, A. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, N. Bukowiecki, D. Day, M. Fiebig, A. M. Fjaeraa, H. Flentje, A. Hyvärinen, A. Jefferson, S. G. Jennings, G. Kouvarakis, H. Lihavainen, C. Lund Myhre, W. C. Malm, N. Mihapopoulos, J. V. Molenar, C. O'Dowd, J. A. Ogren, B. A. Schichtel, P. Sheridan, A. Virkkula, E. Weingartner, R. Weller, and P. Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 869–894,
A. Asmi, M. Collaud Coen, J. A. Ogren, E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, A. Jefferson, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, N. Bukowiecki, H. Lihavainen, N. Kivekäs, E. Asmi, P. P. Aalto, M. Kulmala, A. Wiedensohler, W. Birmili, A. Hamed, C. O'Dowd, S. G Jennings, R. Weller, H. Flentje, A. M. Fjaeraa, M. Fiebig, C. L. Myhre, A. G. Hallar, E. Swietlicki, A. Kristensson, and P. Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 895–916,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsElemental analysis of oxygenated organic coating on black carbon particles using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometerOn the calibration of FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS: importance and impact of calibrant delivery for the particle-phase calibrationAqueous particle generation with a 3D printed nebulizerA new method for operating a continuous-flow diffusion chamber to investigate immersion freezing: assessment and performance studyCharacterization of a non-thermal plasma source for use as a mass specrometric calibration tool and non-radioactive aerosol chargerDevelopment of the drop Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), intercomparison of droplet freezing techniques, and use of soluble lignin as an atmospheric ice nucleation standardInvestigation of structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples during two thermal-optical measurement procedures (EUSAAR2, NIOSH870)Application of time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry for the real-time measurement of particle-phase organic peroxides: an online redox derivatization–aerosol mass spectrometer (ORD-AMS)Nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) for investigating hygroscopic properties of sub-10 nm aerosol nanoparticlesQuantification of toxic metals using machine learning techniques and spark emission spectroscopyA new approach for measuring the carbon and oxygen content of atmospherically relevant compounds and mixturesAn experimental study on light scattering matrices for Chinese loess dust with different particle size distributionsCounting on chemistry: laboratory evaluation of seed-material-dependent detection efficiencies of ultrafine condensation particle countersPhotophoretic spectroscopy in atmospheric chemistry – high-sensitivity measurements of light absorption by a single particleLaboratory evaluation of particle-size selectivity of optical low-cost particulate matter sensorsMapping ice formation to mineral-surface topography using a micro mixing chamber with video and atomic-force microscopyHigh-humidity tandem differential mobility analyzer for accurate determination of aerosol hygroscopic growth, microstructure, and activity coefficients over a wide range of relative humidityDevelopment of an improved two-sphere integration technique for quantifying black carbon concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snowDevelopment of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ): validation and application to field-collected snow samplesMultiple-scattering correction factor of quartz filters and the effect of filtering particles mixed in water: implications for analyses of light absorption in snow samplesThe effect of rapid relative humidity changes on fast filter-based aerosol-particle light-absorption measurements: uncertainties and correction schemesCharacterisation of the filter inlet system on the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft and its use for size-resolved aerosol composition measurementsMolecular characterization of alkyl nitrates in atmospheric aerosols by ion mobility mass spectrometryChanges in PM2.5 peat combustion source profiles with atmospheric aging in an oxidation flow reactorQuantifying organic matter and functional groups in particulate matter filter samples from the southeastern United States – Part 1: MethodsMicroelectromechanical-system-based condensation particle counter for real-time monitoring of airborne ultrafine particlesMeasurement techniques for identifying and quantifying hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) in an aqueous matrix and particulate matter using aerosol mass spectrometry and ion chromatographyVersatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) operating as a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrator: development and laboratory characterizationA new aerosol flow reactor to study secondary organic aerosolMorphology and Raman spectra of aerodynamically classified soot samplesSeparation and detection of aqueous atmospheric aerosol mimics using supercritical fluid chromatography–mass spectrometryHumidity effects on the detection of soluble and insoluble nanoparticles in butanol operated condensation particle countersStructural changes of CAST soot during a thermal–optical measurement protocolConcept for an electrostatic focusing device for continuous ambient pressure aerosol concentrationTwo-wavelength thermal–optical determination of light-absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosolsA portable dual-smog-chamber system for atmospheric aerosol field studiesAging aerosol in a well-mixed continuous-flow tank reactor: an introduction of the activation time distributionThe impact of bath gas composition on the calibration of photoacoustic spectrometers with ozone at discrete visible wavelengths spanning the Chappuis bandUltrasonic nebulization for the elemental analysis of microgram-level samples with offline aerosol mass spectrometryInstrument artifacts lead to uncertainties in parameterizations of cloud condensation nucleationTwin-plate Ice Nucleation Assay (TINA) with infrared detection for high-throughput droplet freezing experiments with biological ice nuclei in laboratory and field samplesChAMBRe: a new atmospheric simulation chamber for aerosol modelling and bio-aerosol researchAn instrument for quantifying heterogeneous ice nucleation in multiwell plates using infrared emissions to detect freezingSize-resolved online chemical analysis of nanoaerosol particles: a thermal desorption differential mobility analyzer coupled to a chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometerCleaning up our water: reducing interferences from nonhomogeneous freezing of “pure” water in droplet freezing assays of ice-nucleating particlesEffects of temperature, pressure, and carrier gases on the performance of an aerosol particle mass analyserExploring femtosecond laser ablation in single-particle aerosol mass spectrometryKinetically controlled glass transition measurement of organic aerosol thin films using broadband dielectric spectroscopyIdentification of organic hydroperoxides and peroxy acids using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS): application to secondary organic aerosolLaser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF): performance, reference spectra and classification of atmospheric samples
Mutian Ma, Laura-Hélèna Rivellini, YuXi Cui, Megan D. Willis, Rio Wilkie, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Junfeng Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Alex K. Y. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2799–2812,Short summary
Chemical characterization of organic coatings is important to advance our understanding of the physio-chemical properties and atmospheric processing of black carbon (BC) particles. This work develops two approaches to improve the elemental analysis of oxygenated organic coatings using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Analyzing ambient data with the new approaches indicated that secondary organics that coated on BC were likely less oxygenated compared to those externally mixed with BC.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Luis M. F. Barreira, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, John Jayne, Jordan E. Krechmer, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 355–367,Short summary
FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS enables online volatility measurements of chemical compounds in ambient aerosols. Previously published volatility calibration results however differ from each other significantly. In this study we investigate the reason for this discrepancy. We found a major source of error in the widely used syringe deposition method and propose a new method for volatility calibration by using atomized calibration compounds.
Michael Rösch and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6807–6812,Short summary
The need for a simple atomizer with a high-output stability combined with the capabilities of CAD software and high-resolution 3D printing has allowed for the design, production and testing of the PRinted drOpleT Generator (PROTeGE) to generate liquid particles from solutions. The size and number concentrations of the generated particles have been characterized with different ammonium sulfate and PSL solutions. PROTeGE is easy to operate, requires minimal maintenance and is cost-effective.
Gourihar Kulkarni, Naruki Hiranuma, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Swarup China, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Paul J. DeMott
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6631–6643,Short summary
This study presents a new continuous-flow-diffusion-chamber-style operated ice chamber (Modified Compact Ice Chamber, MCIC) to measure the immersion-freezing efficiency of atmospheric particles. MCIC allowed us to obtain maximum droplet-freezing efficiency at higher time resolution without droplet breakthrough ambiguity. Its evaluation was performed by reproducing published data from the recent ice nucleation workshop and past laboratory data for standard and airborne ice-nucleating particles.
Christian Tauber, David Schmoll, Johannes Gruenwald, Sophia Brilke, Peter Josef Wlasits, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5993–6006,Short summary
In this paper we show that a commercially available plasma charger with nitrogen as the working gas can enhance the charging probability for sub-12 nm particles. In addition, the charger ion mobilities and the chemical composition have been examined using an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF MS), and comparison of the experimental results revealed that the generated neutralizer ions are not dependent on the charging mechanism.
Anna J. Miller, Killian P. Brennan, Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
For characterizing atmospheric ice nuclei, we present (1) the development of our home-built droplet freezing technique (DFT), the Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), (2) an intercomparison campaign using NX-illite and an ambient sample with two other DFTs, and (3) the application of lignin as a soluble and commercial ice nuclei standard with three DFTs. We further compiled the growing number of DFTs in use for atmospheric ice nucleation since 2000, to which we add FINC.
Theresa Haller, Eva Sommer, Thomas Steinkogler, Christian Rentenberger, Anna Wonaschuetz, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Structural changes of carbonaceous aerosol samples during thermal optical measurement techniques cause a darkening of the sample during the heating procedure which can influence the attribution of the carbonaceous material to organic and elemental carbon. We analyzed structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples occurring during the EUSAAR2 and NIOSH870 measurement protocols with Raman spectroscopy. We found that the darkening of the sample is not necessarily caused by graphitization.
Marcel Weloe and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5725–5738,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) are frequently applied in atmospheric aerosol research in connection with climate, environmental or health-related projects. The paper describes a new real-time technique for the measurement of organic peroxides, which play an important role in new particle formation and as
reactive oxygen speciesin aerosol–health-related aspects of atmospheric aerosols.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Seyyed Ali Davari and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5369–5377,Short summary
Traditional instruments for detection and quantification of toxic metals in the atmosphere are expensive. In this study, we have designed, fabricated, and tested a low-cost instrument, which employs cheap components to detect and quantify toxic metals. Advanced machine learning (ML) techniques have been used to improve the instrument's performance. This study demonstrates how the combination of low-cost sensors with ML can address problems that traditionally have been too expensive to be solved.
James F. Hurley, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Braden Stump, Chenyang Bi, Purushottam Kumar, Susanne V. Hering, Pat Keady, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4911–4925,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosols has implications for human and ecosystem health. Current methods for determining chemical composition are expensive and require highly trained personnel. Our method is promising for moderate-cost, low-maintenance measurements of oxygen / carbon ratios, a key chemical parameter, and other elements may also be studied. In this work, we coupled two commonly used detectors to assess O / C ratios in a variety of compounds and mixtures within an acceptable error.
Jia Liu, Qixing Zhang, Yinuo Huo, Jinjun Wang, and Yongming Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4097–4109,Short summary
Angular behaviors of light scattering properties for loess dust sampled from the Chinese Loess Plateau were investigated using a self-developed apparatus. Two samples with different size distributions were used to represent dust that can or cannot be transported over long ranges. Analyses of optical simulation results showed that differences of measurements are mainly caused by different sizes. This study is useful for the development of optical models of loess dust during transportation.
Peter Josef Wlasits, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Sophia Brilke, Sebastian Harald Schmitt, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3787–3798,Short summary
In this paper we show that chemical similarities between the seed particle material and the working fluid have an impact on the detection efficiency of commonly used CPCs. A remarkable set of CPCs, including the newly developed V-WCPC 3789, was tested. Among others, reproducibly generated organic seeds based on beta-caryophyllene were used. Theoretical simulations of supersaturation profiles were successfully linked to measured data.
Nir Bluvshtein, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3191–3203,Short summary
Light-absorbing organic particles undergo transformations during their exposure in the atmosphere. The role these particles play in the global radiative balance is uncertain. This study describes high-sensitivity and high-precision measurements of light absorption by a single particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance. This high level of sensitivity enables future studies to explore the major processes responsible for changes to the particle's light absorptivity.
Joel Kuula, Timo Mäkelä, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Samu Varjonen, Óscar González, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2413–2423,Short summary
Particle-size-dependent detection ranges of low-cost particulate matter sensors were evaluated in a laboratory experiment. Six different sensor models were evaluated altogether. The results showed that none of the sensor models adhered to the technical specifications provided by the manufacturers, and thus a high risk of sensor misuse is posed. It is paramount that the limitations regarding the particle size discrimination of low-cost sensors are acknowledged properly.
Raymond W. Friddle and Konrad Thürmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2209–2218,Short summary
An obstacle to predicting ice content in mixed-phase clouds is the inability to directly view atmospheric ice nucleation at the nanoscale, where this process occurs. Here we show how a cloud-like environment can be created in a small atomic-force microscopy (AFM) sample cell. By colocating video microscopy of ice formation with high-resolution AFM images, we quantitatively show how the surface topography, down to nanometer-length scales, can determine the preferential locations of ice formation.
Eugene F. Mikhailov and Sergey S. Vlasenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2035–2056,Short summary
Here we present the high-humidity tandem differential hygroscopicity analyzer (HHTDMA) and a new method to measure the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles with in situ restructuring to minimize the influence of particle shape. Our results demonstrate that the HHTDMA system described in this work allows us to determine the thermodynamic characteristics of aqueous solutions with an accuracy close to that obtained by bulk methods.
Xin Wang, Xueying Zhang, and Wenjing Di
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 39–52,Short summary
We developed an improved two-sphere integration (TSI) technique to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snow. The major advantage of this system is that it combines two distinct integrated spheres to reduce the scattering effect due to light-absorbing particles and thus provides accurate determinations of total light absorption from BC collected on Nuclepore filters.
Robert O. David, Maria Cascajo-Castresana, Killian P. Brennan, Michael Rösch, Nora Els, Julia Werz, Vera Weichlinger, Lin S. Boynton, Sophie Bogler, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Claudia Marcolli, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6865–6888,Short summary
Here we present the development and applicability of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ). DRINCZ allows for ice nuclei in the immersion mode to be quantified between 0 and -25 °C with an uncertainty of ±0.9 °C. Furthermore, we present a new method for assessing biases in drop-freezing apparatuses and cumulative ice-nucleating-particle concentrations from snow samples collected in the Austrian Alps at the Sonnblick Observatory.
Jonas Svensson, Johan Ström, and Aki Virkkula
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5913–5925,Short summary
Collection of particles onto filters can be a valuable tool in several research disciplines. Here we experiment with quartz filters and their response to soot particles in an airborne and liquid state in order to better understand the sampling procedure. Soot particles in a liquid phase showed absorption of light nearly double that of airborne sampled particles.
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Almond Stöcker, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5879–5895,Short summary
This study examines the effect of changes in relative humidity on measurements made by two different filter-based absorption photometers. Different filter loads, loading materials, and filter types are considered. It was found that both instruments react opposingly and with different magnitudes. One of the devices showed a variation in the dependence on the loading material. For each of the two devices, a correction approach is provided. Recommendations based on the findings are given.
Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Duncan H. P. Hedges, Matthew Hiscock, Simon T. Parker, Philip D. Rosenberg, Jamie Trembath, Richard Walshaw, Ian T. Burke, James B. McQuaid, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5741–5763,Short summary
Sampling coarse-mode aerosol from a fast-moving research aircraft is challenging and can be subject to substantial losses and enhancements. We characterise these losses and enhancements for an inlet system designed to collect aerosol onto filters. We go on to present an application of this inlet system where we use electron microscopy to study the size and composition of the collected aerosol particles.
Xuan Zhang, Haofei Zhang, Wen Xu, Xiaokang Wu, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, John J. Orlando, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5535–5545,Short summary
We develop a new technique to characterize organic nitrates as intact molecules in atmospheric aerosols, and we apply this technique to identify hydroxy nitrates in secondary organic aerosols produced from the photochemical oxidation of isoprene.
Judith C. Chow, Junji Cao, L.-W. Antony Chen, Xiaoliang Wang, Qiyuan Wang, Jie Tian, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Adam C. Watts, Tessa B. Carlson, Steven D. Kohl, and John G. Watson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5475–5501,Short summary
Source profiles that allow peat fire contributions to be distinguished from other source contributions using receptor models are lacking for a wide variety of peat fuels and burning conditions. These profiles change with photochemical aging during transport. Fresh and aged profiles for a variety of peat fuels are measured with an oxidation flow reactor to improve source attributions at distant receptors.
Alexandra J. Boris, Satoshi Takahama, Andrew T. Weakley, Bruno M. Debus, Carley D. Fredrickson, Martin Esparza-Sanchez, Charlotte Burki, Matteo Reggente, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eric S. Edgerton, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5391–5415,Short summary
Organic species are abundant in atmospheric particle-phase (aerosol) pollution and originate from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Infrared spectrometry of filter-based atmospheric particle samples can afford a direct measurement of the particulate organic matter concentration and a characterization of its composition. This work discusses recent method improvements and compositions measured in samples from the SouthEastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network.
Seong-Jae Yoo, Hong-Beom Kwon, Ui-Seon Hong, Dong-Hyun Kang, Sang-Myun Lee, Jangseop Han, Jungho Hwang, and Yong-Jun Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5335–5345,Short summary
We present a portable, inexpensive, and accurate microelectromechanical-system-based (MEMS-based) condensation particle counter (CPC) for the sensitive and precise monitoring of airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs). The CPC is miniaturized by utilizing MEMS technology and 3-D printing. Thus, the proposed system can potentially be used for UFP monitoring in various environments.
Eleni Dovrou, Christopher Y. Lim, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Jesse H. Kroll, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5303–5315,Short summary
Measurement techniques commonly used to analyze particulate matter composition can result in the possible misidentification of sulfur-containing species, especially for the case of sulfate and hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS). The efficiency and limitations of these techniques, along with a method that enables further studies of the contribution of sulfur-containing species, S(IV) versus S(VI), to particulate matter under low-light atmospheric conditions, are described in this work.
Carmen Dameto de España, Gerhard Steiner, Harald Schuh, Constantinos Sioutas, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4733–4744,
Kelly L. Pereira, Grazia Rovelli, Young C. Song, Alfred W. Mayhew, Jonathan P. Reid, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4519–4541,Short summary
We present the design and operation of a newly built continuous-flow reactor (CFR), which can be used as a tool to gain considerable insights into the composition and physical state of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The CFR was used to generate large quantities of SOA mass, allowing the use of highly accurate techniques that are not usually accessible. We demonstrate how this unique approach can be used to investigate the relationship between SOA formation and physiochemical properties.
Alberto Baldelli and Steven Nicholas Rogak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4339–4346,Short summary
Raman spectra and soot primary particle size change with the impactor sampling stage even though the soot source is a steady laboratory flame. This is of potential interest to atmospheric researchers because past work on aerodynamically separated samples was interpreted in terms of distinct particle sources producing particles of different sizes and chemical structures.
Daisy N. Grace, Melissa B. Sebold, and Melissa M. Galloway
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3841–3851,Short summary
The identification and quantification of compounds within an atmospheric particle can be difficult to achieve. We present a supercritical fluid chromatography method to separate these compounds prior to mass spectrometry analysis. The aqueous methylglyoxal–ammonium sulfate system was used as a proxy for atmospheric aerosol; polar columns combined with a carbon dioxide and methanol mobile phase provided the most efficient separation. This method can be extended to other atmospheric systems.
Christian Tauber, Sophia Brilke, Peter Josef Wlasits, Paulus Salomon Bauer, Gerald Köberl, Gerhard Steiner, and Paul Martin Winkler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3659–3671,Short summary
In this paper we show that sodium chloride particles with a mobility diameter below 10 nm indicate different activation regimes. The results of our studies reveal that with increasing humidity the activation of NaCl particles with a standard butanol-based CPC can be enhanced. For Ag this humidity dependence could not be observed – an indicator for the importance of molecular interactions between seed and vapor molecules.
Theresa Haller, Christian Rentenberger, Jannik C. Meyer, Laura Felgitsch, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3503–3519,Short summary
In thermal–optical measurement techniques – widely used techniques to separate organic and elemental carbon – a filter sample is heated stepwise first in He and then in He+O2. Pyrolysis of organic material occurring during heating in He influences the results but is not fully understood. In this study, structural changes of carbonaceous material during a thermal–optical heating procedure are analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV–VIS and the integrating-sphere method.
Joseph L. Woo, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3395–3402,Short summary
We present a proof-of-concept method of concentrating aerosols in a continuous stream using an applied electric field. Potential enrichment was estimated using a trajectory model, predicting values of up to 65 % for 75–200 nm aerosol, using voltages of up to 30 kV. Experimental results using similar geometry yielded up to 15 % observed enrichment for the same conditions. These results imply that aerosol enrichment using an applied electric field can be achieved in continuous-flow applications.
Dario Massabò, Alessandro Altomari, Virginia Vernocchi, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3173–3182,
Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Evangelos Louvaris, Kalliopi Florou, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2733–2743,Short summary
A portable dual-smog-chamber system was developed using two identical pillow-shaped smog chambers surrounded by UV lamps. The system has been designed to use ambient air as the starting point of the experiments. It can be easily disassembled and transported, enabling the study of various atmospheric environments and it can be used with natural sunlight. The results of test experiments using ambient air are discussed as examples of applications of this system.
Franz Friebel and Amewu A. Mensah
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2647–2663,Short summary
Simulating atmospheric aging processes in the laboratory under atmospheric conditions is a challenging task. The main obstacle is achieving long observation times with a reasonable amount of technical and financial input. We adapted the concept of the continuous-flow stirred tank reactor in order to achieve long observation times (up to 16 h) in small chamber volumes (3m3). We successfully tested this concept by oxidation of soot particles with ozone.
Michael I. Cotterell, Andrew J. Orr-Ewing, Kate Szpek, Jim M. Haywood, and Justin M. Langridge
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2371–2385,Short summary
Photoacoustic spectroscopy provides measurements of absorption coefficient for aerosol and gas samples but requires careful calibration, and researchers often use concentrations of ozone. Recent work has shown that the bath gas composition impacts the accuracy of this calibration at visible wavelengths. We explore further the role of bath gas, demonstrating that the calibration accuracy is optimal for a bath gas composed of 20 % oxygen and 80 % nitrogen at wavelengths of 405, 514 and 658 nm.
Rachel E. O'Brien, Kelsey J. Ridley, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John T. Jayne, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Christopher L. Follett, Daniel J. Repeta, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1659–1671,Short summary
Analysis of the elemental composition of organic mixtures can provide insights into the sources and aging of environmental samples. Here we describe a method that allows characterization of this type of material using micrograms of material by a combination of a small-volume ultrasonic nebulizer and an aerosol mass spectrometer. This technique enables rapid analysis of complex organic mixtures using approximately an order of magnitude less sample than standard analyses.
Jessica A. Mirrielees and Sarah D. Brooks
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6389–6407,Short summary
Particles in the air, called aerosols, can participate in cloud formation and affect cloud properties. One way to study these particles is by determining their ability to uptake water, called hygroscopicity. Apparent hygroscopicity is one such measurement. This study evaluates how errors can arise in determining apparent hygroscopicity and how to avoid or minimize them when collecting data.
Anna T. Kunert, Mark Lamneck, Frank Helleis, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira L. Pöhlker, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6327–6337,Short summary
The new Twin-plate Ice Nucleation Assay with infrared detection for high-throughput droplet freezing experiments in microliter-sized droplets is introduced, which was tested and characterized with bacterial and fungal ice nuclei. It was applied to investigate the influence of chemical processing on the activity of biological ice nuclei, and aqueous extracts of atmospheric aerosols were studied for ice nuclei activity.
Dario Massabò, Silvia Giulia Danelli, Paolo Brotto, Antonio Comite, Camilla Costa, Andrea Di Cesare, Jean François Doussin, Federico Ferraro, Paola Formenti, Elena Gatta, Laura Negretti, Maddalena Oliva, Franco Parodi, Luigi Vezzulli, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5885–5900,
Alexander D. Harrison, Thomas F. Whale, Rupert Rutledge, Stephen Lamb, Mark D. Tarn, Grace C. E. Porter, Michael P. Adams, James B. McQuaid, George J. Morris, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5629–5641,Short summary
The detection of low concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) is challenging. Here we present a new technique (IR-NIPI) that is sensitive to low concentrations of INPs (> 0.01 L−1) and uses an infrared camera with a novel calibration to detect the freezing of experimental suspensions. IR-NIPI temperature measurements prove to be robust with a series of comparisons to thermocouple measurements. Experimental comparisons to other freezing assay instruments are also in agreement.
Andrea C. Wagner, Anton Bergen, Sophia Brilke, Claudia Fuchs, Markus Ernst, Jesica Hoker, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, Bertram Bühner, Joachim Curtius, and Andreas Kürten
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5489–5506,Short summary
Chemical analysis of sub-30 nm aerosol particles is important for understanding aerosol nucleation and early growth, yet it is still an experimental challenge. In this study, we present a novel device for size resolved chemical analysis of nucleation and Aitken mode particles (from ~10 to ~30 nm) while allowing gas phase measurements with the same detector. Particles are charged, size selected, electrostatically collected and then thermally desorbed in a carrier gas.
Michael Polen, Thomas Brubaker, Joshua Somers, and Ryan C. Sullivan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5315–5334,Short summary
Ice nucleation commonly studied using droplet freezing measurements suffers from artifacts caused by water impurities or substrate effects. We evaluate a series of substrates and water sources to find methods that reduce the background freezing temperature limit. The best performance was obtained from our new microfluidic device and hydrophobic glass surfaces, using filtered HPLC bottled water. We conclude with recommendations for best practices in droplet freezing experiments and data analysis.
Ta-Chih Hsiao, Li-Hao Young, Yu-Chun Tai, and Po-Kai Chang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4617–4626,Short summary
Ambient pressure and temperature can vary with location, which implies that classifying aerosol particle mass using APM might be influenced at high-altitude sites. On the other hand, when using the APM as a particle classifier coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, argon would be required as the carrier gas. Therefore, air, oxygen and carbon dioxide were selected as carrier gases to evaluate the effect of gas viscosity and the mean free path on the performance of APM.
Ramakrishna Ramisetty, Ahmed Abdelmonem, Xiaoli Shen, Harald Saathoff, Thomas Leisner, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4345–4360,Short summary
In this study we coupled a laser ablation aerosol time-of-flight (LAAPTOF) single-particle mass spectrometer, originally equipped with an excimer laser, to a femtosecond laser. The objective was to assess the influence of the higher laser power density of the femtosecond laser on ablation–ionization of atmospheric particles, ion signal, and ultimately quantitative abilities of the single-particle mass spectrometer.
Yue Zhang, Shachi Katira, Andrew Lee, Andrew T. Lambe, Timothy B. Onasch, Wen Xu, William A. Brooks, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Andrew Freedman, John T. Jayne, Doug R. Worsnop, Paul Davidovits, David Chandler, and Charles E. Kolb
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3479–3490,Short summary
We have adopted a new technique for measuring glass-forming properties of atmospherically relevant organic aerosols at submicron sizes and relatively low mass concentrations. Aerosol particles are deposited in the form of a thin film with interdigitated electrodes using electrostatic precipitation. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is used to measure the kinetically controlled glass transition temperatures of glycerol and citric acid aerosols with three atmospheric relevant cooling rates.
Shouming Zhou, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, Frank N. Keutsch, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3081–3089,
Xiaoli Shen, Ramakrishna Ramisetty, Claudia Mohr, Wei Huang, Thomas Leisner, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2325–2343,Short summary
This paper presents performance data and reference spectra from the commercially available single-particle mass spectrometer LAAPTOF. The main characteristics of the instrument, like its detection efficiency, are given for a wide particle size range. Furthermore, reference mass spectra for 32 well-defined different particle types relevant for atmospheric aerosol compounds are presented. It is shown that these reference mass spectra are very useful in analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles.
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Here we report on the development of a novel single-beam photothermal interferometer and its use in the measurement of aerosol light absorption. We demonstrate how light-absorbing gases can be used to calibrate the instrument and how this absorption is automatically subtracted during normal operation. The performance of the instrument is compared to a standard filter-based instrument using a black carbon test aerosol. The 60 s detection limit is found to be less than 10 Mm-1.
Here we report on the development of a novel single-beam photothermal interferometer and its use...