Articles | Volume 14, issue 2
Research article
12 Feb 2021
Research article |  | 12 Feb 2021

The Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment (PINE): a new online instrument for laboratory studies and automated long-term field observations of ice-nucleating particles

Ottmar Möhler, Michael Adams, Larissa Lacher, Franziska Vogel, Jens Nadolny, Romy Ullrich, Cristian Boffo, Tatjana Pfeuffer, Achim Hobl, Maximilian Weiß, Hemanth S. K. Vepuri, Naruki Hiranuma, and Benjamin J. Murray


Interactive discussion

Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Peer-review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision
AR by Ottmar Möhler on behalf of the Authors (14 Dec 2020)  Manuscript 
ED: Publish as is (21 Dec 2020) by Hang Su
AR by Ottmar Möhler on behalf of the Authors (21 Dec 2020)  Author's response   Manuscript 
Short summary
The Earth's climate is influenced by clouds, which are impacted by ice-nucleating particles (INPs), a minor fraction of atmospheric aerosols. INPs induce ice formation in clouds and thus often initiate precipitation formation. The Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment (PINE) is the first fully automated instrument to study cloud ice formation and to obtain long-term records of INPs. This is a timely development, and the capabilities it offers for research and atmospheric monitoring are significant.