Articles | Volume 14, issue 2
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-14-1143-2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-14-1143-2021
Research article
 | 
12 Feb 2021
Research article |  | 12 Feb 2021

The Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment (PINE): a new online instrument for laboratory studies and automated long-term field observations of ice-nucleating particles

Ottmar Möhler, Michael Adams, Larissa Lacher, Franziska Vogel, Jens Nadolny, Romy Ullrich, Cristian Boffo, Tatjana Pfeuffer, Achim Hobl, Maximilian Weiß, Hemanth S. K. Vepuri, Naruki Hiranuma, and Benjamin J. Murray

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Latest update: 21 Jun 2024
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Short summary
The Earth's climate is influenced by clouds, which are impacted by ice-nucleating particles (INPs), a minor fraction of atmospheric aerosols. INPs induce ice formation in clouds and thus often initiate precipitation formation. The Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment (PINE) is the first fully automated instrument to study cloud ice formation and to obtain long-term records of INPs. This is a timely development, and the capabilities it offers for research and atmospheric monitoring are significant.