Determination of car on-road black carbon and particle number emission factors and comparison between mobile and stationary measurements
- 1Aerosol d.o.o., Kamniška 41, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
- 2POLARIS research center, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano, Italy
- 3European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy
Abstract. We have used two methods for measuring emission factors (EFs) in real driving conditions on five cars in a controlled environment: the stationary method, where the investigated vehicle drives by the stationary measurement platform and the composition of the plume is measured, and the chasing method, where a mobile measurement platform drives behind the investigated vehicle. We measured EFs of black carbon and particle number concentration. The stationary method was tested for repeatability at different speeds and on a slope. The chasing method was tested on a test track and compared to the portable emission measurement system. We further developed the data processing algorithm for both methods, trying to improve consistency, determine the plume duration, limit the background influence and facilitate automatic processing of measurements. The comparison of emission factors determined by the two methods showed good agreement. EFs of a single car measured with either method have a specific distribution with a characteristic value and a long tail of super emissions. Measuring EFs at different speeds or slopes did not significantly influence the EFs of different cars; hence, we propose a new description of vehicle emissions that is not related to kinematic or engine parameters, and we rather describe the vehicle EF with a characteristic value and a super emission tail.