Articles | Volume 9, issue 5
20 May 2016
Research article | 20 May 2016
A microwave satellite water vapour column retrieval for polar winter conditions
Christopher Perro et al.
No articles found.
Maria Paola Cadeddu, Virendra Ghate, David Turner, and Thomas Surleta
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We analyze the variability of marine boundary layer moisture in the Eastern North Atlantic on a monthly and daily temporal scale and examine its fundamental role in the control of boundary layer cloudiness and precipitation. The study also highlights the complex interaction between large-scale and local processes controlling the boundary layer moisture and the importance of mesoscale vapor spatial distribution to support convection and precipitation.
Alexey B. Tikhomirov, Glen Lesins, and James R. Drummond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7123–7145,Short summary
Two commercial quadcopters (DJI Matrice 100 and M210 RTK) were equipped with an air temperature measurement system. They were flown at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, at 80° N latitude to study surface-based temperature inversion during February–March field campaigns in 2017 and 2020. It was demonstrated that the drones can be effectively used in the High Arctic to measure vertical temperature profiles up to 75 m off the ground.
Maria P. Cadeddu, Virendra P. Ghate, and Mario Mech
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1485–1499,Short summary
A combination of ground-based active and passive observations is used to partition cloud and precipitation liquid water path in precipitating stratocumulous clouds. Results show that neglecting scattering effects from drizzle drops leads to 8–15 % overestimation of the liquid amount in the cloud. In closed-cell systems only ~20 % of the available drizzle in the cloud falls below the cloud base, compared to ~40 % in open-cell systems.
Joelle Dionne, Knut von Salzen, Jason Cole, Rashed Mahmood, W. Richard Leaitch, Glen Lesins, Ian Folkins, and Rachel Y.-W. Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 29–43,Short summary
Low clouds persist in the summer Arctic, with important consequences for the radiation budget. We found that the ability of precipitation parameterizations to reproduce observed cloud properties was more variable than their ability to represent radiative effects. Our results show that cloud properties and their parameterizations affect the radiative effects of clouds.
Christopher Perro, Thomas J. Duck, Glen Lesins, Kimberly Strong, Penny M. Rowe, James R. Drummond, and Robert J. Sica
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
A satellite retrieval for water vapour column was adapted for use over different surfaces in the wintertime Arctic. The retrieval was validated at multiple locations where there was excellent agreement. Reanalyses were found to be 10–15 % drier compared to our water vapour retrieval. Reanalyses represent the present day understanding of the atmosphere so this discrepancy between reanalyses and our retrieval could have implications for the current understanding of the climate.
Ermanno Fionda, Maria Cadeddu, Vinia Mattioli, and Rosa Pacione
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the differences in integrated water vapour (IWV) measurements between Global Positioning System and other observing systems to characterize the uncertainties associated with GPS measurements in Finland. Results show that the GPS agrees with other instruments within 0.5 kg/m2 during winter. During summer the differences increase to 1.5 kg/m2 due to the spatial variability of water vapor in the observation region.
Y. Feng, V. R. Kotamarthi, R. Coulter, C. Zhao, and M. Cadeddu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 247–264,Short summary
Aerosol radiative effects are of great importance for climate studies over South Asia, such as the weakening of the South Asian monsoon in the 20th century. This study reveals the altitude dependence of commonly underestimated aerosol radiative properties over this region. It further demonstrates the importance of constraining aerosol vertical distributions and partitioning of scattering vs absorbing aerosols in simulating the subsequent regional dynamical and hydrological responses to aerosols.
M. D. Fielding, J. C. Chiu, R. J. Hogan, G. Feingold, E. Eloranta, E. J. O'Connor, and M. P. Cadeddu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2663–2683,
K. M. Sakamoto, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, J. W. Taylor, T. J. Duck, and J. R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1633–1646,
F. Madonna, M. Rosoldi, J. Güldner, A. Haefele, R. Kivi, M. P. Cadeddu, D. Sisterson, and G. Pappalardo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3813–3823,Short summary
The paper provides the community with criteria to quantify the value of complementary climate measurements and to assess how the uncertainty in a measurement of an ECV is reduced by measurement complementarity. The study demonstrates the potential of entropy and mutual correlation, defined in information theory as metrics for quantifying synergies, and shows that the random uncertainties of a single instrument time series of TCWV can be strongly reduced by including complementary measurements.
J. E. Franklin, J. R. Drummond, D. Griffin, J. R. Pierce, D. L. Waugh, P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. A. Walker, L. Chisholm, T. J. Duck, J. T. Hopper, Y. Blanchard, M. D. Gibson, K. R. Curry, K. M. Sakamoto, G. Lesins, L. Dan, J. Kliever, and A. Saha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8449–8460,
V. S. Manoharan, R. Kotamarthi, Y. Feng, and M. P. Cadeddu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1159–1165,
D. Griffin, K. A. Walker, J. E. Franklin, M. Parrington, C. Whaley, J. Hopper, J. R. Drummond, P. I. Palmer, K. Strong, T. J. Duck, I. Abboud, P. F. Bernath, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, K. R. Curry, L. Dan, E. Hyer, J. Kliever, G. Lesins, M. Maurice, A. Saha, K. Tereszchuk, and D. Weaver
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10227–10241,
M. P. Cadeddu, J. C. Liljegren, and D. D. Turner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2359–2372,
M. D. Gibson, J. R. Pierce, D. Waugh, J. S. Kuchta, L. Chisholm, T. J. Duck, J. T. Hopper, S. Beauchamp, G. H. King, J. E. Franklin, W. R. Leaitch, A. J. Wheeler, Z. Li, G. A. Gagnon, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7199–7213,
P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, P. F. Bernath, T. J. Duck, D. L. Waugh, D. W. Tarasick, S. Andrews, E. Aruffo, L. J. Bailey, E. Barrett, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, K. R. Curry, P. Di Carlo, L. Chisholm, L. Dan, G. Forster, J. E. Franklin, M. D. Gibson, D. Griffin, D. Helmig, J. R. Hopkins, J. T. Hopper, M. E. Jenkin, D. Kindred, J. Kliever, M. Le Breton, S. Matthiesen, M. Maurice, S. Moller, D. P. Moore, D. E. Oram, S. J. O'Shea, R. C. Owen, C. M. L. S. Pagniello, S. Pawson, C. J. Percival, J. R. Pierce, S. Punjabi, R. M. Purvis, J. J. Remedios, K. M. Rotermund, K. M. Sakamoto, A. M. da Silva, K. B. Strawbridge, K. Strong, J. Taylor, R. Trigwell, K. A. Tereszchuk, K. A. Walker, D. Weaver, C. Whaley, and J. C. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6239–6261,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalDetecting and quantifying methane emissions from oil and gas production: algorithm development with ground-truth calibration based on Sentinel-2 satellite imageryAn improved formula for the complete data fusionTUNER-compliant error estimation for MIPAS: methodologySynergistic retrieval and complete data fusion methods applied to simulated FORUM and IASI-NG measurementsRetrieval of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 from high-resolution FTIR observations at Hefei and comparisons with other independent datasetsEvaluation of the methane full-physics retrieval applied to TROPOMI ocean sun glint measurementsHarmonized retrieval of middle atmospheric ozone from two microwave radiometers in SwitzerlandAssessment of the error budget for stratospheric ozone profiles retrieved from OMPS limb scatter measurementsUnderstanding the variations and sources of CO, C2H2, C2H6, H2CO and HCN columns based on three years of new ground-based FTIR measurements at Xianghe, ChinaAlgorithm theoretical basis for ozone and sulfur dioxide retrievals from DSCOVR EPICImpact of 3D cloud structures on the atmospheric trace gas products from UV–Vis sounders – Part 2: Impact on NO2 retrieval and mitigation strategiesTropospheric ozone retrieval by a combination of TROPOMI/S5P measurements with BASCOE assimilated dataA new machine-learning-based analysis for improving satellite-retrieved atmospheric composition data: OMI SO2 as an exampleUse of machine learning to retrieve nitrogen dioxide with hyperspectral imagers in the ultraviolet and blue spectral rangeComplementing XCO2 imagery with ground-based CO2 and 14CO2 measurements to monitor CO2 emissions from fossil fuels on a regional to local scaleOn the potential of a neural-network-based approach for estimating XCO2 from OCO-2 measurementsThe Space Carbon Observatory (SCARBO) concept: assessment of XCO2 and XCH4 retrieval performanceImproved retrieval of SO2 plume height from TROPOMI using an iterative Covariance-Based Retrieval AlgorithmImpact of instrumental line shape characterization on ozone monitoring by FTIR spectrometrySynergetic use of IASI profile and TROPOMI total-column level 2 methane retrieval productsComment on “Synergetic use of IASI profile and TROPOMI total-column level 2 methane retrieval products” by Schneider et al. (2022)An optimal estimation-based retrieval of upper atmospheric oxygen airglow and temperature from SCIAMACHY limb observationsOzone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) collection 4: establishing a 17-year-long series of detrended level-1b dataImpact of 3D cloud structures on the atmospheric trace gas products from UV–Vis sounders – Part 3: Bias estimate using synthetic and observational dataRetrieval of greenhouse gases from GOSAT and GOSAT-2 using the FOCAL algorithmSynergy of Using Nadir and Limb Instruments for Tropospheric Ozone Monitoring (SUNLIT)DARCLOS: a cloud shadow detection algorithm for TROPOMICombined UV and IR ozone profile retrieval from TROPOMI and CrIS measurementsImproved ozone monitoring by ground-based FTIR spectrometryOn the consistency of methane retrievals using the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and multiple spectroscopic databasesThe MOPITT Version 9 CO product: sampling enhancements and validationRetrieving H2O/HDO columns over cloudy and clear-sky scenes from the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)Sentinel-5P TROPOMI NO2 retrieval: impact of version v2.2 improvements and comparisons with OMI and ground-based dataLevel 2 processor and auxiliary data for ESA Version 8 final full mission analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISATOptimized Umkehr profile algorithm for ozone trend analysesMapping methane plumes at very high spatial resolution with the WorldView-3 satelliteMapping the spatial distribution of NO2 with in situ and remote sensing instruments during the Munich NO2 imaging campaignImproved monitoring of shipping NO2 with TROPOMI: decreasing NOx emissions in European seas during the COVID-19 pandemicSimulated multispectral temperature and atmospheric composition retrievals for the JPL GEO-IR SounderTruth and uncertainty. A critical discussion of the error concept versus the uncertainty conceptCalculating the vertical column density of O4 during daytime from surface values of pressure, temperature, and relative humidityAutomated detection of atmospheric NO2 plumes from satellite data: a tool to help infer anthropogenic combustion emissionsThe FORUM end-to-end simulator project: architecture and resultsNew sampling strategy mitigates a solar-geometry-induced bias in sub-kilometre vapour scaling statistics derived from imaging spectroscopyRemote sensing of methane plumes: instrument tradeoff analysis for detecting and quantifying local sources at global scaleThe ESA MIPAS/Envisat level2-v8 dataset: 10 years of measurements retrieved with ORM v8.22Phosgene distribution derived from MIPAS ESA v8 data: intercomparisons and trendsGlyoxal tropospheric column retrievals from TROPOMI – multi-satellite intercomparison and ground-based validationRetrieval algorithm for OClO from TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) by differential optical absorption spectroscopyTracking aerosols and SO2 clouds from the Raikoke eruption: 3D view from satellite observations
Zhan Zhang, Evan D. Sherwin, Daniel J. Varon, and Adam R. Brandt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7155–7169,Short summary
This work developed a multi-band–multi-pass–multi-comparison-date Sentinel-2 methane retrieval algorithm, and the method was calibrated by data from a controlled release test. To our knowledge, this is the first study that validates the performance of a Sentinel-2 methane detection algorithm by calibration with a ground-truth testing. It illustrates the potential for additional validation with systematic future experiments wherein algorithms can be tuned to meet different detection expectations.
Simone Ceccherini, Nicola Zoppetti, and Bruno Carli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7039–7048,Short summary
A new formula of the complete data fusion that, differently from the original one, does not contain matrices that can be singular is discussed. We show that the new formula is a generalization of the original one and analytically and numerically, using a real IASI ozone measurement, derive the errors made with the old formula when the generalized inverse of singular matrices is used. An operational version of the new formula that includes interpolation and coincidence errors is also provided.
Thomas von Clarmann, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Bernd Funke, Michael Kiefer, Anne Kleinert, Gabriele P. Stiller, Andrea Linden, and Sylvia Kellmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6991–7018,Short summary
Errors of profiles of temperature and mixing ratios retrieved from spectra recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding are estimated. All known and quantified sources of uncertainty are considered. Some ongoing uncertaities contribute to both the random and to the systematic errors. In some cases, one source of uncertainty propagates onto the error budget via multiple pathways. Problems arise when the correlations of errors to be propagated are unknown.
Marco Ridolfi, Cecilia Tirelli, Simone Ceccherini, Claudio Belotti, Ugo Cortesi, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6723–6737,Short summary
Synergistic retrieval (SR) and complete data fusion (CDF) methods exploit the complementarity of coinciding remote-sensing measurements. We assess the performance of the SR and CDF methods on the basis of synthetic measurements of the FORUM and IASI-NG missions. In the case of perfectly matching measurements, SR and CDF results differ by less than 1 / 10 of the error due to measurement noise. In the case of a realistic mismatch, the two methods show differences in the order of their error bars.
Xiangyu Zeng, Wei Wang, Cheng Liu, Changgong Shan, Yu Xie, Peng Wu, Qianqian Zhu, Minqiang Zhou, Martine De Mazière, Emmanuel Mahieu, Irene Pardo Cantos, Jamal Makkor, and Alexander Polyakov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6739–6754,Short summary
CFC-11 and CFC-12, which are classified as ozone-depleting substances, also have high global warming potentials. This paper describes obtaining the CFC-11 and CFC-12 total columns from the solar spectra based on ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at Hefei, China. The seasonal variation and annual trend of the two gases are analyzed, and then the data are compared with other independent datasets.
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Mari C. Martinez-Velarte, Andre Butz, Otto P. Hasekamp, Lianghai Wu, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6585–6603,Short summary
The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) performs observations over ocean in every orbit, enhancing the monitoring capabilities of methane from space. In the sun glint geometry the mirror-like reflection at the water surface provides a signal that is high enough to retrieve methane with high accuracy and precision. We present 4 years of methane concentrations over the ocean, and we assess its quality. We also show the importance of ocean observations to quantify total CH4 emissions.
Eric Sauvageat, Eliane Maillard Barras, Klemens Hocke, Alexander Haefele, and Axel Murk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6395–6417,Short summary
We present new harmonized ozone time series from two ground-based microwave radiometers in Switzerland. The new series consist of hourly ozone profiles in the middle atmosphere (~ 20–70 km) from 2009 until 2021. Cross-validation of the new data series shows the benefit of the harmonization process compared to the previous versions. Comparisons with collocated satellite observations is used to further validate these time series for long-term ozone monitoring over central Europe.
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Victor Gorshelev, Alexandra Laeng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5949–5967,Short summary
This paper characterizes the uncertainties affecting the ozone profiles retrieved at the University of Bremen through OMPS limb satellite observations. An accurate knowledge of the uncertainties is relevant for the validation of the product and to correctly interpret the retrieval results. We investigate several sources of uncertainties, estimate a total random and systematic component, and verify the consistency of the combined OMPS-MLS total uncertainty.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Pucai Wang, Corinne Vigouroux, Qichen Ni, Christian Hermans, Bart Dils, Nicolas Kumps, Weidong Nan, and Martine De Mazière
The ground-based FTIR measurements at Xianghe provide carbon monoxide (CO), acetylene (C2H2), ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns between June 2018 and November 2021. The retrieval strategies, information, and uncertainties of these five important trace gases are presented and discussed. This study provides insight into the time series, variations, and correlations of these five species in North China.
Xinzhou Huang and Kai Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5877–5915,Short summary
This paper describes the algorithm for O3 and SO2 retrievals from DSCOVR EPIC. Algorithm advances, including the improved O3 profile representation and the regulated direct fitting inversion technique, improve the accuracy of O3 and SO2 from the multi-channel measurements of DSCOVR EPIC. A thorough error analysis is provided to quantify O3 and SO2 retrieval uncertainties due to various error sources and simplified algorithm physics treatments.
Huan Yu, Claudia Emde, Arve Kylling, Ben Veihelmann, Bernhard Mayer, Kerstin Stebel, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5743–5768,Short summary
In this study, we have investigated the impact of 3D clouds on the tropospheric NO2 retrieval from UV–visible sensors. We applied standard NO2 retrieval methods including cloud corrections to synthetic data generated by the 3D radiative transfer model. A sensitivity study was done for synthetic data, and dependencies on various parameters were investigated. Possible mitigation strategies were investigated and compared based on 3D simulations and observed data.
Klaus-Peter Heue, Diego Loyola, Fabian Romahn, Walter Zimmer, Simon Chabrillat, Quentin Errera, Jerry Ziemke, and Natalya Kramarova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5563–5579,Short summary
To retrieve tropospheric ozone column information, we subtract stratospheric column data of BASCOE from TROPOMI/S5P total ozone columns. The new S5P-BASCOE data agree well with existing tropospheric data like OMPS-MERRA-2. The data are also compared to ozone soundings. The tropospheric ozone columns show the expected temporal and spatial patterns. We will also apply the algorithm to future UV nadir missions like Sentinel 4 or 5 or to recent and ongoing missions like GOME_2 or OMI.
Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Fei Liu, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Vitali Fioletov, and Chris McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5497–5514,Short summary
Satellite observations provide information on the sources of SO2, an important pollutant that affects both air quality and climate. However, these observations suffer from relatively poor data quality due to weak signals of SO2. Here, we use a machine learning technique to analyze satellite SO2 observations in order to reduce the noise and artifacts over relatively clean areas while keeping the signals near pollution sources. This leads to significant improvement in satellite SO2 data.
Joanna Joiner, Sergey Marchenko, Zachary Fasnacht, Lok Lamsal, Can Li, Alexander Vasilkov, and Nickolay Krotkov
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important trace gas for both air quality and climate. NO2 affects satellite ocean color products. A new ocean color instrument - OCI (ocean color instrument) - will be launched in 2024 on a NASA satellite. We show that it will be possible to measure NO2 from OCI even though it was not designed for this. The techniques we developed here, based on machine learning, can also be applied to instruments already in space to speed up algorithms and reduce effects of noise.
Elise Potier, Grégoire Broquet, Yilong Wang, Diego Santaren, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Julia Marshall, Philippe Ciais, François-Marie Bréon, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5261–5288,Short summary
Atmospheric inversion at local–regional scales over Europe and pseudo-data assimilation are used to evaluate how CO2 and 14CO2 ground-based measurement networks could complement satellite CO2 imagers to monitor fossil fuel (FF) CO2 emissions. This combination significantly improves precision in the FF emission estimates in areas with a dense network but does not strongly support the separation of the FF from the biogenic signals or the spatio-temporal extrapolation of the satellite information.
François-Marie Bréon, Leslie David, Pierre Chatelanaz, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5219–5234,Short summary
The estimate of atmospheric CO2 from space measurement is difficult. Current methods are based on a detailed description of the atmospheric radiative transfer. These are affected by significant biases and errors and are very computer intensive. Instead we have proposed using a neural network approach. A first attempt led to confusing results. Here we provide an interpretation for these results and describe a new version that leads to high-quality estimates.
Matthieu Dogniaux, Cyril Crevoisier, Silvère Gousset, Étienne Le Coarer, Yann Ferrec, Laurence Croizé, Lianghai Wu, Otto Hasekamp, Bojan Sic, and Laure Brooker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4835–4858,Short summary
The Space Carbon Observatory (SCARBO) concept proposes a constellation of small satellites that would carry a miniaturized Fabry–Pérot imaging interferometer named NanoCarb and an aerosol instrument named SPEXone. In this work, we assess the performance of this concept for the retrieval of the total weighted columns of CO2 and CH4 and show the interest of adding the SPEXone aerosol instrument to improve the CO2 and CH4 column retrieval.
Nicolas Theys, Christophe Lerot, Hugues Brenot, Jeroen van Gent, Isabelle De Smedt, Lieven Clarisse, Mike Burton, Matthew Varnam, Catherine Hayer, Benjamin Esse, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4801–4817,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide plume height after a volcanic eruption is an important piece of information for many different scientific studies and applications. Satellite UV retrievals are useful in this respect, but available algorithms have shown so far limited sensitivity to SO2 height. Here we present a new technique to improve the retrieval of SO2 plume height for SO2 columns as low as 5 DU. We demonstrate the algorithm using TROPOMI measurements and compare with other height estimates.
Omaira E. García, Esther Sanromá, Frank Hase, Matthias Schneider, Sergio Fabián León-Luis, Thomas Blumenstock, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Carlos Torres, Natalia Prats, Alberto Redondas, and Virgilio Carreño
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4547–4567,Short summary
Retrieving high-precision concentrations of atmospheric trace gases from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometry requires a precise knowledge of the instrumental performance. In this context, this paper examines the impact on the ozone (O3) retrievals of several approaches used to characterise the instrumental line shape (ILS) function of ground-based FTIR spectrometers within NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change).
Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Qiansi Tu, Christopher J. Diekmann, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Amelie N. Röhling, Frank Hase, Darko Dubravica, Omaira E. García, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Tobias Borsdorff, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, André Butz, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Thomas Laemmel, Michel Ramonet, Cyril Crevoisier, Jérome Pernin, Martin Steinbacher, Frank Meinhardt, Kimberly Strong, Debra Wunch, Thorsten Warneke, Coleen Roehl, Paul O. Wennberg, Isamu Morino, Laura T. Iraci, Kei Shiomi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4339–4371,Short summary
We present a computationally very efficient method for the synergetic use of level 2 remote-sensing data products. We apply the method to IASI vertical profile and TROPOMI total column space-borne methane observations and thus gain sensitivity for the tropospheric methane partial columns, which is not achievable by the individual use of TROPOMI and IASI. These synergetic effects are evaluated theoretically and empirically by inter-comparisons to independent references of TCCON, AirCore, and GAW.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4407–4410,Short summary
The equivalence between the data fusion performed using the Kalman filter and the Complete Data Fusion has been proved, and a generalization of the Complete Data Fusion formula, that is valid also in the case that the noise error covariance matrices of the fused products are singular, is derived. The two methods are also equivalent to the measurement–space–solution data fusion method, and for moderately nonlinear problems, the three methods are all equivalent to the simultaneous retrieval.
Kang Sun, Mahdi Yousefi, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Gonzalo González Abad, Iouli E. Gordon, Xiong Liu, Ewan O'Sullivan, Christopher E. Sioris, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3721–3745,Short summary
This study of upper atmospheric airglow from oxygen is motivated by the need to measure oxygen simultaneously with methane and CO2 in satellite remote sensing. We provide an accurate understanding of the spatial, temporal, and spectral distribution of airglow emissions, which will help in the satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases and constraining the chemical and physical processes in the upper atmosphere.
Quintus Kleipool, Nico Rozemeijer, Mirna van Hoek, Jonatan Leloux, Erwin Loots, Antje Ludewig, Emiel van der Plas, Daley Adrichem, Raoul Harel, Simon Spronk, Mark ter Linden, Glen Jaross, David Haffner, Pepijn Veefkind, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3527–3553,Short summary
A new collection-4 dataset for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) mission has been established to supersede the current collection-3 level-1b (L1b) data, produced with a newly developed L01b data processor based on the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) L01b processor. The collection-4 L1b data have a similar output format to the TROPOMI L1b data for easy connection of the data series. Many insights from the TROPOMI algorithms, as well as from OMI collection-3 usage, were included.
Arve Kylling, Claudia Emde, Huan Yu, Michel van Roozendael, Kerstin Stebel, Ben Veihelmann, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3481–3495,Short summary
Atmospheric trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) may be measured by satellite instruments sensitive to solar ultraviolet–visible radiation reflected from Earth and its atmosphere. For a single pixel, clouds in neighbouring pixels may affect the radiation and hence the retrieved trace gas amount. We found that for a solar zenith angle less than about 40° this cloud-related NO2 bias is typically below 10 %, while for larger solar zenith angles the NO2 bias is on the order of tens of percent.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Oliver Schneising, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Robert J. Parker, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Coleen Roehl, Constantina Rousogenous, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3401–3437,Short summary
We present a new version (v3) of the GOSAT and GOSAT-2 FOCAL products. In addition to an increased number of XCO2 data, v3 also includes products for XCH4 (full-physics and proxy), XH2O and the relative ratio of HDO to H2O (δD). For GOSAT-2, we also present first XCO and XN2O results. All FOCAL data products show reasonable spatial distribution and temporal variations and agree well with TCCON. Global XN2O maps show a gradient from the tropics to higher latitudes on the order of 15 ppb.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Risto Hänninen, Mikhail Sofiev, Monika Szeląg, Hei Shing Lee, Johanna Tamminen, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3193–3212,Short summary
We present tropospheric ozone column datasets that have been created using combinations of total ozone column from OMI and TROPOMI with stratospheric ozone column datasets from several available limb-viewing instruments (MLS, OSIRIS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, OMPS-LP, GOMOS). The main results are (i) several methodological developments, (ii) new tropospheric ozone column datasets from OMI and TROPOMI, and (iii) a new high-resolution dataset of ozone profiles from limb satellite instruments.
Victor J. H. Trees, Ping Wang, Piet Stammes, Lieuwe G. Tilstra, David P. Donovan, and A. Pier Siebesma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3121–3140,Short summary
Cloud shadows are observed by the TROPOMI satellite instrument as a result of its high spatial resolution. These shadows contaminate TROPOMI's air quality measurements, because shadows are generally not taken into account in the models that are used for aerosol and trace gas retrievals. We present the Detection AlgoRithm for CLOud Shadows (DARCLOS) for TROPOMI, which is the first cloud shadow detection algorithm for a satellite spectrometer.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Thierry Leblanc, Gerard Ancellet, Michael J. Newchurch, Shi Kuang, Rigel Kivi, Matthew B. Tully, Roeland Van Malderen, Ankie Piters, Bogumil Kois, René Stübi, and Pavla Skrivankova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2955–2978,Short summary
Vertical ozone profiles from combined spectral measurements in the UV and IR spectral ranges were retrieved by using data from TROPOMI/S5P and CrIS/Suomi-NPP. The vertical resolution and accuracy of the ozone profiles are improved by combining both wavelength ranges compared to retrievals limited to UV or IR spectral data only. The advancement of our TOPAS algorithm for combined measurements is required because in the UV-only retrieval the vertical resolution in the troposphere is very limited.
Omaira Elena García, Esther Sanromá, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Sergio Fabián León-Luis, Thomas Blumenstock, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Alberto Redondas, Virgilio Carreño, Carlos Torres, and Natalia Prats
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2557–2577,Short summary
Accurate observations of atmospheric ozone (O3) are essential to monitor in detail its key role in atmospheric chemistry. In this context, this paper has assessed the effect of using different retrieval strategies on the quality of O3 products from ground-based NDACC FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometry, with the aim of providing an improved O3 retrieval that could be applied at any NDACC FTIR station.
Edward Malina, Ben Veihelmann, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, and Isamu Morino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2377–2406,Short summary
Methane retrievals from remote sensing instruments are fundamentally based on spectroscopic parameters, which indicate spectral-line positions, and their characteristics. These parameters are stored in several databases that vary in their make-up. Here we assess how concentrations of methane isotopologues measured from the same Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) instruments vary across a range of spectral windows using different spectroscopic databases and comment on the implications.
Merritt Deeter, Gene Francis, John Gille, Debbie Mao, Sara Martínez-Alonso, Helen Worden, Dan Ziskin, James Drummond, Róisín Commane, Glenn Diskin, and Kathryn McKain
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2325–2344,Short summary
The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite instrument uses remote sensing to obtain retrievals (measurements) of carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere. This paper describes the latest MOPITT data product, Version 9. Globally, the number of daytime MOPITT retrievals over land has increased by 30 %–40 % compared to the previous product. The reported improvements in the MOPITT product should benefit a wide variety of applications including studies of pollution sources.
Andreas Schneider, Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Alba Lorente, Franziska Aemisegger, David Noone, Dean Henze, Rigel Kivi, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2251–2275,Short summary
This paper presents an extended H₂O/HDO total column dataset from short-wave infrared measurements by TROPOMI including cloudy and clear-sky scenes. Coverage is tremendously increased compared to previous TROPOMI HDO datasets. The new dataset is validated against recent ground-based FTIR measurements from TCCON and against aircraft measurements over the ocean. The use of the new dataset is demonstrated with a case study of a cold air outbreak in January 2020.
Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Tijl Verhoelst, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Maarten Sneep, Mark ter Linden, Antje Ludewig, K. Folkert Boersma, and J. Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2037–2060,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the main data products measured by the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite. This study describes improvements in the TROPOMI NO2 retrieval leading to version v2.2, operational since 1 July 2021. It compares results with previous versions v1.2–v1.4 and with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and ground-based measurements.
Piera Raspollini, Enrico Arnone, Flavio Barbara, Massimo Bianchini, Bruno Carli, Simone Ceccherini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Angelika Dehn, Stefano Della Fera, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Anu Dudhia, Jean-Marie Flaud, Marco Gai, Michael Kiefer, Manuel López-Puertas, David P. Moore, Alessandro Piro, John J. Remedios, Marco Ridolfi, Harjinder Sembhi, Luca Sgheri, and Nicola Zoppetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1871–1901,Short summary
The MIPAS instrument onboard the ENVISAT satellite provided 10 years of measurements of the atmospheric emission al limb that allow for the retrieval of latitude- and altitude-resolved atmospheric composition. We describe the improvements implemented in the retrieval algorithm used for the full mission reanalysis, which allows for the generation of the global distributions of 21 atmospheric constituents plus temperature with increased accuracy with respect to previously generated data.
Irina Petropavlovskikh, Koji Miyagawa, Audra McClure-Beegle, Bryan Johnson, Jeannette Wild, Susan Strahan, Krzysztof Wargan, Richard Querel, Lawrence Flynn, Eric Beach, Gerard Ancellet, and Sophie Godin-Beekmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1849–1870,Short summary
The Montreal Protocol and its amendments assure the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer that protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. To monitor ozone recovery, multiple satellites and ground-based observational platforms collect ozone data. The changes in instruments can influence the continuation of the ozone data. We discuss a method to remove instrumental artifacts from ozone records to improve the internal consistency among multiple observational records.
Elena Sánchez-García, Javier Gorroño, Itziar Irakulis-Loitxate, Daniel J. Varon, and Luis Guanter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1657–1674,Short summary
This study seeks to present the as-yet-unknown potential use of WorldView-3 for the mapping of methane point source emissions. The proposed retrieval methodology is based on the idea that the spectral channels not affected by methane can be used to predict the methane-affected band through regression analysis. The results show the precise location of 26 independent point emissions over different methane hotspot regions worldwide, which prove the game-changing potential that this mission entails.
Gerrit Kuhlmann, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Ying Zhu, Marc Schwaerzel, Steffen Dörner, Jia Chen, Andreas Hueni, Duc Hai Nguyen, Alexander Damm, Annette Schütt, Florian Dietrich, Dominik Brunner, Cheng Liu, Brigitte Buchmann, Thomas Wagner, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1609–1629,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an air pollutant whose concentration often exceeds air quality guideline values, especially in urban areas. To map the spatial distribution of NO2 in Munich, we conducted the Munich NO2 Imaging Campaign (MuNIC), where NO2 was measured with stationary, mobile, and airborne in situ and remote sensing instruments. The campaign provides a unique dataset that has been used to compare the different instruments and to study the spatial variability of NO2 and its sources.
Tobias Christoph Valentin Werner Riess, Klaas Folkert Boersma, Jasper van Vliet, Wouter Peters, Maarten Sneep, Henk Eskes, and Jos van Geffen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1415–1438,Short summary
This paper reports on improved monitoring of ship nitrogen oxide emissions by TROPOMI. With its fantastic resolution we can identify lanes of ship nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution not detected from space before. The quality of TROPOMI NO2 data over sea is improved further by recent upgrades in cloud retrievals and the use of sun glint scenes. Lastly, we study the impact of COVID-19 on ship NO2 in European seas and compare the found reductions to emission estimates gained from ship-specific data.
Vijay Natraj, Ming Luo, Jean-Francois Blavier, Vivienne H. Payne, Derek J. Posselt, Stanley P. Sander, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Jessica L. Neu, Denis Tremblay, Longtao Wu, Jacola A. Roman, Yen-Hung Wu, and Leonard I. Dorsky
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1251–1267,Short summary
High-fidelity monitoring and forecast of air quality and the hydrological cycle require understanding the vertical distribution of temperature, humidity, and trace gases at high spatiotemporal resolution. We describe a new instrument concept, called the JPL GEO-IR Sounder, that would provide this information for the first time from a single instrument platform. Simulations demonstrate the benefits of combining measurements from multiple wavelengths for this purpose from geostationary orbit.
Thomas von Clarmann, Steven Compernolle, and Frank Hase
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1145–1157,Short summary
Contrary to the claims put forward in
Evaluation of measurement data – Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurementissued by the JCGM, the error concept and the uncertainty concept are the same. Arguments in favor of the contrary were found not to be compelling. Neither was any evidence presented that
uncertaintiesdefine a different relation between the measured and true values, nor is a Bayesian concept beyond the mere subjective probability referred to.
Steffen Beirle, Christian Borger, Steffen Dörner, Vinod Kumar, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 987–1006,Short summary
We present a formalism that relates the vertical column density (VCD) of the oxygen collision complex O4 to surface values of temperature and pressure, based on physical laws. In addition, we propose an empirical modification which also accounts for surface relative humidity (RH). This allows for simple and quick but still accurate calculation of the O4 VCD without the need for constructing full vertical profiles, which is expected to be useful in particular for MAX-DOAS applications.
Douglas P. Finch, Paul I. Palmer, and Tianran Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 721–733,Short summary
We developed a machine learning model to detect plumes of nitrogen dioxide satellite observations over 2 years. We find over 310 000 plumes, mainly over cities, industrial regions, and areas of oil and gas production. Our model performs well in comparison to other datasets and in some cases finds emissions that are not included in other datasets. This method could be used to help locate and measure emission hotspots across the globe and help inform climate policies.
Luca Sgheri, Claudio Belotti, Maya Ben-Yami, Giovanni Bianchini, Bernardo Carnicero Dominguez, Ugo Cortesi, William Cossich, Samuele Del Bianco, Gianluca Di Natale, Tomás Guardabrazo, Dulce Lajas, Tiziano Maestri, Davide Magurno, Hilke Oetjen, Piera Raspollini, and Cristina Sgattoni
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 573–604,Short summary
The FORUM instrument will look at the Earth's atmosphere from a satellite, covering a spectral range responsible for about 95 % of the radiation lost by our planet. FORUM helps to measure the imbalance between incoming and outgoing radiation that is responsible for the increasing average temperatures on Earth. The end-to-end simulator is a chain of codes that simulates the FORUM measurement process. The goal of the project is to study how the instrument reacts to different retrieval conditions.
Mark T. Richardson, David R. Thompson, Marcin J. Kurowski, and Matthew D. Lebsock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 117–129,Short summary
Sunlight can pass diagonally through the atmosphere, cutting through the 3-D water vapour field in a way that
smears2-D maps of imaging spectroscopy vapour retrievals. In simulations we show how this smearing is
away fromthe Sun, so calculating
across the solar direction allows sub-kilometre information about water vapour's spatial scaling to be calculated. This could be tested by airborne campaigns and used to obtain new information from upcoming spaceborne data products.
Siraput Jongaramrungruang, Georgios Matheou, Andrew K. Thorpe, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, and Christian Frankenberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7999–8017,Short summary
This study shows how precision error and bias in column methane retrieval change with different instrument specifications and the impact of spectrally complex surface albedos on retrievals. We show how surface interferences can be mitigated with an optimal spectral resolution and a higher polynomial degree in a retrieval process. The findings can inform future satellite instrument designs to have robust observations capable of separating real CH4 plume enhancements from surface interferences.
Bianca Maria Dinelli, Piera Raspollini, Marco Gai, Luca Sgheri, Marco Ridolfi, Simone Ceccherini, Flavio Barbara, Nicola Zoppetti, Elisa Castelli, Enzo Papandrea, Paolo Pettinari, Angelika Dehn, Anu Dudhia, Michael Kiefer, Alessandro Piro, Jean-Marie Flaud, Manuel López-Puertas, David Moore, John Remedios, and Massimo Bianchini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7975–7998,Short summary
The level-2 v8 database from the measurements of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), aboard the European Space Agency Envisat satellite, containing atmospheric fields of pressure, temperature, and volume mixing ratio of 21 trace gases, is described in this paper. The database covers all the measurements acquired by MIPAS (from July 2002 to April 2012). The number of species included makes it of particular importance for the studies of stratospheric chemistry.
Paolo Pettinari, Flavio Barbara, Simone Ceccherini, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Marco Gai, Piera Raspollini, Luca Sgheri, Massimo Valeri, Gerald Wetzel, Nicola Zoppetti, and Marco Ridolfi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7959–7974,Short summary
Phosgene (COCl2) is a toxic gas whose presence is a consequence of human activity. Besides its direct injection in the troposphere, stratospheric COCl2 is produced from the decomposition of CCl4, an anthropogenic gas regulated by the Montreal Protocol. As a consequence, COCl2 negative trends characterize the lower and part of the middle stratosphere. However, we find positive trends in the upper troposphere, demonstrating the non-negligible role of other Cl-containing species not yet regulated.
Christophe Lerot, François Hendrick, Michel Van Roozendael, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Andreas Richter, Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Huan Yu, Jeroen Van Gent, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Pieter Valks, Diego Loyola, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Thomas Wagner, Stefan F. Schreier, Vinayak Sinha, Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7775–7807,Short summary
Global measurements of glyoxal tropospheric columns from the satellite instrument TROPOMI are presented. Such measurements can contribute to the estimation of atmospheric emissions of volatile organic compounds. This new glyoxal product has been fully characterized with a comprehensive error budget, with comparison with other satellite data sets as well as with validation based on independent ground-based remote sensing glyoxal observations.
Jānis Puķīte, Christian Borger, Steffen Dörner, Myojeong Gu, Udo Frieß, Andreas Carlos Meier, Carl-Fredrik Enell, Uwe Raffalski, Andreas Richter, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7595–7625,Short summary
Chlorine dioxide (OClO) is used as an indicator for chlorine activation. We present a new differential optical absorption spectroscopy retrieval algorithm for OClO from measurements of TROPOMI on the Sentinel-5P satellite. To achieve a substantially improved accuracy for the weak absorber OClO, we consider several additional fit parameters accounting for various higher-order spectral effects. The retrieved OClO slant column densities are compared with ground-based zenith sky measurements.
Nick Gorkavyi, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Leslie Lait, Peter Colarco, Simon Carn, Matthew DeLand, Paul Newman, Mark Schoeberl, Ghassan Taha, Omar Torres, Alexander Vasilkov, and Joanna Joiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7545–7563,Short summary
The 21 June 2019 eruption of the Raikoke volcano produced significant amounts of volcanic aerosols (sulfate and ash) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas that penetrated into the lower stratosphere. We showed that the amount of SO2 decreases with a characteristic period of 8–18 d and the peak of sulfate aerosol lags the initial peak of SO2 by 1.5 months. We also examined the dynamics of an unusual stratospheric coherent circular cloud of SO2 and aerosol observed from 18 July to 22 September 2019.
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A new microwave satellite water vapour retrieval method for use in the Arctic winter has been developed that uses auxiliary information for atmospheric conditions. When compared to ground-based measurements, the new retrieval has a smaller root mean square deviation than other satellite measurement techniques and can produce high-resolution pan-Arctic water vapour column maps.
A new microwave satellite water vapour retrieval method for use in the Arctic winter has been...