Articles | Volume 14, issue 12
30 Nov 2021
Research article | 30 Nov 2021
Support vector machine tropical wind speed retrieval in the presence of rain for Ku-band wind scatterometry
Xingou Xu and Ad Stoffelen
No articles found.
Haichen Zuo, Charlotte Bay Hasager, Ioanna Karagali, Ad Stoffelen, Gert-Jan Marseille, and Jos de Kloe
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Aeolus satellite was launched in 2018 for global wind profile measurement. After the successful operation, the error characteristics of Aeolus wind products has not yet been studied over Australia. To complement earlier validation studies, we evaluated the Aeolus Level-2B11 wind product over Australia with ground-based wind profiling radar measurements and numerical weather prediction model equivalents. The results show that the Aeolus can detect winds with sufficient accuracy over Australia.
Boming Liu, Jianping Guo, Wei Gong, Yong Zhang, Lijuan Shi, Yingying Ma, Jian Li, Xiaoran Guo, Ad Stoffelen, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Aeolus is the first satellite mission to directly observe wind profile information on a global scale. However, Aeolus wind products over China were thus far not evaluated by in-situ comparison. This work is the comparison of wind speed on a large scale between the Aeolus, ERA5 and RS , shedding important light on the data application of Aeolus wind products.
Jianping Guo, Jian Zhang, Kun Yang, Hong Liao, Shaodong Zhang, Kaiming Huang, Yanmin Lv, Jia Shao, Tao Yu, Bing Tong, Jian Li, Tianning Su, Steve H. L. Yim, Ad Stoffelen, Panmao Zhai, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17079–17097,Short summary
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the troposphere, and boundary layer height (BLH) is the depth of the PBL and is of critical importance to the dispersion of air pollution. The study presents the first near-global BLH climatology by using high-resolution (5-10 m) radiosonde measurements. The variations in BLH exhibit large spatial and temporal dependence, with a peak at 17:00 local solar time. The most promising reanalysis product is ERA-5 in terms of modeling BLH.
Jianping Guo, Boming Liu, Wei Gong, Lijuan Shi, Yong Zhang, Yingying Ma, Jian Zhang, Tianmeng Chen, Kaixu Bai, Ad Stoffelen, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2945–2958,Short summary
Vertical wind profiles are crucial to a wide range of atmospheric disciplines. Aeolus is the first satellite mission to directly observe wind profile information on a global scale. However, Aeolus wind products over China have thus far not been evaluated by in situ comparison. This work is expected to let the public and science community better know the Aeolus wind products and to encourage use of these valuable data in future research and applications.
Boming Liu, Jianping Guo, Wei Gong, Yong Zhang, Lijuan Shi, Yingying Ma, Jian Li, Xiaoran Guo, Ad Stoffelen, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Vertical wind profiles are crucial to a wide range of atmospheric disciplines. Aeolus is the first satellite mission to directly observe wind profile information on a global scale. However, Aeolus wind products over China were thus far not evaluated by in-situ comparison. This work is expected to let the public and science community better know the Aeolus wind products and to encourage use of these valuable data in future researches and applications.
Zhen Li, Ad Stoffelen, and Anton Verhoef
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3573–3594,Short summary
This paper presents a generic simulation rotating-beam scatterometer scheme, which includes pencil-beam and fan-beam instruments. SCAT (CFOSAT), WindRAD, and SeaWinds are chosen to represent the current or near-future rotating-beam scatterometers. Their capacity for wind retrieval and figures of merit are analyzed and compared with each other. Increasing the number of views is able to improve the wind retrieval, but the improvement also can reach saturation with even more views.
Maria Belmonte Rivas and Ad Stoffelen
Ocean Sci., 15, 831–852,Short summary
This paper describes the differences between ocean surface winds provided by ERA reanalyses and satellite scatterometer observations. This work is motivated by the widespread use of reanalysis winds for ocean forcing in marine forecasting centers and the application of observations to characterize reanalysis wind errors, which we conjecture are related to deficiencies in the physics of the underlying assimilating model (insufficient wind variability at high spatial and temporal frequencies).
Maria Belmonte Rivas, Ines Otosaka, Ad Stoffelen, and Anton Verhoef
The Cryosphere, 12, 2941–2953,Short summary
We provide a novel record of scatterometer sea ice extents and backscatter that complements the passive microwave products nicely, particularly for the correction of summer melt errors. The sea ice backscatter maps help differentiate between seasonal and perennial Arctic ice classes, and between second-year and older multiyear ice, revealing the emergence of SY ice as the dominant perennial ice type after the record loss in 2007 and attesting to its use as a proxy for ice thickness.
S. H. Alemohammad, K. A. McColl, A. G. Konings, D. Entekhabi, and A. Stoffelen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3489–3503,Short summary
This paper introduces a new variant of the triple collocation technique with multiplicative error model. The method is applied, for the first time, to precipitation products across the central part of continental USA. Results show distinctive patterns of error variance in each product that are estimated without a priori assumption of any of the error distributions. The correlation coefficients between each product and the truth are also estimated, which provides another performance perspective.
X. J. Sun, R. W. Zhang, G. J. Marseille, A. Stoffelen, D. Donovan, L. Liu, and J. Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2695–2717,
G.-J. van Zadelhoff, A. Stoffelen, P. W. Vachon, J. Wolfe, J. Horstmann, and M. Belmonte Rivas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 437–449,
W. Lin, M. Portabella, A. Stoffelen, and A. Verhoef
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1053–1060,
Related subject area
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Sebastian Becker, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Tim Carlsen, Michael Schäfer, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2939–2953,Short summary
Airborne radiation measurements are used to characterize the solar directional reflection of a mixture of Arctic sea ice and open-ocean surfaces in the transition zone between both surface types. The mixture reveals reflection properties of both surface types. It is shown that the directional reflection of the mixture can be reconstructed from the directional reflection of the individual surfaces, accounting for the special conditions present in the transition zone.
You Zhao, Chao Liu, Di Di, Ziqiang Ma, and Shihao Tang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2791–2805,Short summary
A typhoon is a high-impact atmospheric phenomenon that causes most significant socioeconomic damage, and its precipitation observation is always needed for typhoon characteristics and disaster prevention. This study developed a typhoon precipitation fusion method to combine observations from satellite radiometers, rain gauges and reanalysis to provide much improved typhoon precipitation datasets.
Witali Krochin, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, David Kuhl, Axel Murk, and Gunter Stober
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2231–2249,Short summary
This study leverages atmospheric temperature measurements performed with a ground-based radiometer making use of data that was collected during a 4-year observational campaign applying a new retrieval algorithm that improves the maximal altitude range from 45 to 55 km. The measurements are validated against two independent data sets, MERRA2 reanalysis data and the meteorological analysis of NAVGEM-HA.
Lu Yao, Yi Liu, Dongxu Yang, Zhaonan Cai, Jing Wang, Chao Lin, Naimeng Lu, Daren Lyu, Longfei Tian, Maohua Wang, Zengshan Yin, Yuquan Zheng, and Sisi Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2125–2137,Short summary
A physics-based SIF retrieval algorithm, IAPCAS/SIF, is introduced and applied to OCO-2 and TanSat measurements. The strong linear relationship between OCO-2 SIF retrieved by IAPCAS/SIF and the official product indicates the algorithm's reliability. The good consistency in the spatiotemporal patterns and magnitude of the OCO-2 and TanSat SIF products suggests that the combinative usage of multi-satellite products has potential and that such work would contribute to further research.
Biao Tong, Xiangfei Sun, Jiyang Fu, Yuncheng He, and Pakwai Chan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1829–1848,Short summary
In recent years, there has been numerous research on tropical cyclone (TC) observation based on satellite cloud images (SCIs), but most methods are limited by low efficiency and subjectivity. To overcome subjectivity and improve efficiency of traditional methods, this paper uses deep learning technology to do further research on fingerprint identification of TCs. Results provide an automatic and objective method to distinguish TCs from SCIs and are convenient for subsequent research.
Marie Bouillon, Sarah Safieddine, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Filipe Aires, Victor Pellet, Olivier Lezeaux, Noëlle A. Scott, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1779–1793,Short summary
The IASI instruments have been observing Earth since 2007. We use a neural network to retrieve atmospheric temperatures. This new temperature data record is validated against other datasets and shows good agreement. We use this new dataset to compute trends over the 2008–2020 period. We found a warming of the troposphere, more important at the poles. In the stratosphere, we found that temperatures decrease everywhere except at the South Pole. The cooling is more pronounced at the South pole.
Maya Ben-Yami, Hilke Oetjen, Helen Brindley, William Cossich, Dulce Lajas, Tiziano Maestri, Davide Magurno, Piera Raspollini, Luca Sgheri, and Laura Warwick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1755–1777,Short summary
Spectral emissivity is a key property of the Earth's surface. Few measurements exist in the far-infrared, despite recent work showing that its contribution is important for accurate modelling of global climate. In preparation for ESA’s EE9 FORUM mission (launch in 2026), this study takes the first steps towards the development of an operational emissivity retrieval for FORUM by investigating the sensitivity of the emissivity product to different physical and operational parameters.
Matthew A. Miller, Sandra E. Yuter, Nicole P. Hoban, Laura M. Tomkins, and Brian A. Colle
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1689–1702,Short summary
Apparent waves in the atmosphere and similar features in storm winds can be detected by taking the difference between successive Doppler weather radar scans measuring radar-relative storm air motions. Applying image filtering to the difference data better isolates the detected signal. This technique is a useful tool in weather research and forecasting since such waves can trigger or enhance precipitation.
Richard Müller and Uwe Pfeifroth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1537–1561,Short summary
The great works of physics teach us that a central paradigm of science should be to make methods and theories as easy as possible and as complex as needed. This paper provides a brief review of remote sensing of solar surface irradiance based on this paradigm.
S. Joseph Munchak, Robert S. Schrom, Charles N. Helms, and Ali Tokay
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1439–1464,Short summary
The ability to measure snowfall with weather radar has greatly advanced with the development of techniques that utilize dual-polarization measurements, which provide information about the snow particle shape and orientation, and multi-frequency measurements, which provide information about size and density. This study combines these techniques with the NASA D3R radar, which provides dual-frequency polarimetric measurements, with data that were observed during the 2018 Winter Olympics.
Oliver Lux, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Uwe Marksteiner, Benjamin Witschas, Stephan Rahm, Alexander Geiß, Andreas Schäfler, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1303–1331,Short summary
The article discusses modifications in the wind retrieval of the ALADIN Airborne Demonstrator (A2D) – one of the key instruments for the validation of Aeolus. Thanks to the retrieval refinements, which are demonstrated in the context of two airborne campaigns in 2019, the systematic and random wind errors of the A2D were significantly reduced, thereby enhancing its validation capabilities. Finally, wind comparisons between A2D and Aeolus for the validation of the satellite data are presented.
Terhikki Manninen, Emmihenna Jääskeläinen, Niilo Siljamo, Aku Riihelä, and Karl-Göran Karlsson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 879–893,Short summary
A new method for cloud-correcting observations of surface albedo is presented for AVHRR data. Instead of a binary cloud mask, it applies cloud probability values smaller than 20% of the A3 edition of the CLARA (CM SAF cLoud, Albedo and surface Radiation dataset from AVHRR data) record provided by the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) project of EUMETSAT. According to simulations, the 90% quantile was 1.1% for the absolute albedo error and 2.2% for the relative error.
Shihan Chen, Yuanjian Yang, Fei Deng, Yanhao Zhang, Duanyang Liu, Chao Liu, and Zhiqiu Gao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 735–756,Short summary
This paper proposes a method for evaluating canopy UHI intensity (CUHII) at high resolution by using remote sensing data and machine learning with a random forest (RF) model. The spatial distribution of CUHII was evaluated at 30 m resolution based on the output of the RF model. The present RF model framework for real-time monitoring and assessment of high-resolution CUHII provides scientific support for studying the changes and causes of CUHII.
Brian J. Carroll, Amin R. Nehrir, Susan A. Kooi, James E. Collins, Rory A. Barton-Grimley, Anthony Notari, David B. Harper, and Joseph Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 605–626,Short summary
HALO is a recently developed lidar system that demonstrates new technologies and advanced algorithms for profiling water vapor as well as aerosol and cloud properties. The high-resolution, high-accuracy measurements have unique advantages within the suite of atmospheric instrumentation, such as directly trading water vapor measurement resolution for precision. This paper provides the methodology and first water vapor results, showing agreement with in situ and spaceborne sounder measurements.
Irina V. Djalalova, David D. Turner, Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak, James Duncan, Bianca Adler, and Daniel Gottas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 521–537,Short summary
In this paper we investigate the synergy obtained by combining active (radio acoustic sounding system – RASS) and passive (microwave radiometer) remote sensing observations to obtain temperature vertical profiles through a radiative transfer model. Inclusion of the RASS observations leads to more accurate temperature profiles from the surface to 5 km above ground, well above the maximum height of the RASS observations themselves (2000 m), when compared to the microwave radiometer used alone.
Daniel Sanchez-Rivas and Miguel A. Rico-Ramirez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 503–520,Short summary
In this work, we review the use of quasi-vertical profiles for monitoring the calibration of the radar differential reflectivity ZDR. We validate the proposed method by comparing its results against the traditional approach based on measurements taken at 90°; we observed good agreement as the errors are within 0.2 dB. Additionally, we compare the results of the proposed method with ZDR derived from disdrometers; the errors are reasonable considering factors discussed in the paper.
Julian Steinheuer, Carola Detring, Frank Beyrich, Ulrich Löhnert, Petra Friederichs, and Stephanie Fiedler
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) allow the determination of wind profiles with high vertical resolution and thus provide an alternative to meteorological towers. We address the question of whether wind gusts can be derived since they are short-lived phenomena. Therefore, we compare different DWL configurations and develop a new method applicable to all of them. A fast continuous scanning mode that completes a full observation cycle within 3.4 s is found to be the best performing configuration.
Katarzyna Ośródka and Jan Szturc
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 261–277,Short summary
Weather radar data are used in weather monitoring and forecasting, but they are affected by numerous errors and require advanced corrections. Different systems are designed and implemented to suit specific local conditions, like the RADVOL-QC system. The radar errors are divided into several groups: disturbance by non-meteorological echoes (from the mountains, RLAN signals, wind turbines, etc.), beam blockage, attenuation, etc. Each of them has different properties and is corrected differently.
Guy Delrieu, Anil Kumar Khanal, Frédéric Cazenave, and Brice Boudevillain
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The RadAlp experiment aims at improving quantitative precipitation estimation in the Alps thanks to X-band polarimetric radars and in-situ measurements deployed in Grenoble, France. We revisit the physics of propagation and attenuation of microwaves in rain. We perform a generalized sensitivity analysis in order to establish useful parameterization for attenuation corrections. Originality lies in the use of otherwise undesired mountain returns for constraining the considered physical model.
Anna Franck, Dmitri Moisseev, Ville Vakkari, Matti Leskinen, Janne Lampilahti, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Ewan O'Connor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7341–7353,Short summary
We proposed a method to derive a convective boundary layer height, using insects in radar observations, and we investigated the consistency of these retrievals among different radar frequencies (5, 35 and 94 GHz). This method can be applied to radars at other measurement stations and serve as additional way to estimate the boundary layer height during summer. The entrainment zone was also observed by the 5 GHz radar above the boundary layer in the form of a Bragg scatter layer.
Ryan Volz, Jorge L. Chau, Philip J. Erickson, Juha P. Vierinen, J. Miguel Urco, and Matthias Clahsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7199–7219,Short summary
We introduce a new way of estimating winds in the upper atmosphere (about 80 to 100 km in altitude) from the observed Doppler shift of meteor trails using a statistical method called Gaussian process regression. Wind estimates and, critically, the uncertainty of those estimates can be evaluated smoothly (i.e., not gridded) in space and time. The effective resolution is set by provided parameters, which are limited in practice by the number density of the observed meteors.
Fabian Weiler, Michael Rennie, Thomas Kanitz, Lars Isaksen, Elena Checa, Jos de Kloe, Ngozi Okunde, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7167–7185,Short summary
This paper summarizes the identification and correction of one of the most important systematic error sources for the wind measurements of the ESA satellite Aeolus. It depicts the effects of small temperature variations in the primary telescope mirror on the quality of the wind products and describes the approach to correct for it in the near-real-time processing. Moreover, the performance of the correction approach is assessed, and alternative approaches are discussed.
Xinyan Li, Yuanjian Yang, Jiaqin Mi, Xueyan Bi, You Zhao, Zehao Huang, Chao Liu, Lian Zong, and Wanju Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7007–7023,Short summary
A random forest (RF) model framework for Fengyun-4A (FY-4A) daytime and nighttime quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is established using FY-4A multi-band spectral information, cloud parameters, high-density precipitation observations and physical quantities from reanalysis data. The RF model of FY-4A QPE has a high accuracy in estimating precipitation at the heavy-rain level or below, which has advantages for quantitative estimation of summer precipitation over East Asia in future.
Clayton Cantrall and Tomoko Matsuo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6917–6928,Short summary
This paper presents a new technique to determine temperature in the thermosphere from observations of far ultraviolet radiation emitted by molecular nitrogen. The technique utilizes a ratio of two far ultraviolet spectral channels to capture the thermosphere temperature signal. Applying the technique to NASA GOLD observations results in temperatures that agree well with other thermosphere observations during a geomagnetic disturbance.
Gunter Stober, Alexander Kozlovsky, Alan Liu, Zishun Qiao, Masaki Tsutsumi, Chris Hall, Satonori Nozawa, Mark Lester, Evgenia Belova, Johan Kero, Patrick J. Espy, Robert E. Hibbins, and Nicholas Mitchell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6509–6532,Short summary
Wind observations at the edge to space, 70–110 km altitude, are challenging. Meteor radars have become a widely used instrument to obtain mean wind profiles above an instrument for these heights. We describe an advanced mathematical concept and present a tomographic analysis using several meteor radars located in Finland, Sweden and Norway, as well as Chile, to derive the three-dimensional flow field. We show an example of a gravity wave decelerating the mean flow.
Snizhana Ross, Arttu Arjas, Ilkka I. Virtanen, Mikko J. Sillanpää, Lassi Roininen, and Andreas Hauptmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Radar measurements of thermal fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere produce weak signals and tuning to specific altitudes results in suboptimal resolution for other regions, making an accurate analysis of these changes difficult. A novel approach to improve the resolution and remove measurement noise is considered. The method can capture variable characteristics, making it ideal for the study of a large range of data. Synthetically generated examples and two measured datasets were considered.
Corwin J. Wright, Neil P. Hindley, M. Joan Alexander, Laura A. Holt, and Lars Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5873–5886,Short summary
Measuring atmospheric gravity waves in low vertical-resolution data is technically challenging, especially when the waves are significantly longer in the vertical than in the length of the measurement domain. We introduce and demonstrate a modification to the existing Stockwell transform methods of characterising these waves that address these problems, with no apparent reduction in the other capabilities of the technique.
Tong Ning and Gunnar Elgered
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5593–5605,Short summary
We have estimated horizontal gradients of the propagation delay caused by water vapour in the atmosphere using two independent techniques, namely global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and microwave radiometry. The highest resolution was 5 min. We found that the sampling of the atmosphere in different directions is an important factor for high correlations between the two techniques and that GNSS data can be used to detect large short-lived gradients, however, with increased formal errors.
Mark T. Richardson, David R. Thompson, Marcin J. Kurowski, and Matthew D. Lebsock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5555–5576,Short summary
Modern and upcoming hyperspectral imagers will take images with spatial resolutions as fine as 20 m. They can retrieve column water vapour, and we show evidence that from these column measurements you can get statistics of planetary boundary layer (PBL) water vapour. This is important information for climate models that need to account for sub-grid mixing of water vapour near the surface in their PBL schemes.
Benjamin Männel, Florian Zus, Galina Dick, Susanne Glaser, Maximilian Semmling, Kyriakos Balidakis, Jens Wickert, Marion Maturilli, Sandro Dahlke, and Harald Schuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5127–5138,Short summary
Within the MOSAiC expedition, GNSS was used to monitor variations in atmospheric water vapor. Based on 15 months of continuously tracked data, coordinates and hourly zenith total delays (ZTDs) were determined using kinematic precise point positioning. The derived ZTD values agree within few millimeters with ERA5 and terrestrial GNSS and VLBI stations. The derived integrated water vapor corresponds to the frequently launched radiosondes (0.08 ± 0.04 kg m−2, rms of the differences of 1.47 kg m−2).
Joel P. Younger, Iain M. Reid, Chris L. Adami, Chris M. Hall, and Masaki Tsutsumi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5015–5027,Short summary
A radar in Svalbard usually used to study meteor trails was used to observe a thin icy layer in the upper atmosphere. New methods used the layer to measure wind speed over short periods of time and found that the layer is most reflective within 6.8 ± 3.3° of vertical. Analysis of meteor trail radar echo durations found that the layer may shorten meteor trail echoes, but more data are needed. This study shows new uses for data collected by meteor radars for other purposes.
Mariko Oue, Pavlos Kollias, Sergey Y. Matrosov, Alessandro Battaglia, and Alexander V. Ryzhkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4893–4913,Short summary
Multi-wavelength radar measurements provide capabilities to identify ice particle types and growth processes in clouds beyond the capabilities of single-frequency radar measurements. This study introduces Doppler velocity and polarimetric radar observables into the multi-wavelength radar reflectivity measurement to improve identification analysis. The analysis clearly discerns snowflake aggregation and riming processes and even early stages of riming.
Andreas Foth, Janek Zimmer, Felix Lauermann, and Heike Kalesse-Los
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4565–4574,Short summary
In this paper, we present two micro rain radar-based approaches to discriminate between stratiform and convective precipitation. One is based on probability density functions and the other one is an artificial neural network classification. Both methods agree well, giving similar results. However, the results of the artificial neural network are more reasonable since it is also able to distinguish an inconclusive class, in turn making the stratiform and convective classes more reliable.
Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Rob K. Newsom, Larry K. Berg, Heng Xiao, Po-Lun Ma, and David D. Turner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4403–4424,Short summary
Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height is a critical parameter in atmospheric models. Continuous PBL height measurements from remote sensing measurements are important to understand various boundary layer mechanisms, especially during daytime and evening transition periods. Due to several limitations in existing methodologies to detect PBL height from a Doppler lidar, in this study, a machine learning (ML) approach is tested. The ML model is observed to improve the accuracy by over 50 %.
Michael Kiefer, Thomas von Clarmann, Bernd Funke, Maya García-Comas, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Sylvia Kellmann, Anne Kleinert, Alexandra Laeng, Andrea Linden, Manuel López-Puertas, Daniel R. Marsh, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4111–4138,Short summary
An improved dataset of vertical temperature profiles of the Earth's atmosphere in the altitude range 5–70 km is presented. These profiles are derived from measurements of the MIPAS instrument onboard ESA's Envisat satellite. The overall improvements are based on upgrades in the input data and several improvements in the data processing approach. Both of these are discussed, and an extensive error discussion is included. Enhancements of the new dataset are demonstrated by means of examples.
Daniel Kastinen, Johan Kero, Alexander Kozlovsky, and Mark Lester
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3583–3596,Short summary
When a meteor enters the atmosphere, it causes a trail of diffusing plasma that moves with the neutral wind. An interferometric radar system can measure such trails and determine its location. However, there is a chance of determining the wrong position due to noise. We simulate this behaviour and use the simulations to successfully determine the true location of ambiguous events. We also successfully test two simple temporal integration methods for avoiding such erroneous determinations.
Ting-Yu Cha and Michael M. Bell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3523–3539,Short summary
Doppler radar provides high-resolution wind measurements within tropical cyclones (TCs) for real-time monitoring and weather forecasting. Hurricane Matthew (2016) was observed by the ground-based single-Doppler and NOAA P-3 Hurricane Hunter airborne radar simultaneously, providing a novel opportunity to compare single- and multiple-Doppler wind retrieval techniques. Here, we improve the single-Doppler wind retrieval algorithm and show the pros and cons of each method for studying TC structure.
Martin Lainer, Jordi Figueras i Ventura, Zaira Schauwecker, Marco Gabella, Montserrat F.-Bolaños, Reto Pauli, and Jacopo Grazioli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3541–3560,Short summary
We show results from two unique measurement campaigns aimed at better understanding effects of large wind turbines on radar returns by deploying a mobile X-band weather radar system in the proximity of a small wind park. Measurements were taken in 24/7 operation with dedicated scan strategies to retrieve the variability and most extreme values of reflectivity and radar cross-section of the wind turbines. The findings are useful for wind turbine interference mitigation measures in radar systems.
Pavel Alekseychik, Gabriel Katul, Ilkka Korpela, and Samuli Launiainen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3501–3521,Short summary
Drones with thermal cameras are powerful new tools with the potential to provide new insights into atmospheric turbulence and heat fluxes. In a pioneering experiment, a Matrice 210 drone with a Zenmuse XT2 thermal camera was used to record 10–20 min thermal videos at 500 m a.g.l. over the Siikaneva peatland in southern Finland. A method to visualize the turbulent structures and derive their parameters from thermal videos is developed. The study provides a novel approach for turbulence analysis.
Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Sara Q. Zhang, F. Joseph Turk, Ziad S. Haddad, and Randy C. Sawaya
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3333–3350,Short summary
The assimilation of airborne-based three-dimensional winds into a mesoscale weather forecast model resulted in better agreement with airborne radar-derived precipitation 3-D structure at later model time steps. More importantly, there was also a discernible impact on the resultant wind and moisture structure, in accord with independent analysis of the wind structure and external satellite observations.
Julian Gröbner, Herbert Schill, Luca Egli, and René Stübi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3319–3331,Short summary
The world's longest continuous total column ozone time series was initiated in 1926 at the Lichtklimatisches Observatorium (LKO), at Arosa, in the Swiss Alps. The measurements between Dobson and Brewer spectroradiometers have shown seasonal variations of the order of 2 %. The results of the study show that the consistency between the two instrument types can be significantly improved when the ozone cross-sections from Serdyuchenko et al. (2013) and the measured slit functions are used.
Daniel Wolfensberger, Marco Gabella, Marco Boscacci, Urs Germann, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3169–3193,Short summary
In this work, we present a novel quantitative precipitation estimation method for Switzerland that uses random forests, an ensemble-based machine learning technique. The estimator has been trained with a database of 4 years of ground and radar observations. The results of an in-depth evaluation indicate that, compared with the more classical method in use at MeteoSwiss, this novel estimator is able to reduce both the average error and bias of the predictions.
David D. Turner and Ulrich Löhnert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3033–3048,Short summary
Temperature and humidity profiles in the lowest couple of kilometers near the surface are very important for many applications. Passive spectral radiometers are commercially available, and observations from these instruments have been used to get these profiles. However, new active lidar systems are able to measure partial profiles of water vapor. This paper investigates how the derived profiles of water vapor and temperature are improved when the active and passive observations are combined.
Mingzhe Li and Xinan Yue
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3003–3013,Short summary
In this study, we statistically analyzed the correlation between the ionospheric irregularity and the quality of the GNSS atmospheric radio occultation (RO) products. The results show that the ionospheric irregularity could affect the GNSS atmospheric RO in terms of causing failed inverted RO events and the bending angle oscillation. Awareness of the ionospheric irregularity effect on RO could be beneficial to improve the RO data quality for weather and climate research.
Daniel Sanchez-Rivas and Miguel A. Rico-Ramirez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2873–2890,Short summary
In our paper, we propose a robust and operational algorithm to determine the height of the melting level that can be applied to either quasi-vertical profiles (QVPs) or vertical profiles (VPs) of polarimetric radar variables. The algorithm is applied to 1 year of rainfall events that occurred over southeast England and validated using radiosonde data. The algorithm proves to be accurate as the errors (mean absolute error and root mean square error) are close to 200 m.
Anne-Claire Billault-Roux and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2749–2769,Short summary
In the context of climate studies, understanding the role of clouds on a global and local scale is of paramount importance. One aspect is the quantification of cloud liquid water, which impacts the Earth’s radiative balance. This is routinely achieved with radiometers operating at different frequencies. In this study, we propose an approach that uses a single-frequency radiometer and that can be applied at any location to retrieve vertically integrated quantities of liquid water and water vapor.
Ayham Alyosef, Domenico Cimini, Lorenzo Luini, Carlo Riva, Frank S. Marzano, Marianna Biscarini, Luca Milani, Antonio Martellucci, Sabrina Gentile, Saverio T. Nilo, Francesco Di Paola, Ayman Alkhateeb, and Filomena Romano
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2737–2748,Short summary
Telecommunication is based on the propagation of radio signals through the atmosphere. The signal power diminishes along the path due to atmospheric attenuation, which needs to be estimated to be accounted for. In a study funded by the European Space Agency, we demonstrate an innovative method improving atmospheric attenuation estimates from ground-based radiometric measurements by 10–30 %. More accurate atmospheric attenuation estimates imply better telecommunication services in the future.
Peng Sun, Suqin Wu, Kefei Zhang, Moufeng Wan, and Ren Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2529–2542,Short summary
In GPS or Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) meteorology, precipitable water vapor (PWV) at a station is obtained from a conversion of the GNSS signal zenith wet delay (ZWD) using a conversion factor which is a function of weighted mean temperature (Tm) over the site. We developed a new global grid-based empirical Tm model using ERA5 reanalysis data. The model-predicted Tm value has significance for applications needing real-time or near real-time PWV converted from GNSS signals.
Ying Li, Gottfried Kirchengast, Marc Schwärz, Florian Ladstädter, and Yunbin Yuan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2327–2343,Short summary
We introduce a new method to detect and monitor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) data at high northern latitudes and demonstrate it for the well-known Jan.–Feb. 2009 event. We found that RO data are capable of SSW monitoring. Based on our method, a SSW event can be detected and tracked, and the duration and the strength of the event can be recorded. The results are consistent with other research on the 2009 event.
Stefano Letizia, Lu Zhan, and Giacomo Valerio Iungo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2065–2093,Short summary
A LiDAR Statistical Barnes Objective Analysis (LiSBOA) for the optimal design of lidar scans and retrieval of velocity statistics is proposed. The LiSBOA is validated and characterized via a Monte Carlo approach applied to a synthetic velocity field. The optimal design of lidar scans is formulated as a two-cost-function optimization problem, including the minimization of the volume not sampled with adequate spatial resolution and the minimization of the error on the mean of the velocity field.
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The support vector machine can effectively represent the increasing effect of rain affecting wind speeds. This research provides a correction of deviations that are skew- to Gaussian-like features caused by rain in Ku-band scatterometer wind. It demonstrates the effectiveness of a machine learning method when used based on elaborate analysis of the model establishment and result validation procedures. The corrected winds provide information previously lacking, which is vital for nowcasting.
The support vector machine can effectively represent the increasing effect of rain affecting...