Articles | Volume 9, issue 11
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5385–5406, 2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric...
Review article 08 Nov 2016
Review article | 08 Nov 2016
Review of the state of the art and future prospects of the ground-based GNSS meteorology in Europe
Guergana Guerova et al.
Tzvetan Simeonov, Dmitry Sidorov, Felix Norman Teferle, Georgi Milev, and Guergana Guerova
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
G. Guerova, T. Simeonov, and N. Yordanova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2683–2694,
Karina Wilgan, Galina Dick, Florian Zus, and Jens Wickert
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The assimilation of the GNSS data in weather models have a positive impact on the forecasts. The impact is still limited due to using only the GPS zenith-direction parameters. We calculate and validate more advanced tropospheric products from three satellite systems: the US American GPS, Russian GLONASS and European Galileo. The quality of all the solutions is comparable, however combining more GNSS systems enhances the observations geometry and improves of the quality of the weather forecasts.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Tong Ning and Gunnar Elgered
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5593–5605,Short summary
We have estimated horizontal gradients of the propagation delay caused by water vapour in the atmosphere using two independent techniques, namely global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and microwave radiometry. The highest resolution was 5 min. We found that the sampling of the atmosphere in different directions is an important factor for high correlations between the two techniques and that GNSS data can be used to detect large short-lived gradients, however, with increased formal errors.
Benjamin Männel, Florian Zus, Galina Dick, Susanne Glaser, Maximilian Semmling, Kyriakos Balidakis, Jens Wickert, Marion Maturilli, Sandro Dahlke, and Harald Schuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5127–5138,Short summary
Within the MOSAiC expedition, GNSS was used to monitor variations in atmospheric water vapor. Based on 15 months of continuously tracked data, coordinates and hourly zenith total delays (ZTDs) were determined using kinematic precise point positioning. The derived ZTD values agree within few millimeters with ERA5 and terrestrial GNSS and VLBI stations. The derived integrated water vapor corresponds to the frequently launched radiosondes (0.08 ± 0.04 kg m−2, rms of the differences of 1.47 kg m−2).
Olivier Bock, Pierre Bosser, Cyrille Flamant, Erik Doerflinger, Friedhelm Jansen, Romain Fages, Sandrine Bony, and Sabrina Schnitt
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2407–2436,Short summary
Measurements from a network of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers operated from the eastern Caribbean islands are used to monitor the total water vapour content in the atmosphere during the EUREC4A field campaign. These data help describe the moisture environment of mesoscale cloud patterns in the trade winds with high temporal sampling. They are also useful to assess the accuracy of collocated radiosonde measurements and numerical weather model reanalyses.
Pierre Bosser, Olivier Bock, Cyrille Flamant, Sandrine Bony, and Sabrina Speich
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1499–1517,Short summary
In the framework of the EUREC4A campaign, water vapour measurements were retrieved over the tropical west Atlantic Ocean from GNSS data acquired from three research vessels (R/Vs Atalante, Maria S. Merian and Meteor). The retrievals from R/Vs Atalante and Meteor are shown to be of high quality unlike the results for the R/V Maria S. Merian. These ship-borne retrievals are intended to be used for the description and understanding of meteorological phenomena that occurred during the campaign.
Siebren de Haan, Paul M. A. de Jong, and Jitze van der Meulen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
AMDAR temperatures suffer from a bias which can be related to difference of timing of height and measurement, and to internal corrections applied to pressure altitude. Based on NWP model temperature data combined with Mach number and true airspeed, we were able to estimate corrections Comparing corrected temperatures with (independent) radiosonde observations demonstrates a reduction of the bias from 0.5 K to around zero and of standard deviation of almost 10 %.
Pierre Bosser and Olivier Bock
Adv. Geosci., 55, 13–22,Short summary
For the documentation of time and space variations of water vapor in atmosphere during the Nawdex campaign (fall 2016), a ground network of more than 1200 continuously operation reference GNSS stations has been analyzed. This network spreads from Caribbeans to Morocco through Greenland. This study presents the retrieval of Integrated Water Vapor content from GNSS measurements and their use in the evaluation of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalyses ERAI and ERA5.
Samuel Nahmani, Olivier Bock, and Françoise Guichard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9541–9561,Short summary
A mesoscale convective system (MCS) is a cloud system that occurs in connection with an ensemble of thunderstorms and produces a contiguous precipitation area of the order of 100 km or more. Numerous questions related to MCSs remain poorly answered (e.g., their life cycle, and interactions between physical processes and atmospheric circulations). This work shows how a GPS technique can provide relevant and complementary information on MCSs passing over or in the vicinity of observation stations.
Olivier Bock and Ana C. Parracho
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9453–9468,Short summary
We examine the consistency of global IWV data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and 16 years of GPS observations. Representativeness differences are found to be a dominant error source, with a strong dependence on geographic, topographic, and climatic features, which explain both average and extreme differences. A methodology for reducing the representativeness errors and detecting the extreme, outlying, cases is discussed.
Gunnar Elgered, Tong Ning, Peter Forkman, and Rüdiger Haas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3805–3823,Short summary
Within the EU COST Action ES1206 we have studied the horizontal variability of the atmosphere using signals from GPS satellites, distant quasars, and a microwave radiometer. We find a consistent picture: horizontal variability over timescales of months are mainly due to atmospheric pressure, whereas water vapour is the main cause of variations over times from minutes to hours. An understanding of these variations helps to improve the accuracy of GPS applications in both geodesy and meteorology.
Nadia Fourrié, Mathieu Nuret, Pierre Brousseau, Olivier Caumont, Alexis Doerenbecher, Eric Wattrelot, Patrick Moll, Hervé Bénichou, Dominique Puech, Olivier Bock, Pierre Bosser, Patrick Chazette, Cyrille Flamant, Paolo Di Girolamo, Evelyne Richard, and Frédérique Saïd
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2657–2678,Short summary
The AROME-WMED (western Mediterranean) model is a dedicated version of the mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction AROME-France model that ran in real time during the first special observation period of HyMeX. Two reanalyses were performed after the campaign. This paper depicts the main differences between the real-time version and the benefits brought by both HyMeX reanalyses. The second reanalysis is found to be closer to observations than the previous AROME-WMED analyses.
Michal Kačmařík, Jan Douša, Florian Zus, Pavel Václavovic, Kyriakos Balidakis, Galina Dick, and Jens Wickert
Ann. Geophys., 37, 429–446,Short summary
We provide an analysis of processing setting impacts on tropospheric gradients estimated from GNSS observation processing. These tropospheric gradients are related to water vapour distribution in the troposphere and therefore can be helpful in meteorological applications.
Sophie Bastin, Philippe Drobinski, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Olivier Bock, Romain Roehrig, Clemente Gallardo, Dario Conte, Marta Domínguez Alonso, Laurent Li, Piero Lionello, and Ana C. Parracho
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1471–1490,Short summary
This paper uses colocated observations of temperature, precipitation and humidity to investigate the triggering of precipitation. It shows that there is a critical value of humidity above which precipitation picks up. This critical value depends on T and varies spatially. It also analyses how this dependency is reproduced in regional climate simulations over Europe. Models with too little and too light precipitation have both lower critical value of humidity and higher probability to exceed it.
Julie Berckmans, Roeland Van Malderen, Eric Pottiaux, Rosa Pacione, and Rafiq Hamdi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The use of ground-based observations is suitable for the assessment of atmospheric water vapour in climate models. We used water vapour observations from 100 European sites to evaluate two models: a reanalysis product and a regional climate model. The results reveal patterns in the water vapour distribution both in time and space that are relevant as water vapour plays a key role in the feedback process of a changing climate.
Roeland Van Malderen, Eric Pottiaux, Gintautas Stankunavicius, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Hugues Brenot, and Carine Bruyninx
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The study investigates the long-term time variability of the integrated water vapour retrieved by different techniques (GPS, UV/VIS satellites and numerical weather prediction reanalyses) for a global dataset of almost 120 sites and for the time period 1995–2010. A stepwise multiple linear regression technique is applied to ascribe the time variability of integrated water vapour to surface measurements at the sites, but also using teleconnection patterns or climate/oceanic indices.
Ana C. Parracho, Olivier Bock, and Sophie Bastin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16213–16237,Short summary
Integrated water vapour from GPS observations and two modern atmospheric reanalyses were compared for 1995–2010. Means, variability and trend signs were in general good agreement. Regions and GPS stations with poor agreement were investigated further. Representativeness issues, uncertainties in reanalyses, and inhomogeneities in GPS were evidenced. Reanalyses were compared for an extended period, and a focus on north Africa and Australia highlighted the impact of dynamics on water vapour trends.
Tong Ning and Gunnar Elgered
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Ermanno Fionda, Maria Cadeddu, Vinia Mattioli, and Rosa Pacione
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the differences in integrated water vapour (IWV) measurements between Global Positioning System and other observing systems to characterize the uncertainties associated with GPS measurements in Finland. Results show that the GPS agrees with other instruments within 0.5 kg/m2 during winter. During summer the differences increase to 1.5 kg/m2 due to the spatial variability of water vapor in the observation region.
Dunya Alraddawi, Alain Sarkissian, Philippe Keckhut, Olivier Bock, Stefan Noël, Slimane Bekki, Abdenour Irbah, Mustapha Meftah, and Chantal Claud
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2949–2965,Short summary
The current study provides intercomparisons of various water vapour measurements in the Arctic. It compares ground-based GPS observations with satellite measurements in the infrared (IR), near-infrared (NIR) and visible (VIS) through a specific method allowing us to quantify their uncertainties and limits. Unlike IR, satellite observations in NIR and VIS bands are mostly sensible to cloud cover during summer and to albedo variability over canopy or polluted snow-covered surfaces in winter.
Katarzyna Stepniak, Olivier Bock, and Pawel Wielgosz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1347–1361,
Monica Campanelli, Alessandra Mascitelli, Paolo Sanò, Henri Diémoz, Victor Estellés, Stefano Federico, Anna Maria Iannarelli, Francesca Fratarcangeli, Augusto Mazzoni, Eugenio Realini, Mattia Crespi, Olivier Bock, Jose A. Martínez-Lozano, and Stefano Dietrich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 81–94,Short summary
The estimation of precipitable water vapour (W) content is of great interest in both meteorological and climatological studies. Sun photometers allowed the development of W automatic estimations with high temporal resolution. A new methodology, based on the hypothesis that the calibration parameters characterizing the atmospheric transmittance are dependent on vertical profiles of temperature, air pressure and moisture typical of each measurement site, has been presented providing good results.
Jan Dousa, Pavel Vaclavovic, and Michal Elias
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3589–3607,Short summary
The second GOP reprocessing of EUREF network (1996 to 2014) produced GNSS tropospheric parameters for climate research. We performed and evaluated seven solutions and enhanced a strategy for the continuity of tropospheric parameters. Compared with Repro1, Repro2 yielded improvements of 50 % and 25 % in repeatability of horizontal and vertical coordinates and 9 % in tropospheric parameters. Tropospheric gradients revealed a strong sensitivity to GNSS tracking demonstrated at Mallorca station.
Fadwa Alshawaf, Kyriakos Balidakis, Galina Dick, Stefan Heise, and Jens Wickert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3117–3132,Short summary
In this paper, we aimed at estimating climatic trends using precipitable water vapor time series and surface measurements of air temperature in Germany. We used GNSS, ERA-Interim, and synoptic data. The results show mainly a positive trend in precipitable water vapor and temperature with an increase in the trend when moving to northeastern Germany.
Leslie David, Olivier Bock, Christian Thom, Pierre Bosser, and Jacques Pelon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2745–2758,Short summary
The Raman lidar ability to retrieve atmospheric water vapor with high accuracy makes it a premium instrument in different research fields such as climatology, meteorology, or calibration of GNSS altimetry data. In order to achieve long-term stability of the measurements, the system has to be carefully calibrated. In this work we strove to investigate and mitigate the error and instability sources through numerical simulations as well as experimental tests.
Alberto Caldas-Álvarez, Samiro Khodayar, and Olivier Bock
Adv. Sci. Res., 14, 157–162,Short summary
The representation of the atmospheric moisture distribution in weather and climate prediction models has been identified as a source of error in the representation of heavy precipitation events. This research work shows the relevance of overcoming deficiencies in the representation of the moisture content in the vertical direction, even after assimilating humidity data for a case study characteristic of the western Mediterranean by early autumn.
Michal Kačmařík, Jan Douša, Galina Dick, Florian Zus, Hugues Brenot, Gregor Möller, Eric Pottiaux, Jan Kapłon, Paweł Hordyniec, Pavel Václavovic, and Laurent Morel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2183–2208,
Rosa Pacione, Andrzej Araszkiewicz, Elmar Brockmann, and Jan Dousa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1689–1705,Short summary
The use of ground-based GNSS data for climate research is an emerging field. The reprocessing activity under EUREF has been a huge effort, generating homogeneous tropospheric products to be used as a data set for monitoring trends in atmospheric water vapour. EPN-Repro2 data have been evaluated against RS and ERA-Interim data as well as in terms of ZTD trends. The obtained results show that they can be used for ZTD trend detection over Europe in areas where other data are not available.
Cuixian Lu, Florian Zus, Maorong Ge, Robert Heinkelmann, Galina Dick, Jens Wickert, and Harald Schuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5965–5973,Short summary
The recent dramatic development of multi-GNSS constellations brings great opportunities and potential for more enhanced precise positioning, navigation, timing, and other applications. In this contribution, we develop a numerical weather model (NWM) constrained PPP processing system to improve the multi-GNSS precise positioning. Compared to the standard PPP solution, significant improvements of both convergence time and positioning accuracy are achieved with the NWM-constrained PPP solution.
Siebren de Haan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4141–4150,Short summary
The paper presents estimates of aircraft-derived wind observations obtained using Mode-S EHS method by applying the triple-collocation technique. Triple-collocated data sets were constructed using sodar (at Schiphol airport) and Doppler radar wind observation (from two radars in the Netherlands) in combination with numerical weather model data. It was found that the wind error near the surface is around 1.4 m s−1, while at 500 hPa the error is estimated to be around 1.1 m s−1.
Tzvetan Simeonov, Dmitry Sidorov, Felix Norman Teferle, Georgi Milev, and Guergana Guerova
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Jan Douša, Galina Dick, Michal Kačmařík, Radmila Brožková, Florian Zus, Hugues Brenot, Anastasia Stoycheva, Gregor Möller, and Jan Kaplon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2989–3008,Short summary
GNSS products provide observations of atmospheric water vapour. Advanced tropospheric products focus on ultra-fast and high-resolution zenith total delays (ZTDs), horizontal gradients and slant delays, all suitable for rapid-cycle numerical weather prediction (NWP) and severe weather event monitoring. The GNSS4SWEC Benchmark provides a complex data set for developing and assessing these products, with initial focus on reference ZTDs and gradients derived from several NWP and dense GNSS networks.
Jacek M. Kopeć, Kamil Kwiatkowski, Siebren de Haan, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2253–2265,Short summary
This paper is presenting a feasibility study focused on methods of estimating the turbulence intensity based on a class of navigational messages routinely broadcast by the commercial aircraft (known as ADS-B and Mode-S). Using this kind of information could have potentially significant impact on aviation safety. Three methods have been investigated.
Fadwa Alshawaf, Galina Dick, Stefan Heise, Tzvetan Simeonov, Sibylle Vey, Torsten Schmidt, and Jens Wickert
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
In this work, we use time series from GNSS, European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data, and meteorological measurements to evaluate climate evolution in Central Europe. We monitor different atmospheric variables such as temperature, PWV, precipitation, and snow cover. The results show an increasing trend the water vapor time series that are correlated with the trend the temperature tme series. The average increase of water vapor is about 0.3–0.6 mm/decade .
T. Ning, J. Wang, G. Elgered, G. Dick, J. Wickert, M. Bradke, M. Sommer, R. Querel, and D. Smale
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 79–92,Short summary
Integrated water vapour (IWV) obtained from GNSS is to be developed into a GRUAN data product. In addition to the actual measurement, this data product needs to provide an estimate of the measurement uncertainty at the same time resolution as the actual measurement. The method developed in the paper fulfils the requirement by assigning a specific uncertainty to each data point. The method is also valuable for all applications of GNSS IWV data in atmospheric research and weather forecast.
S. Steinke, S. Eikenberg, U. Löhnert, G. Dick, D. Klocke, P. Di Girolamo, and S. Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2675–2692,
M. Shangguan, S. Heise, M. Bender, G. Dick, M. Ramatschi, and J. Wickert
Ann. Geophys., 33, 55–61,Short summary
We present validation results covering 184 days of SIWV (slant-integrated water vapor) observed by a ground-based GPS receiver and a WVR (water vapor radiometer). SIWV data from GPS and WVR generally show good agreement, and the relation between their differences and possible influential factors are analyzed. The differences in SIWV show a relative elevation dependence. Besides the elevation, dependencies between the atmospheric humidity conditions, temperature and differences in SIWV are found.
G. Guerova, T. Simeonov, and N. Yordanova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2683–2694,
R. Van Malderen, H. Brenot, E. Pottiaux, S. Beirle, C. Hermans, M. De Mazière, T. Wagner, H. De Backer, and C. Bruyninx
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2487–2512,
O. Bock, P. Bosser, T. Bourcy, L. David, F. Goutail, C. Hoareau, P. Keckhut, D. Legain, A. Pazmino, J. Pelon, K. Pipis, G. Poujol, A. Sarkissian, C. Thom, G. Tournois, and D. Tzanos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2777–2802,
M. Shangguan, M. Bender, M. Ramatschi, G. Dick, J. Wickert, A. Raabe, and R. Galas
Ann. Geophys., 31, 1491–1505,
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Subject: Gases | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalTropospheric and stratospheric NO retrieved from ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurementsOzone profile retrieval from nadir TROPOMI measurements in the UV rangeFirst ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer observations of HFC-23 at Rikubetsu, Japan, and Syowa Station, AntarcticaImprovement of Odin/SMR water vapour and temperature measurements and validation of the obtained data setsEstimation of ship emission rates at a major shipping lane by long-path DOAS measurementsTotal ozone column from Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Nadir Mapper (OMPS-NM) measurements using the broadband weighting function fitting approach (WFFA)A simulation-experiment-based assessment of retrievals of above-cloud temperature and water vapor using a hyperspectral infrared sounderReduced-cost construction of Jacobian matrices for high-resolution inversions of satellite observations of atmospheric compositionMeasurements of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 total columns in the atmosphere at the St. Petersburg site in 2009–2019Impact of 3D radiative transfer on airborne NO2 imaging remote sensing over cities with buildingsThe Adaptable 4A Inversion (5AI): description and first XCO2 retrievals from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) observationsAssessing sub-grid variability within satellite pixels over urban regions using airborne mapping spectrometer measurementsA Global Ozone Profile Climatology for Satellite Retrieval Algorithms Based on Aura MLS Measurements and the MERRA-2 GMI SimulationDirectionally dependent Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (DLER) of the Earth's surface measured by the GOME-2 satellite instrumentsRetrieval algorithm for the column CO2 mixing ratio from pulsed multi-wavelength lidar measurementsXCO2 retrieval for GOSAT and GOSAT-2 based on the FOCAL algorithmVolcanic SO2 effective layer height retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using a machine-learning approachAre elevated moist layers a blind spot for hyperspectral infrared sounders? – A model studyRetrieval of atmospheric CO2 vertical profiles from ground-based near-infrared spectraTwo-dimensional monitoring of air pollution in Madrid using a Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy two-dimensional (MAXDOAS-2D) instrumentEstimation of the error covariance matrix for IASI radiances and its impact on the assimilation of ozone in a chemistry transport modelSpectroscopic imaging of sub-kilometer spatial structure in lower-tropospheric water vaporHigh-frequency monitoring of anomalous methane point sources with multispectral Sentinel-2 satellite observationsRadiative transfer acceleration based on the principal component analysis and lookup table of corrections: optimization and application to UV ozone profile retrievalsNew observations of NO2 in the upper troposphere from TROPOMIResidual temperature bias effects in stratospheric species distributions from LIMSGFIT3: A full physics retrieval algorithm for remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the presence of aerosolsCan a regional-scale reduction of atmospheric CO2 during the COVID-19 pandemic be detected from space? A case study for East China using satellite XCO2 retrievalsApplication of the Complete Data Fusion algorithm to the ozone profiles measured by geostationary and low-Earth-orbit satellites: a feasibility studyAn improved tropospheric NO2 column retrieval algorithm for TROPOMI over EuropeDetection and quantification of CH4 plumes using the WFM-DOAS retrieval on AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral dataAnthropogenic CO2 monitoring satellite mission: the need for multi-angle polarimetric observationsEstimating real driving emissions from multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements at the A60 motorway near Mainz, GermanyMethane retrieved from TROPOMI: improvement of the data product and validation of the first 2 years of measurementsAccounting for the photochemical variation in stratospheric NO2 in the SAGE III/ISS solar occultation retrievalOzone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Aura nitrogen dioxide standard product version 4.0 with improved surface and cloud treatmentsA local- to national-scale inverse modeling system to assess the potential of spaceborne CO2 measurements for the monitoring of anthropogenic emissionsXCO2 estimates from the OCO-2 measurements using a neural network approachQuantifying the impact of aerosol scattering on the retrieval of methane from airborne remote sensing measurementsQuantifying CO2 emissions of a city with the Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring satellite missionAn improved TROPOMI tropospheric HCHO retrieval over ChinaRetrieval of daytime mesospheric ozone using OSIRIS observations of O2 (a1Δg) emissionVersion 2 Ozone Monitoring Instrument SO2 product (OMSO2 V2): new anthropogenic SO2 vertical column density datasetThe quantification of NOx and SO2 point source emission flux errors of mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy on the basis of the Gaussian dispersion model: a simulation studyProbabilistic retrieval of volcanic SO2 layer height and partial column density using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)Impact of using a new ultraviolet ozone absorption cross-section dataset on OMI ozone profile retrievalsAn examination of enhanced atmospheric methane detection methods for predicting performance of a novel multiband uncooled radiometer imagerGround-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) O3 retrievals from the 3040 cm−1 spectral range at Xianghe, ChinaEstablishment of AIRS climate-level radiometric stability using radiance anomaly retrievals of minor gases and sea surface temperatureMAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO in Munich and the comparison to OMI and TROPOMI satellite observations
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Bart Dils, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Weidong Nan, Jean-Marc Metzger, Emmanuel Mahieu, Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6233–6247,Short summary
NO is a key active trace gas in the atmosphere, which affects the atmospheric environment and human health. In this study, we show that the tropospheric and stratospheric NO partial columns can be observed from the ground-based FTIR measurements at a polluted site (Xianghe, China), but only stratospheric NO partial columns can be observed at a background site (Maïdo, Reunion Island). The variations in the NO observed by the FTIR measurements at the two sites are analyzed and discussed.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Richard Querel, Thierry Leblanc, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Rigel Kivi, and Matthew B. Tully
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6057–6082,Short summary
TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing satellite that has observed global atmospheric trace gases at unprecedented spatial resolution since 2017. The retrieval of ozone profiles with high accuracy has been demonstrated using the TOPAS (Tikhonov regularised Ozone Profile retrievAl with SCIATRAN) algorithm and applying appropriate spectral corrections to TROPOMI UV data. Ozone profiles from TROPOMI were compared to ozonesonde and lidar profiles, showing an agreement to within 5 % in the stratosphere.
Masanori Takeda, Hideaki Nakajima, Isao Murata, Tomoo Nagahama, Isamu Morino, Geoffrey C. Toon, Ray F. Weiss, Jens Mühle, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, and Hsiang-Jui Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5955–5976,Short summary
This paper presents the first observations of atmospheric HFC-23 abundances with a ground-based remote sensing technique. The increasing trend of the HFC-23 abundances analyzed by this study agrees with that derived from other existing in situ measurements. This study indicates that ground-based FTIR observation has the capability to monitor the trend of atmospheric HFC-23 and could allow for monitoring the distribution of global atmospheric HFC-23 abundances in more detail.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Michael Kiefer, Maya Garcia-Comas, Alyn Lambert, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5823–5857,Short summary
We present improved Odin/SMR mesospheric H2O concentration and temperature data sets, reprocessed assuming a bigger sideband leakage of the instrument. The validation study shows how the improved SMR data sets agree better with other instruments' observations than the old SMR version did. Given their unique time extension and geographical coverage, and H2O being a good tracer of mesospheric circulation, the new data sets are valuable for the study of dynamical processes and multi-year trends.
Kai Krause, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Andreas Weigelt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5791–5807,Short summary
Ships are an important source of key pollutants. Usually, these are measured aboard the ship or on the coast using in situ instruments. This study shows how active optical remote sensing can be used to measure ship emissions and how to determine emission rates of individual ships out of those measurements. These emission rates are valuable input for the assessment of the influence of shipping emissions in regions close to the shipping lanes.
Andrea Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Annette Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5771–5789,Short summary
OMPS/NPP (2012–present) allows obtaining the tropospheric ozone column by combining ozone data from limb and nadir observations from the same instrument platform. In a first step, the retrieval of the total ozone column from the OMPS Nadir Mapper using the weighting function fitting approach (WFFA) is described here. The OMPS total ozone was compared with ground-based and other satellite measurements, showing agreement within 2.5 %.
Jing Feng, Yi Huang, and Zhipeng Qu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5717–5734,Short summary
It is challenging to measure the atmospheric conditions above convective storms. In this study, a method of retrieving thermodynamic variables above convective storms using a combination of satellite-based observations from a hyperspectral infrared sounder and active sensors is developed. We find that this method captures the spatial distributions of thermodynamic anomalies above convective clouds well. This method is potentially applicable to observations from current and future satellites.
Hannah Nesser, Daniel J. Jacob, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Tia R. Scarpelli, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Yuzhong Zhang, and Chris H. Rycroft
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5521–5534,Short summary
Analytical inversions of satellite observations of atmospheric composition can improve emissions estimates and quantify errors but are computationally expensive at high resolutions. We propose two methods to decrease this cost. The methods reproduce a high-resolution inversion at a quarter of the cost. The reduced-dimension method creates a multiscale grid. The reduced-rank method solves the inversion where information content is highest.
Alexander Polyakov, Anatoly Poberovsky, Maria Makarova, Yana Virolainen, Yuri Timofeyev, and Anastasiia Nikulina
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5349–5368,Short summary
The photolysis of CFCs, and to a lesser extent of HCFCs, in the stratosphere leads to the appearance of so-called ozone holes. We improve the retrieval strategies for deriving CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 from ground–based IR solar radiation spectra measured by a Bruker FS125HR spectrometer, analyze the time series at the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) site in St. Petersburg, Russia, and compare them to the independent data.
Marc Schwaerzel, Dominik Brunner, Fabian Jakub, Claudia Emde, Brigitte Buchmann, Alexis Berne, and Gerrit Kuhlmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
NO2 maps from airborne imaging remote sensing often appear much smoother than one would expect from high-resolution model simulations of NO2 over cities, despite the small ground-pixel size of the sensors. Our case study over Zurich, using the newly implemented building module of the MYSTIC radiative transfer solver, shows that 3D effect can explain the smearing and that building shadows cause a noticeable underestimation of and noise in the measured NO2 columns.
Matthieu Dogniaux, Cyril Crevoisier, Raymond Armante, Virginie Capelle, Thibault Delahaye, Vincent Cassé, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, David F. Pollard, Coleen M. Roehl, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4689–4706,Short summary
We present the Adaptable 4A Inversion (5AI), an implementation of the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm, relying on the Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A/OP) radiative transfer model, that enables the retrieval of greenhouse gas atmospheric weighted columns from infrared measurements. It is tested on a sample of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 observations, and its results satisfactorily compare to several reference products, thus showing the reliability of 5AI OE implementation.
Wenfu Tang, David P. Edwards, Louisa K. Emmons, Helen M. Worden, Laura M. Judd, Lok N. Lamsal, Jassim A. Al-Saadi, Scott J. Janz, James H. Crawford, Merritt N. Deeter, Gabriele Pfister, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Benjamin Gaubert, and Caroline R. Nowlan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4639–4655,Short summary
We use high-resolution airborne mapping spectrometer measurements to assess sub-grid variability within satellite pixels over urban regions. The sub-grid variability within satellite pixels increases with increasing satellite pixel sizes. Temporal variability within satellite pixels decreases with increasing satellite pixel sizes. This work is particularly relevant and useful for future satellite design, satellite data interpretation, and point-grid data comparisons.
Jerald R. Ziemke, Gordon J. Labow, Natalya A. Kramarova, Richard D. McPeters, Pawan K. Bhartia, Luke D. Oman, Stacey M. Frith, and David P. Haffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Seasonal and inter-annual ozone profile climatologies are produced from combined MLS and MERRA2 GMI ozone for the general public. Both climatologies extend from pole-to-pole at altitudes 0–80 km (1 km spacing) for time record 1970–2018. These climatologies are important for use as a priori in satellite ozone retrieval algorithms, as validation of other measured and model simulated ozone, and in radiative transfer studies of the atmosphere.
Lieuwe G. Tilstra, Olaf N. E. Tuinder, Ping Wang, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4219–4238,Short summary
In this paper we introduce the new concept of directionally dependent Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (DLER) of the Earth's surface retrieved from satellite observations. We apply this concept to data of the GOME-2 satellite instruments to create a global database of the reflectivity of the Earth's surface, providing surface DLER for 26 wavelength bands between 328 and 772 nm as a function of the satellite viewing angle via a second-degree polynomial parameterisation.
Xiaoli Sun, James B. Abshire, Anand Ramanathan, Stephan R. Kawa, and Jianping Mao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3909–3922,Short summary
This paper gives a detailed and complete description of the retrieval algorithm used in the multi-wavelength lidar for average column carbon dioxide mixing ratio measurements. The algorithm is similar to that used in passive trace-gas sounding and simultaneously solves for several parameters and provides the associated averaging kernel. The algorithm has been successfully used with the airborne lidar measurements. It can also be used with similar lidar for other trace-gas measurements.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, James R. Podolske, David F. Pollard, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3837–3869,Short summary
We present the first GOSAT and GOSAT-2 XCO2 data derived with the FOCAL retrieval algorithm. Comparisons of the GOSAT-FOCAL product with other data reveal long-term agreement within about 1 ppm over 1 decade, differences in seasonal variations of about 0.5 ppm, and a mean regional bias to ground-based TCCON data of 0.56 ppm with a mean scatter of 1.89 ppm. GOSAT-2-FOCAL data are preliminary only, but first comparisons show that they compare well with the GOSAT-FOCAL results and TCCON.
Nikita M. Fedkin, Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Pascal Hedelt, Diego G. Loyola, Russell R. Dickerson, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3673–3691,Short summary
This study presents a new volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) layer height retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We generated a large spectral dataset with a radiative transfer model and used it to train neural networks to predict SO2 height from OMI radiance data. The algorithm is fast and takes less than 10 min for a single orbit. Retrievals were tested on four eruption cases, and results had reasonable agreement (within 2 km) with other retrievals and previous studies.
Marc Prange, Manfred Brath, and Stefan Alexander Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We investigate the ability of the hyperspectral infrared satellite instrument IASI to resolve moist layers in the tropical free troposphere in a model framework. Previous observational results indicated major deficiencies of passive satellite instruments to resolve moist layers around the freezing level. We show that the humidity retrieval can be improved by better resolving the temperature structure and conclude that such moist layers do not pose an inherent satellite blind spot.
Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Debra Wunch, Joseph Mendonca, Colm Sweeney, Bianca Baier, Sébastien C. Biraud, Joshua L. Laughner, Geoffrey C. Toon, and Brian J. Connor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3087–3118,Short summary
We evaluate CO2 profile retrievals from ground-based near-infrared solar absorption spectra after implementing several improvements to the GFIT2 retrieval algorithm. Realistic errors in the a priori temperature profile (~ 2 °C in the lower troposphere) are found to be the leading source of differences between the retrieved and true CO2 profiles, differences that are larger than typical CO2 variability. A temperature retrieval or correction is critical to improve CO2 profile retrieval results.
David Garcia-Nieto, Nuria Benavent, Rafael Borge, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2941–2955,Short summary
Trace gases play a key role in the chemistry of urban atmospheres. Therefore, knowledge about their spatial distribution is needed to fully characterize the air quality in urban areas. Using a new Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy two-dimensional (MAXDOAS-2D) instrument, along with inversion algorithms, we report for the first time two-dimensional maps of NO2 concentrations in the city of Madrid, Spain.
Mohammad El Aabaribaoune, Emanuele Emili, and Vincent Guidard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2841–2856,Short summary
This work aims to use correlated IASI errors in the ozone band within a chemical transport model assimilation. The validation of the results against ozone observations from ozonesondes, MLS, and OMI instruments has shown an improvement of the ozone distribution. The computational time was also highly reduced. The surface sea temperature was also improved. The work aims to improve the quality of the ozone prediction, which is important for air quality, climate, and meteorological applications.
David R. Thompson, Brian H. Kahn, Philip G. Brodrick, Matthew D. Lebsock, Mark Richardson, and Robert O. Green
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2827–2840,Short summary
Concentrations of water vapor in the atmosphere vary dramatically over space and time. Mapping this variability can provide insights into atmospheric processes that help us understand atmospheric processes in the Earth system. Here we use a new measurement strategy based on imaging spectroscopy to map atmospheric water vapor concentrations at very small spatial scales. Experiments demonstrate the accuracy of this technique and some initial results from an airborne remote sensing experiment.
Daniel J. Varon, Dylan Jervis, Jason McKeever, Ian Spence, David Gains, and Daniel J. Jacob
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2771–2785,Short summary
Satellites can detect methane emissions by measuring sunlight reflected from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Here we show that the European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 twin satellites can be used to monitor anomalously large methane point sources around the world, with global coverage every 2–5 days and 20 m spatial resolution. We demonstrate this previously unreported capability through high-frequency Sentinel-2 monitoring of two strong methane point sources in Algeria and Turkmenistan.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Robert Spurr, Kai Yang, Caroline R. Nowlan, Christopher Chan Miller, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2659–2672,Short summary
We apply a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach combined with lookup tables (LUTs) of corrections to accelerate the VLIDORT radiative transfer (RT) model used in the retrieval of ozone profiles from backscattered ultraviolet (UV) measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI).
Eloise A. Marais, John F. Roberts, Robert G. Ryan, Henk Eskes, K. Folkert Boersma, Sungyeon Choi, Joanna Joiner, Nader Abuhassan, Alberto Redondas, Michel Grutter, Alexander Cede, Laura Gomez, and Monica Navarro-Comas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2389–2408,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides in the upper troposphere have a profound influence on the global troposphere, but routine reliable observations there are exceedingly rare. We apply cloud-slicing to TROPOMI total columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at high spatial resolution to derive near-global observations of NO2 in the upper troposphere and show consistency with existing datasets. These data offer tremendous potential to address knowledge gaps in this oft underappreciated portion of the atmosphere.
Ellis Remsberg, V. Lynn Harvey, Arlin Krueger, and Murali Natarajan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2185–2199,Short summary
The LIMS satellite instrument operated in 1978/1979 and provided profiles of temperature (T) and four key species. LIMS viewed the atmosphere in opposite directions on its ascending (A) vs. descending (D) orbital segments. We find that (A-D) diagnostic plots of the species contain residual T biases that are a problem for assimilation of profiles in re-analyses. Even so, the combined data yield fields of O3 and H2O that agree well with that of the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Vijay Natraj, Feng Xu, Sihe Chen, Fang-Ying Gong, Thomas J. Pongetti, Keeyoon Sung, Geoffrey Toon, Stanley P. Sander, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Large carbon source regions such as megacities are also typically associated with heavy aerosol loading, which introduces uncertainties in the retrieval of greenhouse gases from reflected and scattered sunlight measurements. In this study, we developed a full physics algorithm to retrieve greenhouse gases in the presence of aerosols and demonstrated its performance by retrieving CO2 and CH4 columns from remote sensing measurements in the Los Angeles megacity.
Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Oliver Schneising, Michael Hilker, Blanca Fuentes Andrade, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hartmut Boesch, Lianghai Wu, Jochen Landgraf, Ilse Aben, Christian Retscher, Christopher W. O'Dell, and David Crisp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2141–2166,Short summary
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during 2020 in large parts of the world. We have used a small ensemble of satellite retrievals of column-averaged CO2 (XCO2) to find out if a regional-scale reduction of atmospheric CO2 can be detected from space. We focus on East China and show that it is challenging to reliably detect and to accurately quantify the emission reduction, which only results in regional XCO2 reductions of about 0.1–0.2 ppm.
Nicola Zoppetti, Simone Ceccherini, Bruno Carli, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Cecilia Tirelli, Flavio Barbara, Rossana Dragani, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald van der A, and Ugo Cortesi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2041–2053,Short summary
The new platforms for Earth observation from space will provide an enormous amount of data that can be hard to exploit as a whole. The Complete Data Fusion algorithm can reduce the data volume while retaining the information of the full dataset. In this work, we applied the Complete Data Fusion algorithm to simulated ozone profiles, and the results show that the fused products are characterized by higher information content compared to individual L2 products.
Song Liu, Pieter Valks, Gaia Pinardi, Jian Xu, Ka Lok Chan, Athina Argyrouli, Ronny Lutz, Steffen Beirle, Ehsan Khorsandi, Frank Baier, Vincent Huijnen, Alkiviadis Bais, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Myrto Gratsea, François Hendrick, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Kezia Lange, Ankie J. M. Piters, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, Mark Wenig, and Diego G. Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
In this work, an improved tropospheric NO2 retrieval algorithm from TROPOMI measurements over Europe is presented. The stratospheric estimation is implemented with correction for the dependency of the stratospheric NO2 on the viewing geometry. The AMF calculation is implemented using improved surface albedo, a priori NO2 profiles, and cloud correction. The improved tropospheric NO2 data show good correlations with ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements.
Jakob Borchardt, Konstantin Gerilowski, Sven Krautwurst, Heinrich Bovensmann, Andrew K. Thorpe, David R. Thompson, Christian Frankenberg, Charles E. Miller, Riley M. Duren, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1267–1291,Short summary
The AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral imager has been used successfully to identify and quantify anthropogenic methane sources utilizing different retrieval and inversion methods. Here, we examine the adaption and application of the WFM-DOAS algorithm to AVIRIS-NG measurements to retrieve local methane column enhancements, compare the results with other retrievals, and quantify the uncertainties resulting from the retrieval method. Additionally, we estimate emissions from five detected methane plumes.
Stephanie P. Rusli, Otto Hasekamp, Joost aan de Brugh, Guangliang Fu, Yasjka Meijer, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1167–1190,Short summary
This study investigates the added value of multi-angle polarimeter (MAP) measurements for XCO2 retrievals, particularly in the context of the Copernicus Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Monitoring (CO2M) mission. In this paper, we derive the required MAP instrument specification, and we demonstrate that MAP observations significantly improve the retrieval performance and are needed to meet the XCO2 precision and accuracy requirements of the CO2M mission.
Bianca Lauster, Steffen Dörner, Steffen Beirle, Sebastian Donner, Sergey Gromov, Katharina Uhlmannsiek, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 769–783,Short summary
In urban areas, road traffic is a dominant source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, two multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments on opposite sides of a motorway were used to measure the nitrogen dioxide absorption near Mainz, Germany. Total nitrogen oxide emissions are estimated for the occurring traffic flux. We show that the measured emissions systematically exceed the maximum expected emissions calculated from the European emission standards.
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Andre Butz, Otto Hasekamp, Joost aan de Brugh, Andreas Schneider, Lianghai Wu, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Debra Wunch, David F. Pollard, Kei Shiomi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Coleen M. Roehl, Paul O. Wennberg, Thorsten Warneke, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 665–684,Short summary
TROPOMI aboard Sentinel-5P satellite provides methane (CH4) measurements with exceptional temporal and spatial resolution. The study describes a series of improvements developed to retrieve CH4 from TROPOMI. The updated CH4 product features (among others) a more accurate a posteriori correction derived independently of any reference data. The validation of the improved data product shows good agreement with ground-based and satellite measurements, which highlights the quality of the TROPOMI CH4.
Kimberlee Dubé, Adam Bourassa, Daniel Zawada, Douglas Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, David Flittner, and William Randel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 557–566,Short summary
SAGE III/ISS measures profiles of NO2; however the algorithm to convert raw measurements to NO2 concentration neglects variations caused by changes in chemistry over the course of a day. We devised a procedure to account for these diurnal variations and assess their impact on NO2 measurements from SAGE III/ISS. We find that the new NO2 concentration is more than 10 % lower than NO2 from the standard algorithm below 30 km, showing that this effect is important to consider at lower altitudes.
Lok N. Lamsal, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Alexander Vasilkov, Sergey Marchenko, Wenhan Qin, Eun-Su Yang, Zachary Fasnacht, Joanna Joiner, Sungyeon Choi, David Haffner, William H. Swartz, Bradford Fisher, and Eric Bucsela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 455–479,Short summary
The NASA standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) version 4.0 product for OMI Aura incorporates the most salient improvements. It represents the first global satellite trace gas retrieval with OMI–MODIS synergy accounting for surface reflectance anisotropy in cloud and NO2 retrievals. Improved spectral fitting procedures for NO2 and oxygen dimer (for cloud) retrievals and reliance on high-resolution field-of-view-specific input information for NO2 and cloud retrievals help enhance the NO2 data quality.
Diego Santaren, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Frédéric Chevallier, Denis Siméoni, Bo Zheng, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 403–433,Short summary
Atmospheric transport inversions with synthetic data are used to assess the potential of new satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 to monitor anthropogenic emissions from regions, cities and large industrial plants. The analysis, applied to a large ensemble of sources in western Europe, shows a strong dependence of the results on different characteristics of the spaceborne instrument, on the source emission budgets and spreads, and on the wind conditions.
Leslie David, François-Marie Bréon, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 117–132,Short summary
This paper shows that a neural network (NN) approach can be used to process spaceborne observations from the OCO-2 satellite and retrieve both surface pressure and atmospheric CO2 content. The accuracy evaluation indicates that the retrievals have an accuracy that is at least as good as those of the operational approach, which relies on complex algorithms and is computer intensive. The NN approach is therefore a promising alternative for the processing of CO2-monitoring missions.
Yunxia Huang, Vijay Natraj, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Pushkar Kopparla, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6755–6769,Short summary
As a greenhouse gas with strong global warming potential, atmospheric methane emissions have attracted a great deal of attention. However, accurate assessment of these emissions is challenging in the presence of atmospheric particulates called aerosols. We quantify the aerosol impact on methane quantification from airborne measurements using two techniques, one that has traditionally been used by the imaging spectroscopy community and the other commonly employed in trace gas remote sensing.
Gerrit Kuhlmann, Dominik Brunner, Grégoire Broquet, and Yasjka Meijer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6733–6754,Short summary
The European CO2M mission is a proposed constellation of CO2 imaging satellites expected to monitor CO2 emissions of large cities. Using synthetic observations, we show that a constellation of two or more satellites should be able to quantify Berlin's annual emissions with 10–20 % accuracy, even when considering atmospheric transport model errors. We therefore expect that CO2M will make an important contribution to the monitoring and verification of CO2 emissions from cities worldwide.
Wenjing Su, Cheng Liu, Ka Lok Chan, Qihou Hu, Haoran Liu, Xiangguang Ji, Yizhi Zhu, Ting Liu, Chengxin Zhang, Yujia Chen, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6271–6292,Short summary
The paper presents an improved retrieval of the TROPOMI tropospheric HCHO column over China. The new retrieval optimized both slant column retrieval and air mass factor calculation for TROPOMI observations of HCHO over China. The improved TROPOMI HCHO is subsequently validated by MAX-DOAS observations. Compared to the operational product, the improved HCHO agrees better with the MAX-DOAS data and thus is better suited for the analysis of regional- and city-scale pollution in China.
Anqi Li, Chris Z. Roth, Kristell Pérot, Ole Martin Christensen, Adam Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, and Donal P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6215–6236,Short summary
The OSIRIS IR imager, one of the instruments on the Odin satellite, routinely measures the oxygen airglow at 1.27 μm. In this study, we primarily focus on the steps done for retrieving the calibrated IRA band limb radiance, the volume emission rate of O2(a1∆g) and finally the ozone number density. Specifically, we use a novel approach to address the issue of the measurements that were made close to the local sunrise, where the O2(a1∆g) diverges from the equilibrium state.
Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Peter J. T. Leonard, Simon Carn, Joanna Joiner, Robert J. D. Spurr, and Alexander Vasilkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6175–6191,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important pollutant that causes haze and acid rain. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global observation of SO2 from space for over 15 years. In this paper, we introduce a new OMI SO2 dataset for global pollution monitoring. The dataset better accounts for the influences of different factors such as location and sun and satellite angles, leading to improved data quality. The new OMI SO2 dataset is publicly available through NASA's data center.
Yeyuan Huang, Ang Li, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhaokun Hu, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Hongmei Ren, Julia Remmers, Xiaoyi Fang, and Bing Dang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6025–6051,Short summary
Mobile DOAS has become an important tool for the quantification of emission sources. In this study, we focused on the error budget of mobile DOAS measurements from NOx and SO2 point sources based on the model simulations, and we also offered recommendations for the optimum settings of such measurements.
David M. Hyman and Michael J. Pavolonis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5891–5921,Short summary
Understanding the lateral extent, altitude, and amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important for studying volcanic clouds in support of aviation safety and for analyzing the effects of volcanoes on global climate. In this study, we detail an enhanced satellite measurement that provides probability distributions for the altitude and concentration of SO2 instead of single estimates using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Manfred Birk, Georg Wagner, Iouli E. Gordon, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5845–5854,Short summary
This paper evaluates different sets of high-resolution ozone absorption cross-section data for use in atmospheric ozone profile measurements in the Hartley and Huggins bands with a particular focus on BDM 1995 (Daumont et al. 1992; Brion et al., 1993; Malicet et al., 1995) currently used in our retrievals and a new laboratory dataset by Birk and Wagner (BW) (2018).
Cody M. Webber and John P. Kerekes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5359–5367,Short summary
Here we present a study performed to determine the methane detection capabilities of a novel remote thermal instrument, the Multiband Uncooled Radiometer Imager. We utilize a novel methane detection approach, the normalized differential methane index, that when applied to simulated multispectral thermal imagery with a single spectral channel dedicated to methane detection shows similar results to a state-of-the-art method, the matched-filter approach.
Minqiang Zhou, Pucai Wang, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Ting Wang, Yang Yang, Denghui Ji, Liang Ran, Jinqiang Zhang, Yuejian Xuan, Hongbin Chen, Françoise Posny, Valentin Duflot, Jean-Marc Metzger, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5379–5394,Short summary
We study O3 retrievals in the 3040 cm-1 spectral range from FTIR measurements at Xianghe China (39.75° N, 116.96° E; 50 m a.s.l.) between June 2018 and December 2019. It was found that the FTIR O3 (3040 cm-1) retrievals capture the seasonal and synoptic variations of O3 very well. The systematic and random uncertainties of FTIR O3 (3040 cm-1) total column are about 13.6 % and 1.4 %, respectively. The DOFS is 2.4±0.3 (1σ), with two individual pieces of information in surface–20 km and 20–40 km.
L. Larrabee Strow and Sergio DeSouza-Machado
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4619–4644,Short summary
The NASA AIRS satellite instrument has measured the infrared emission of the Earth continuously since 2002. If AIRS measurements are stable, these radiances can provide globally consistent multi-decadal trends of important climate variables, including the Earth's surface temperature, and the atmospheric temperature and humidity vs. height. Using the sensitivity of the AIRS radiances to well-known carbon dioxide trends, we show that AIRS is stable to 0.02 K per decade, well below climate trends.
Ka Lok Chan, Matthias Wiegner, Jos van Geffen, Isabelle De Smedt, Carlos Alberti, Zhibin Cheng, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4499–4520,Short summary
The paper presents 2D MAX-DOAS observations of vertical distributions of aerosol extinction, NO2 and HCHO in Munich. The measured surface aerosol extinction coefficients and NO2 mixing ratios are compared to in situ monitoring data. The NO2 and HCHO data are subsequently used to validate satellite measurements. The MAX-DOAS measurements are also used to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristic of NO2 and HCHO in Munich.
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Application of global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) for atmospheric remote sensing (GNSS meteorology) is a well-established field in both research and operation in Europe. This review covers the state of the art in GNSS meteorology in Europe. It discusses 1) advances in GNSS processing techniques and tropospheric products, 2) use in numerical weather prediction and nowcasting, and 3) climate research.
Application of global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) for atmospheric remote sensing (GNSS...