Articles | Volume 14, issue 8
Research article
17 Aug 2021
Research article |  | 17 Aug 2021

High-temporal-resolution wet delay gradients estimated from multi-GNSS and microwave radiometer observations

Tong Ning and Gunnar Elgered

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Cited articles

Baldysz, Z., Nykiel, G., Figurski, M., and Araszkiewicz, A.: Assessment of the impact of GNSS processing strategies on the long-term parameters of 20 years IWV time series, Remote Sens.-Basel, 10, 496,, 2018. a
Bar-Sever, Y.-E., Kroger, P. M., and Börjesson, J. A.: Estimating horizontal gradients of tropospheric path delay with a single GPS receiver, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 5019–5035,, 1998. a, b, c
Boehm, J., Werl, B. and Schuh, H.: Troposphere mapping functions for GPS and very long baseline interferometry from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts operational analysis data, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B02406,, 2006. a
Davis, J. L., Elgered, G., Niell, A. E., and Kuehn, C. E.: Ground-based measurement of gradients in the “wet” radio refractivity of air, Radio Sci., 28, 1003–1018,, 1993. a
Elgered, G. and Ning, T.: High temporal resolution wet delay gradients estimated from multi-GNSS and microwave radiometer observations, Chalmers University of Technology, Space, Earth and Environmental Science, Swedish National Data Service [data set], Version 1,, 2021. a
Short summary
We have estimated horizontal gradients of the propagation delay caused by water vapour in the atmosphere using two independent techniques, namely global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and microwave radiometry. The highest resolution was 5 min. We found that the sampling of the atmosphere in different directions is an important factor for high correlations between the two techniques and that GNSS data can be used to detect large short-lived gradients, however, with increased formal errors.