Articles | Volume 15, issue 15
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Polarization performance simulation for the GeoXO atmospheric composition instrument: NO2 retrieval impacts
GeoThinkTank LLC, Miami, FL, USA
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
GeoThinkTank LLC, Miami, FL, USA
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
GeoThinkTank LLC, Miami, FL, USA
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
GeoThinkTank LLC, Miami, FL, USA
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research (GESTAR II), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD, USA
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
No articles found.
Fei Liu, Steffen Beirle, Joanna Joiner, Sungyeon Choi, Zhining Tao, K. Emma Knowland, Steven J. Smith, Daniel Q. Tong, Siqi Ma, Zachary T. Fasnacht, and Thomas Wagner
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Using satellite data, we developed a coupled method independent of the chemical transport model to map NOx emissions across US cities. After validating our technique with synthetic data, we charted NOx emissions from 2018−2021 in 39 cities. Our results closely matched EPA estimates but also highlighted some inconsistencies in both magnitude and spatial distribution. This research can help refine strategies for monitoring and managing air quality.
Vitali Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Nicolas Theys, and Simon Carn
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).Short summary
Snow covered terrain, with its high reflectance in the UV, typically enhances satellite sensitivity to boundary layer pollution. However, a significant fraction of high-quality cloud-free measurements over snow is currently excluded from analyses. In this study, we investigated how satellite SO2 measurements over snow-covered surfaces can be used to improve estimations of annual SO2 emissions.
Laura Hyesung Yang, Daniel J. Jacob, Nadia K. Colombi, Shixian Zhai, Kelvin H. Bates, Viral Shah, Ellie Beaudry, Robert M. Yantosca, Haipeng Lin, Jared F. Brewer, Heesung Chong, Katherine R. Travis, James H. Crawford, Lok N. Lamsal, Ja-Ho Koo, and Jhoon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2465–2481,Short summary
A geostationary satellite can now provide hourly NO2 vertical columns, and obtaining the NO2 vertical columns from space relies on NO2 vertical distribution from the chemical transport model (CTM). In this work, we update the CTM to better represent the chemistry environment so that the CTM can accurately provide NO2 vertical distribution. We also find that the changes in NO2 vertical distribution driven by a change in mixing depth play an important role in the NO2 column's diurnal variation.
Amir H. Souri, Matthew S. Johnson, Glenn M. Wolfe, James H. Crawford, Alan Fried, Armin Wisthaler, William H. Brune, Donald R. Blake, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Corinne Vigouroux, Bavo Langerock, Sungyeon Choi, Lok Lamsal, Lei Zhu, Shuai Sun, Ronald C. Cohen, Kyung-Eun Min, Changmin Cho, Sajeev Philip, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1963–1986,Short summary
We have rigorously characterized different sources of error in satellite-based HCHO / NO2 tropospheric columns, a widely used metric for diagnosing near-surface ozone sensitivity. Specifically, the errors were categorized/quantified into (i) an inherent chemistry error, (ii) the decoupled relationship between columns and the near-surface concentration, (iii) the spatial representativeness error of ground satellite pixels, and (iv) the satellite retrieval errors.
Joanna Joiner, Sergey Marchenko, Zachary Fasnacht, Lok Lamsal, Can Li, Alexander Vasilkov, and Nickolay Krotkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 481–500,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important trace gas for both air quality and climate. NO2 affects satellite ocean color products. A new ocean color instrument – OCI (Ocean Color Instrument) – will be launched in 2024 on a NASA satellite. We show that it will be possible to measure NO2 from OCI even though it was not designed for this. The techniques developed here, based on machine learning, can also be applied to instruments already in space to speed up algorithms and reduce the effects of noise.
Viral Shah, Daniel J. Jacob, Ruijun Dang, Lok N. Lamsal, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, K. Folkert Boersma, Sebastian D. Eastham, Thibaud M. Fritz, Chelsea Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Ilana B. Pollack, Benjamin A. Nault, Ronald C. Cohen, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Simone T. Andersen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Tomás Sherwen, and Mat J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1227–1257,Short summary
NOx in the free troposphere (above 2 km) affects global tropospheric chemistry and the retrieval and interpretation of satellite NO2 measurements. We evaluate free tropospheric NOx in global atmospheric chemistry models and find that recycling NOx from its reservoirs over the oceans is faster than that simulated in the models, resulting in increases in simulated tropospheric ozone and OH. Over the U.S., free tropospheric NO2 contributes the majority of the tropospheric NO2 column in summer.
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Ihab Abboud, Nickolay Krotkov, Peter J. T. Leonard, Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Nicolas Theys, and Simon Carn
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 75–93,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from three satellite instruments were used to update and extend the previously developed global catalogue of large SO2 emission sources. This version 2 of the global catalogue covers the period of 2005–2021 and includes a total of 759 continuously emitting point sources. The catalogue data show an approximate 50 % decline in global SO2 emissions between 2005 and 2021, although emissions were relatively stable during the last 3 years.
Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Fei Liu, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Vitali Fioletov, and Chris McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5497–5514,Short summary
Satellite observations provide information on the sources of SO2, an important pollutant that affects both air quality and climate. However, these observations suffer from relatively poor data quality due to weak signals of SO2. Here, we use a machine learning technique to analyze satellite SO2 observations in order to reduce the noise and artifacts over relatively clean areas while keeping the signals near pollution sources. This leads to significant improvement in satellite SO2 data.
Fei Liu, Zhining Tao, Steffen Beirle, Joanna Joiner, Yasuko Yoshida, Steven J. Smith, K. Emma Knowland, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1333–1349,Short summary
In this work, we present a novel method to infer NOx emissions and lifetimes based on tropospheric NO2 observations together with reanalysis wind fields for cities located in polluted backgrounds. We evaluate the accuracy of the method using synthetic NO2 observations derived from a high-resolution model simulation. Our work provides an estimate for uncertainties in satellite-derived emissions inferred from chemical transport model (CTM)-independent approaches.
Nick Gorkavyi, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Leslie Lait, Peter Colarco, Simon Carn, Matthew DeLand, Paul Newman, Mark Schoeberl, Ghassan Taha, Omar Torres, Alexander Vasilkov, and Joanna Joiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7545–7563,Short summary
The 21 June 2019 eruption of the Raikoke volcano produced significant amounts of volcanic aerosols (sulfate and ash) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas that penetrated into the lower stratosphere. We showed that the amount of SO2 decreases with a characteristic period of 8–18 d and the peak of sulfate aerosol lags the initial peak of SO2 by 1.5 months. We also examined the dynamics of an unusual stratospheric coherent circular cloud of SO2 and aerosol observed from 18 July to 22 September 2019.
Luis Guanter, Cédric Bacour, Andreas Schneider, Ilse Aben, Tim A. van Kempen, Fabienne Maignan, Christian Retscher, Philipp Köhler, Christian Frankenberg, Joanna Joiner, and Yongguang Zhang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5423–5440,Short summary
Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is an electromagnetic signal emitted by plants in the red and far-red parts of the spectrum. It has a functional link to photosynthesis and can be measured by satellite instruments, which makes it an important variable for the remote monitoring of the photosynthetic activity of vegetation ecosystems around the world. In this contribution we present a SIF dataset derived from the new Sentinel-5P TROPOMI missions.
Siqi Ma, Daniel Tong, Lok Lamsal, Julian Wang, Xuelei Zhang, Youhua Tang, Rick Saylor, Tianfeng Chai, Pius Lee, Patrick Campbell, Barry Baker, Shobha Kondragunta, Laura Judd, Timothy A. Berkoff, Scott J. Janz, and Ivanka Stajner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16531–16553,Short summary
Predicting high ozone gets more challenging as urban emissions decrease. How can different techniques be used to foretell the quality of air to better protect human health? We tested four techniques with the CMAQ model against observations during a field campaign over New York City. The new system proves to better predict the magnitude and timing of high ozone. These approaches can be extended to other regions to improve the predictability of high-O3 episodes in contemporary urban environments.
Jianfeng Li, Yuhang Wang, Ruixiong Zhang, Charles Smeltzer, Andrew Weinheimer, Jay Herman, K. Folkert Boersma, Edward A. Celarier, Russell W. Long, James J. Szykman, Ruben Delgado, Anne M. Thompson, Travis N. Knepp, Lok N. Lamsal, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Xiong Liu, and Caroline R. Nowlan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11133–11160,Short summary
Comprehensive evaluations of simulated diurnal cycles of NO2 and NOy concentrations, vertical profiles, and tropospheric vertical column densities at two different resolutions with various measurements during the DISCOVER-AQ 2011 campaign show potential distribution biases of NOx emissions in the National Emissions Inventory 2011 at both 36 and 4 km resolutions, providing another possible explanation for the overestimation of model results.
Anam M. Khan, Paul C. Stoy, James T. Douglas, Martha Anderson, George Diak, Jason A. Otkin, Christopher Hain, Elizabeth M. Rehbein, and Joel McCorkel
Biogeosciences, 18, 4117–4141,Short summary
Remote sensing has played an important role in the study of land surface processes. Geostationary satellites, such as the GOES-R series, can observe the Earth every 5–15 min, providing us with more observations than widely used polar-orbiting satellites. Here, we outline current efforts utilizing geostationary observations in environmental science and look towards the future of GOES observations in the carbon cycle, ecosystem disturbance, and other areas of application in environmental science.
Wenfu Tang, David P. Edwards, Louisa K. Emmons, Helen M. Worden, Laura M. Judd, Lok N. Lamsal, Jassim A. Al-Saadi, Scott J. Janz, James H. Crawford, Merritt N. Deeter, Gabriele Pfister, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Benjamin Gaubert, and Caroline R. Nowlan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4639–4655,Short summary
We use high-resolution airborne mapping spectrometer measurements to assess sub-grid variability within satellite pixels over urban regions. The sub-grid variability within satellite pixels increases with increasing satellite pixel sizes. Temporal variability within satellite pixels decreases with increasing satellite pixel sizes. This work is particularly relevant and useful for future satellite design, satellite data interpretation, and point-grid data comparisons.
Alexander Vasilkov, Nickolay Krotkov, Eun-Su Yang, Lok Lamsal, Joanna Joiner, Patricia Castellanos, Zachary Fasnacht, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2857–2871,Short summary
To explicitly account for aerosol effects in the OMI cloud and nitrogen dioxide algorithms, we use a model of aerosol optical properties from a global aerosol assimilation system and radiative transfer computations. Accounting for anisotropic reflection of Earth's surface is an important feature of the approach. Comparisons of the cloud and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide retrievals with implicit and explicit aerosol corrections are carried out for a selected area with high pollution.
Eloise A. Marais, John F. Roberts, Robert G. Ryan, Henk Eskes, K. Folkert Boersma, Sungyeon Choi, Joanna Joiner, Nader Abuhassan, Alberto Redondas, Michel Grutter, Alexander Cede, Laura Gomez, and Monica Navarro-Comas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2389–2408,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides in the upper troposphere have a profound influence on the global troposphere, but routine reliable observations there are exceedingly rare. We apply cloud-slicing to TROPOMI total columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at high spatial resolution to derive near-global observations of NO2 in the upper troposphere and show consistency with existing datasets. These data offer tremendous potential to address knowledge gaps in this oft underappreciated portion of the atmosphere.
Junjie Liu, Latha Baskaran, Kevin Bowman, David Schimel, A. Anthony Bloom, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, Dustin Carroll, Dimitris Menemenlis, Joanna Joiner, Roisin Commane, Bruce Daube, Lucianna V. Gatti, Kathryn McKain, John Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Colm Sweeney, and Steven Wofsy
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 299–330,Short summary
On average, the terrestrial biosphere carbon sink is equivalent to ~ 20 % of fossil fuel emissions. Understanding where and why the terrestrial biosphere absorbs carbon from the atmosphere is pivotal to any mitigation policy. Here we present a regionally resolved satellite-constrained net biosphere exchange (NBE) dataset with corresponding uncertainties between 2010–2018: CMS-Flux NBE 2020. The dataset provides a unique perspective on monitoring regional contributions to the CO2 growth rate.
Nick Gorkavyi, Zachary Fasnacht, David Haffner, Sergey Marchenko, Joanna Joiner, and Alexander Vasilkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 961–974,Short summary
Various instrumental or geophysical artifacts, such as saturation, stray light or obstruction of light, negatively impact satellite measured ultraviolet and visible Earthshine radiance spectra. Here, we introduce a straightforward detection method that is based on the correlation, r, between the observed Earthshine radiance and solar irradiance spectra over a 10 nm spectral range; our decorrelation index (DI for brevity) is simply defined as DI of 1–r.
Lok N. Lamsal, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Alexander Vasilkov, Sergey Marchenko, Wenhan Qin, Eun-Su Yang, Zachary Fasnacht, Joanna Joiner, Sungyeon Choi, David Haffner, William H. Swartz, Bradford Fisher, and Eric Bucsela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 455–479,Short summary
The NASA standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) version 4.0 product for OMI Aura incorporates the most salient improvements. It represents the first global satellite trace gas retrieval with OMI–MODIS synergy accounting for surface reflectance anisotropy in cloud and NO2 retrievals. Improved spectral fitting procedures for NO2 and oxygen dimer (for cloud) retrievals and reliance on high-resolution field-of-view-specific input information for NO2 and cloud retrievals help enhance the NO2 data quality.
Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Peter J. T. Leonard, Simon Carn, Joanna Joiner, Robert J. D. Spurr, and Alexander Vasilkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6175–6191,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important pollutant that causes haze and acid rain. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global observation of SO2 from space for over 15 years. In this paper, we introduce a new OMI SO2 dataset for global pollution monitoring. The dataset better accounts for the influences of different factors such as location and sun and satellite angles, leading to improved data quality. The new OMI SO2 dataset is publicly available through NASA's data center.
Erik van Schaik, Maurits L. Kooreman, Piet Stammes, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Olaf N. E. Tuinder, Abram F. J. Sanders, Willem W. Verstraeten, Rüdiger Lang, Alessandra Cacciari, Joanna Joiner, Wouter Peters, and K. Folkert Boersma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4295–4315,Short summary
With our improved algorithm we have generated a stable, long-term dataset of fluorescence measurements from the GOME-2A satellite instrument. In this study we determined a correction for the degradation of GOME-2A in orbit and applied this correction along with other improvements to our SIFTER v2 retrieval algorithm. The result is a coherent dataset of daily and monthly averaged fluorescence values for the period 2007–2018 to track worldwide changes in photosynthetic activity by vegetation.
Sungyeon Choi, Lok N. Lamsal, Melanie Follette-Cook, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay A. Krotkov, William H. Swartz, Kenneth E. Pickering, Christopher P. Loughner, Wyat Appel, Gabriele Pfister, Pablo E. Saide, Ronald C. Cohen, Andrew J. Weinheimer, and Jay R. Herman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2523–2546,
Fei Liu, Bryan N. Duncan, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Lok N. Lamsal, Steffen Beirle, Debora Griffin, Chris A. McLinden, Daniel L. Goldberg, and Zifeng Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 99–116,Short summary
We present a novel method to infer CO2 emissions from individual power plants, based on satellite observations of co-emitted NO2. We find that the CO2 emissions estimated by our satellite-based method during 2005–2017 are in reasonable agreement with the CEMS measurements for US power plants. The broader implication of our methodology is that it has the potential to provide an additional constraint on CO2 emissions from power plants in regions of the world without reliable emissions accounting.
Zachary Fasnacht, Alexander Vasilkov, David Haffner, Wenhan Qin, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, Andrew M. Sayer, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6749–6769,Short summary
The anisotropy of Earth's surface reflection plays an important role in satellite-based retrievals of cloud, aerosol, and trace gases. Most current ultraviolet and visible satellite retrievals utilize climatological surface reflectivity databases that do not account for surface anisotropy. The GLER concept was introduced to account for such features. Here we evaluate GLER for water surfaces by comparing with OMI measurements and show that it captures these surface anisotropy features.
Wenhan Qin, Zachary Fasnacht, David Haffner, Alexander Vasilkov, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, Bradford Fisher, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3997–4017,Short summary
Satellite observations depend on Sun and view angles due to anisotropy of the Earth's atmosphere and surface reflection. But most of the ultraviolet and visible cloud, aerosol, and trace-gas algorithms utilize surface reflectivity databases that do not account for surface anisotropy. We create a surface database using the GLER concept which adequately accounts for surface anisotropy, validate it with independent satellite data, and provide a simple implementation to the current algorithms.
Rachel F. Silvern, Daniel J. Jacob, Loretta J. Mickley, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Katherine R. Travis, Eloise A. Marais, Ronald C. Cohen, Joshua L. Laughner, Sungyeon Choi, Joanna Joiner, and Lok N. Lamsal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8863–8878,Short summary
The US EPA reports a steady decrease in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from fuel combustion over the 2005–2017 period, while satellite observations show a leveling off after 2009, suggesting emission reductions and related air quality gains have halted. We show the sustained decrease in NOx emissions is in fact consistent with observed trends in surface NO2 and ozone concentrations and that the flattening of the satellite trend reflects a growing influence from the non-anthropogenic background.
Yuekui Yang, Kerry Meyer, Galina Wind, Yaping Zhou, Alexander Marshak, Steven Platnick, Qilong Min, Anthony B. Davis, Joanna Joiner, Alexander Vasilkov, David Duda, and Wenying Su
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2019–2031,Short summary
The physical basis of the EPIC cloud product algorithms and an initial evaluation of their performance are presented. EPIC cloud products include cloud mask, effective height, and optical depth. Comparison with co-located retrievals from geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) satellites shows that the algorithms are performing well and are consistent with theoretical expectations. These products are publicly available at the NASA Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center.
Cristen Adams, Chris A. McLinden, Mark W. Shephard, Nolan Dickson, Enrico Dammers, Jack Chen, Paul Makar, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Naomi Tam, Shailesh K. Kharol, Lok N. Lamsal, and Nickolay A. Krotkov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2577–2599,Short summary
We estimated how much carbon monoxide, ammonia, and nitrogen oxides were emitted in the smoke from the Fort McMurray Horse River wildfire using satellite data and air quality models. The fire emitted amounts of carbon monoxide that were similar to anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions for all of Alberta over a full year. We also estimated large amounts of ammonia and nitrogen oxides emitted from the fire. These results can be used to evaluate the performance of air quality forecasting models.
Daniel L. Goldberg, Pablo E. Saide, Lok N. Lamsal, Benjamin de Foy, Zifeng Lu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jinseok Kim, Meng Gao, Gregory Carmichael, and David G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1801–1818,Short summary
Using satellite data, we are able to estimate the emissions of NOx (NOx=NO+NO2), a toxic group of air pollutants, in the Seoul metropolitan area. We first develop an enhanced satellite product that better observes NO2 in urban regions. Using this new product, we derive NOx emissions to be twice as large as the emissions reported by the South Korean government. The implication is that the measures taken to reduce NOx emissions in South Korea have not been as effective as regulators have thought.
Eloise A. Marais, Daniel J. Jacob, Sungyeon Choi, Joanna Joiner, Maria Belmonte-Rivas, Ronald C. Cohen, Steffen Beirle, Lee T. Murray, Luke D. Schiferl, Viral Shah, and Lyatt Jaeglé
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17017–17027,Short summary
We intercompare two new products of global upper tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We evaluate these products with aircraft observations from NASA DC8 aircraft campaigns and interpret the useful information these products can provide about nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the global upper troposphere using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model.
Fei Liu, Sungyeon Choi, Can Li, Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Huisheng Bian, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Anton S. Darmenov, and Arlindo M. da Silva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16571–16586,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide measurements from space have been used to detect emissions from large sources. We developed a new emission inventory by combining the satellite-based emission estimates and the conventional bottom-up inventory for smaller sources. The new inventory improves the model agreement with in situ observations and offers the possibility of rapid updates to emissions.
Yao Zhang, Joanna Joiner, Seyed Hamed Alemohammad, Sha Zhou, and Pierre Gentine
Biogeosciences, 15, 5779–5800,Short summary
Using satellite reflectance measurements and a machine learning algorithm, we generated a new solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) dataset that is closely linked to plant photosynthesis. This new dataset has higher spatial and temporal resolutions, and lower uncertainty compared to the existing satellite retrievals. We also demonstrated its application in monitoring drought and improving the understanding of the SIF–photosynthesis relationship.
Alexander Vasilkov, Eun-Su Yang, Sergey Marchenko, Wenhan Qin, Lok Lamsal, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, David Haffner, Pawan K. Bhartia, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4093–4107,Short summary
We discuss a new cloud algorithm that retrieves effective cloud fraction and cloud altitude and pressure from the oxygen dimer absorption band at 477 nm. The algorithm accounts for how changes in the sun–satellite geometry affect the surface reflection. The cloud fraction and pressure are used as inputs to the OMI algorithm that retrieves a pollutant gas called nitrogen dioxide. Impacts of the application of the newly developed cloud algorithm on the OMI nitrogen dioxide retrieval are discussed.
Marina Zara, K. Folkert Boersma, Isabelle De Smedt, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Jos H. G. M. van Geffen, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Michel Van Roozendael, Sergey Marchenko, Lok N. Lamsal, and Henk J. Eskes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4033–4058,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde satellite data are used for air quality and climate studies. We quantify and characterise slant column uncertainties from different research groups. Our evaluation is motivated by recently improved techniques and by a desire to provide fully traceable uncertainty budget for climate records generated within the QA4ECV project. The improved slant columns are in agreement but with substantial differences in the reported uncertainties between groups and instruments.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Joanna Joiner, Johanna Tamminen, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pawan K. Bhartia, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Bryan N. Duncan, David G. Streets, Henk Eskes, Ronald van der A, Chris McLinden, Vitali Fioletov, Simon Carn, Jos de Laat, Matthew DeLand, Sergey Marchenko, Richard McPeters, Jerald Ziemke, Dejian Fu, Xiong Liu, Kenneth Pickering, Arnoud Apituley, Gonzalo González Abad, Antti Arola, Folkert Boersma, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Martin de Graaf, Janne Hakkarainen, Seppo Hassinen, Iolanda Ialongo, Quintus Kleipool, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Lok Lamsal, Paul Newman, Caroline Nowlan, Raid Suleiman, Lieuwe Gijsbert Tilstra, Omar Torres, Huiqun Wang, and Krzysztof Wargan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5699–5745,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to highlight the many successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) spanning more than 13 years. Data from OMI have been used in a wide range of applications. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. OMI data continue to be used for new research and applications.
Jerald R. Ziemke, Sarah A. Strode, Anne R. Douglass, Joanna Joiner, Alexander Vasilkov, Luke D. Oman, Junhua Liu, Susan E. Strahan, Pawan K. Bhartia, and David P. Haffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4067–4078,Short summary
We combine satellite measurements of ozone and cloud properties from the Aura OMI and MLS instruments for 2004–2016 to measure ozone in the mid–upper levels of deep convective clouds. Our results ascribe upward injection of low boundary layer ozone (varying from low to high amounts) as a major driver of the measured concentrations of ozone in thick clouds. Our OMI/MLS generated ozone product is made available to the public for use in science applications.
Vitali Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Shailesh K. Kharol, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Michael D. Moran, Robert Vet, Antoon J. H. Visschedijk, and Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12597–12616,
Daniel L. Goldberg, Lok N. Lamsal, Christopher P. Loughner, William H. Swartz, Zifeng Lu, and David G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11403–11421,Short summary
We developed a new satellite NO2 product using a high spatial resolution (1.33 × 1.33 km) model simulation constrained by aircraft observations. The high-resolution satellite product is now able to observe the spatial heterogeneities of NO2 pollution over a large area with more clarity. The satellite is now in better agreement with monitors at ground level observing the same pollution.
Nickolay A. Krotkov, Lok N. Lamsal, Edward A. Celarier, William H. Swartz, Sergey V. Marchenko, Eric J. Bucsela, Ka Lok Chan, Mark Wenig, and Marina Zara
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3133–3149,Short summary
We describe the new version 3 OMI NO2 standard product (SPv3) based on significant improvements in both the estimation of the SCDs and the AMFs. The new SCDs and stratospheric VCDs are systematically lower (by ~ 10–40 %) than previous estimates. Tropospheric VCDs are also reduced over polluted areas. Initial evaluation over unpolluted areas has shown that the new SPv3 products agree better with independent satellite- and ground-based FTIR measurements.
Yan Zhang, Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Joanna Joiner, Vitali Fioletov, and Chris McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1495–1509,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate a very good consistency of the SO2 retrievals from OMI and OMPS using our state-of-the-art principal component analysis technique. Four full years of OMI and OMPS SO2 retrievals, during 2012–2015 have been analyzed over some of the world’s most polluted regions: eastern China, Mexico, and South Africa. The consistency of retrievals between OMI and OMPS make it possible to continue the long-term global SO2 pollution monitoring.
Alba Lorente, K. Folkert Boersma, Huan Yu, Steffen Dörner, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Mengyao Liu, Lok N. Lamsal, Michael Barkley, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Steffen Beirle, Jin-Tai Lin, Nickolay Krotkov, Piet Stammes, Ping Wang, Henk J. Eskes, and Maarten Krol
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 759–782,Short summary
Choices and assumptions made to represent the state of the atmosphere introduce an uncertainty of 42 % in the air mass factor calculation in trace gas satellite retrievals in polluted regions. The AMF strongly depends on the choice of a priori trace gas profile, surface albedo data set and the correction method to account for clouds and aerosols. We call for well-designed validation exercises focusing on situations when AMF structural uncertainty has the highest impact on satellite retrievals.
Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Simon Carn, Yan Zhang, Robert J. D. Spurr, and Joanna Joiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 445–458,Short summary
In this paper, we describe the new-generation OMI volcanic SO2 algorithm based on our principal component analysis (PCA) retrieval technique. We demonstrate significant improvement in the our new OMI volcanic SO2 data, with the retrieval noise reduced by a factor of 2 as compared with the previous dataset. The algorithm also improves the accuracy for large volcanic eruptions. It is also capable of producing consistent retrievals between different instruments.
Alexander Vasilkov, Wenhan Qin, Nickolay Krotkov, Lok Lamsal, Robert Spurr, David Haffner, Joanna Joiner, Eun-Su Yang, and Sergey Marchenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 333–349,Short summary
We show how the surface reflection can vary day to day in the blue part of the sun's spectrum where we measure the pollutant gas nitrogen dioxide using a satellite instrument called OMI. We use information from an imaging spectrometer on another satellite, MODIS, to estimate the angular surface effects. We can then use models of how the sunlight travels through the atmosphere to predict how the angle-dependent surface reflection will impact the values of pollutant levels inferred by OMI.
Iolanda Ialongo, Jay Herman, Nick Krotkov, Lok Lamsal, K. Folkert Boersma, Jari Hovila, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5203–5212,Short summary
We present the comparison between satellite- and ground-based atmospheric NO2 observations in Helsinki (Finland). The results show that, despite some limitations due to cloud contamination and low solar angles, satellite data are able to describe urban air quality features such as the weekly and seasonal cycles. The results support air quality satellite data exploitation at high latitudes and prepare for similar applications for future missions.
Quazi Z. Rasool, Rui Zhang, Benjamin Lash, Daniel S. Cohan, Ellen J. Cooter, Jesse O. Bash, and Lok N. Lamsal
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3177–3197,Short summary
This study updates the representation of soil NO emissions in a regional air quality model. The implementation enhances the representation of biome types and dynamic fertilizer use. Previous modeling of soil NO in CMAQ had tended to under-estimate emissions and misrepresent their response to soil conditions and meteorology. We evaluate results against satellite observations of NO2, and quantify the impacts of the new parameterization on simulations of ozone and particulate matter.
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Nicolas Theys, Simon Carn, and Mike D. Moran
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11497–11519,Short summary
We introduce the first space-based catalogue of SO2 emission sources seen by OMI. The inventory contains about 500 sources. They account for about a half of all SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr−1 and not detected by OMI. The sources are grouped by type (volcanoes, power plants, oil- and gas-related sources, and smelters) and country. The catalogue presented herein can be used for verification of available SO2 emission inventories.
Joanna Joiner, Yasuko Yoshida, Luis Guanter, and Elizabeth M. Middleton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3939–3967,Short summary
We examine new ways to use existing satellite instruments to retrieve red solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) over land and ocean. Our 8-year record of red SIF observations over land with the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) shows for the first time reductions in response to drought. High-quality ocean fluorescence can also be derived with GOME-2 and similar instruments by utilizing their rich measurements of different colors.
Pawan Gupta, Joanna Joiner, Alexander Vasilkov, and Pawan K. Bhartia
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2813–2826,Short summary
The A-train constellation of satellites provides a unique opportunity to analyze near-simultaneous data from several of these sensors. In this paper, retrievals of cloud/aerosols parameters and total column ozone (TCO) from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been used to develop a variety of neural networks that estimate TOA SWF globally over ocean and land using only OMI data as inputs. Application of our method to other ultraviolet sensors may provide unique estimates of TOA SWF.
Jinfeng Chang, Philippe Ciais, Mario Herrero, Petr Havlik, Matteo Campioli, Xianzhou Zhang, Yongfei Bai, Nicolas Viovy, Joanna Joiner, Xuhui Wang, Shushi Peng, Chao Yue, Shilong Piao, Tao Wang, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Jean-Francois Soussana, Anna Peregon, Natalya Kosykh, and Nina Mironycheva-Tokareva
Biogeosciences, 13, 3757–3776,Short summary
We derived the global maps of grassland management intensity of 1901–2012, including the minimum area of managed grassland with fraction of mown/grazed part. These maps, to our knowledge for the first time, provide global, time-dependent information for drawing up global estimates of management impact on biomass production and yields and for global vegetation models to enable simulations of carbon stocks and GHG budgets beyond simple tuning of grassland productivities to account for management.
Nickolay A. Krotkov, Chris A. McLinden, Can Li, Lok N. Lamsal, Edward A. Celarier, Sergey V. Marchenko, William H. Swartz, Eric J. Bucsela, Joanna Joiner, Bryan N. Duncan, K. Folkert Boersma, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pieternel F. Levelt, Vitali E. Fioletov, Russell R. Dickerson, Hao He, Zifeng Lu, and David G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4605–4629,Short summary
We examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over the world's most polluted regions during the first decade of Aura OMI observations. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased by 40 % and 80 %, respectively. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal power plants. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend been observed since 2011, with a 50 % reduction in 2012–2014. India's SO2 and NO2 levels are growing at a fast pace.
Joel McCorkel, Brian Cairns, and Andrzej Wasilewski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 955–962,Short summary
The transfer and maintenance of international radiometric standards to satellite remote-sensing instruments is a labor-intensive and costly one. The goal is to provide specific examples for calibration implementation for a potential instrument mission and, with this, advance debate on the roles that the various satellite calibration techniques play in providing the best radiometric standards for Earth-observing sensors.
Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, B. de Foy, L. N. Lamsal, B. N. Duncan, and J. Xing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10367–10383,Short summary
Using an exponentially modified Gaussian method and taking into account the effect of wind on NO2 distributions, we estimate 3-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the OMI during 2005−2014. Total OMI-derived NOx emissions over US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 49, and 44% in the bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively.
P. Köhler, L. Guanter, and J. Joiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2589–2608,Short summary
The paper presents recent developments for the retrieval of sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) from medium spectral resolution space-borne spectrometers such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY). Beside using simulated radiances to evaluate the retrieval performance, the method has also been used to estimate SIF at 740 nm using real spectra from GOME-2 and for the first time, from SCIAMACHY.
L. Guanter, I. Aben, P. Tol, J. M. Krijger, A. Hollstein, P. Köhler, A. Damm, J. Joiner, C. Frankenberg, and J. Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1337–1352,Short summary
This paper investigates the potential of the upcoming TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) instrument for the retrieval of the chlorophyll fluorescence signal emitted in the 650–850nm spectral range by the photosynthetic machinery of green plants. We find that TROPOMI will allow substantial improvements in the space monitoring of fluorescence with respect to current spaceborne instruments such as GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY.
W. Tang, D. S. Cohan, A. Pour-Biazar, L. N. Lamsal, A. T. White, X. Xiao, W. Zhou, B. H. Henderson, and B. F. Lash
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1601–1619,Short summary
A joint application of multiple satellite-derived model inputs to improve Texas O3 SIP modeling is demonstrated in this study. The GOES-retrieved clouds are applied to correct the modeled photolysis rates, and the DKF inversion approach is incorporated into the CAMx-DDM model to adjust NOx emissions using OMI NO2. Using both GOES-derived photolysis rates and OMI-constrained NOx emissions together improves O3 simulations and makes O3 more sensitive to NOx emissions in the O3 non-attainment areas.
C. Liu, X. Liu, M. G. Kowalewski, S. J. Janz, G. González Abad, K. E. Pickering, K. Chance, and L. N. Lamsal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 751–759,Short summary
We characterize the wavelengths and slit functions of Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) measurements in ~304--500 nm through the cross-correlation technique. It is necessary to account for atmospheric gas absorption and the ring effect. The derived broadened Gaussian slit functions agree very well with laboratory measurements. Trace gas retrieval comparisons demonstrate that the cross-correlation technique can be reliably used to characterize slit functions.
L. N. Lamsal, N. A. Krotkov, E. A. Celarier, W. H. Swartz, K. E. Pickering, E. J. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, R. V. Martin, S. Philip, H. Irie, A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Weinheimer, J. J. Szykman, and T. N. Knepp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11587–11609,
S. Choi, J. Joiner, Y. Choi, B. N. Duncan, A. Vasilkov, N. Krotkov, and E. Bucsela
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10565–10588,
A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, and C. Seftor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2897–2906,
C. A. McLinden, V. Fioletov, K. F. Boersma, S. K. Kharol, N. Krotkov, L. Lamsal, P. A. Makar, R. V. Martin, J. P. Veefkind, and K. Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3637–3656,
W. Tang, D. S. Cohan, L. N. Lamsal, X. Xiao, and W. Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11005–11018,
J. Joiner, L. Guanter, R. Lindstrot, M. Voigt, A. P. Vasilkov, E. M. Middleton, K. F. Huemmrich, Y. Yoshida, and C. Frankenberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2803–2823,
E. J. Bucsela, N. A. Krotkov, E. A. Celarier, L. N. Lamsal, W. H. Swartz, P. K. Bhartia, K. F. Boersma, J. P. Veefkind, J. F. Gleason, and K. E. Pickering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2607–2626,
A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, and R. Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 981–990,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsOpen-path measurement of stable water isotopologues using mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopyTotal column ozone retrieval from a novel array spectroradiometerApplying machine learning to improve the near-real-time products of the Aura Microwave Limb SounderThe site-specific primary calibration conditions for the Brewer spectrophotometerPrecipitable water vapor retrievals using a ground-based infrared sky camera in subtropical South AmericaTheoretical assessment of the ability of the MicroCarb satellite city-scan observing mode to estimate urban CO2 emissionsUAV-based sampling systems to analyse greenhouse gases and volatile organic compounds encompassing compound-specific stable isotope analysisPerformance and polarization response of slit homogenizers for the GeoCarb missionExploring bias in the OCO-3 snapshot area mapping mode via geometry, surface, and aerosol effectsUpdated spectral radiance calibration on TIR bands for TANSO-FTS-2 onboard GOSAT-2Evaluation of the High Altitude Lidar Observatory (HALO) methane retrievals during the summer 2019 ACT-America campaignThe impact of aerosol fluorescence on long-term water vapor monitoring by Raman lidar and evaluation of a potential correction methodIntegrated airborne investigation of the air composition over the Russian sector of the ArcticMeasurement of the vertical atmospheric density profile from the X-ray Earth occultation of the Crab Nebula with Insight-HXMTQuantification and mitigation of the instrument effects and uncertainties of the airborne limb imaging FTIR GLORIAImproved calibration procedures for the EM27/SUN spectrometers of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON)Ground-based Ku-band microwave observations of ozone in the polar middle atmosphereTraceable total ozone column retrievals from direct solar spectral irradiance measurements in the ultravioletFar-ultraviolet airglow remote sensing measurements on Feng Yun 3-D meteorological satelliteThe NO2 camera based on gas correlation spectroscopyTotal water vapour columns derived from Sentinel 5P using the AMC-DOAS methodMobile and high-spectral-resolution Fabry–Pérot interferometer spectrographs for atmospheric remote sensingDiurnal variability of stratospheric column NO2 measured using direct solar and lunar spectra over Table Mountain, California (34.38° N)The “ideal” spectrograph for atmospheric observationsDifferential absorption lidar for water vapor isotopologues in the 1.98 µm spectral region: sensitivity analysis with respect to regional atmospheric variabilityAtmospheric carbon dioxide measurement from aircraft and comparison with OCO-2 and CarbonTracker model dataLong-term column-averaged greenhouse gas observations using a COCCON spectrometer at the high-surface-albedo site in Gobabeb, NamibiaA fully automated Dobson sun spectrophotometer for total column ozone and Umkehr measurementsSlit homogenizer introduced performance gain analysis based on the Sentinel-5/UVNS spectrometerOn the capability of the future ALTIUS ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared limb sounder to constrain modelled stratospheric ozoneMicroPulse DIAL (MPD) – a diode-laser-based lidar architecture for quantitative atmospheric profilingA multi-purpose, multi-rotor drone system for long-range and high-altitude volcanic gas plume measurementsTropospheric NO2 measurements using a three-wavelength optical parametric oscillator differential absorption lidarSpectral calibration of the MethaneAIR instrumentThe design and development of a tuneable and portable radiation source for in situ spectrometer characterisationPerformance of an open-path near-infrared measurement system for measurements of CO2 and CH4 during extended field trialsDetermination of the emission rates of CO2 point sources with airborne lidarThe GHGSat-D imaging spectrometerThermal and near-infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier transform spectrometer-2 (TANSO-FTS-2) on the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2) during its first year in orbitPrediction model for diffuser-induced spectral features in imaging spectrometersCharacterization and potential for reducing optical resonances in Fourier transform infrared spectrometers of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC)MUCCnet: Munich Urban Carbon Column networkEmission Monitoring Mobile Experiment (EMME): an overview and first results of the St. Petersburg megacity campaign 2019Effect of polyoxymethylene (POM-H Delrin) off-gassing within the Pandora head sensor on direct-sun and multi-axis formaldehyde column measurements in 2016–2019A powerful lidar system capable of 1 h measurements of water vapour in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere as well as the temperature in the upper stratosphere and mesosphereFirst high-resolution tropospheric NO2 observations from the Ultraviolet Visible Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer (UVHIS)Quantitative imaging of volcanic SO2 plumes using Fabry–Pérot interferometer correlation spectroscopyThree decades of tropospheric ozone lidar development at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, GermanySolar tracker with optical feedback and continuous rotationAssessment of global total column water vapor sounding using a spaceborne differential absorption radar
Daniel I. Herman, Griffin Mead, Fabrizio R. Giorgetta, Esther Baumann, Nathan A. Malarich, Brian R. Washburn, Nathan R. Newbury, Ian Coddington, and Kevin C. Cossel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4053–4066,Short summary
Measurements of the isotope ratio of water vapor provide information about the sources and history of water vapor at a given location, which can be used to understand the impacts of climate change on global water use. Here, we demonstrate a new method for measuring isotope ratios over long open-air paths, which can reduce sampling bias and provide more spatial averaging than standard point sensor methods. We show that this new technique has high sensitivity and accuracy.
Luca Egli, Julian Gröbner, Herbert Schill, and Eliane Maillard Barras
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2889–2902,Short summary
This paper introduces a new method to retrieve total column ozone with spectral ground-based measurements from a novel array spectroradiometer. Total column ozone estimates using the small, cost-effective, and robust instrument and the new retrieval method are compared with other co-located total column ozone instruments. The comparison shows that the new system performs similarly to other well-established instruments, which require substantially more maintenance than the system introduced here.
Frank Werner, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Luis F. Millán, William G. Read, Michael J. Schwartz, Paul A. Wagner, William H. Daffer, Alyn Lambert, Sasha N. Tolstoff, and Michelle L. Santee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2733–2751,Short summary
The algorithm that produces the near-real-time data products of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder has been updated. The new algorithm is based on machine learning techniques and yields data products with much improved accuracy. It is shown that the new algorithm outperforms the previous versions, even when it is trained on only a few years of satellite observations. This confirms the potential of applying machine learning to the near-real-time efforts of other current and future mission concepts.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Vitali Fioletov, Alberto Redondas, Julian Gröbner, Luca Egli, Franz Zeilinger, Javier López-Solano, Alberto Berjón Arroyo, James Kerr, Eliane Maillard Barras, Herman Smit, Michael Brohart, Reno Sit, Akira Ogyu, Ihab Abboud, and Sum Chi Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2273–2295,Short summary
The Brewer ozone spectrophotometer is one of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)'s standard ozone monitoring instruments since the 1980s. This work is aimed at obtaining answers to (1) why Brewer primary calibration work can only be performed at certain sites (e.g., Izaña and MLO) and (2) what is needed to assure the equivalence of calibration quality from different sites.
Elion Daniel Hack, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Henrique Melo Jorge Barbosa, Marcia Akemi Yamasoe, Dimitri Klebe, and Alexandre Lima Correia
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1263–1278,Short summary
Water vapor is a key factor when seeking to understand fast-changing processes when clouds and storms form and develop. We show here how images from a calibrated infrared camera can be used to derive how much water vapor there is in the atmosphere at a given time. Comparing our results to an established technique, for a case of stable atmospheric conditions, we found an agreement within 2.8 %. Water vapor sky maps can be retrieved every few minutes, day or night, under partly cloudy skies.
Kai Wu, Paul I. Palmer, Dien Wu, Denis Jouglet, Liang Feng, and Tom Oda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 581–602,Short summary
We evaluate the theoretical ability of the upcoming MicroCarb satellite to estimate urban CO2 emissions over Paris and London. We explore the relative performance of alternative two-sweep and three-sweep city observing modes and take into account the impacts of cloud cover and urban biological CO2 fluxes. Our results find both the two-sweep and three-sweep observing modes are able to reduce prior flux errors by 20 %–40 % depending on the prevailing wind direction and cloud coverage.
Simon Leitner, Wendelin Feichtinger, Stefan Mayer, Florian Mayer, Dustin Krompetz, Rebecca Hood-Nowotny, and Andrea Watzinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 513–527,Short summary
An increased social environmental awareness requires the monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We report on the development of two sampling devices (which can be mounted to a drone) and the subsequent measurement setup to analyse these gases. The functionality of the presented system was tested in the field, and the results emphasised the functionality of the sampling and measurement setup, demonstrating that it is a viable tool for monitoring GHGs and identifying their emission sources.
Sean Crowell, Tobias Haist, Michael Tscherpel, Jérôme Caron, Eric Burgh, and Berrien Moore III
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 195–208,Short summary
Variations in brightness in radiance measurements cause errors that can be mitigated with hardware that scrambles the pattern of the incoming light. GeoCarb took this route to minimize this source of errors, but lab testing determined that the solution chosen was too sensitive to the the polarization of the incoming light. Modeling found that this was a predictable result of using gold coatings in the design, which is typical of spaceflight optical instruments.
Emily Bell, Christopher W. O'Dell, Thomas E. Taylor, Aronne Merrelli, Robert R. Nelson, Matthäus Kiel, Annmarie Eldering, Robert Rosenberg, and Brendan Fisher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 109–133,Short summary
A small percentage of data from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3) instrument has been shown to have a geometry-related bias in the earliest public data release. This work shows that the bias is due to a complex interplay of aerosols and viewing geometry and is largely mitigated in the latest data version through improved bias correction and quality filtering.
Hiroshi Suto, Fumie Kataoka, Robert O. Knuteson, Kei Shiomi, Nobuhiro Kikuchi, and Akihiko Kuze
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5399–5413,Short summary
TANSO-FTS-2 onboard GOSAT-2 has operated nominally since February 2019, and the atmospheric radiance spectra it has acquired have been released to the public. This paper describes an updated model for spectral radiance calibration of TIR and its validation. The multi-satellite sensor and multi-angle comparison results suggest that the spectral radiance for TANSO-FTS-2 TIR, version v210210, is superior to that of the previous version in its consistency of multi-satellite sensor data.
Rory A. Barton-Grimley, Amin R. Nehrir, Susan A. Kooi, James E. Collins, David B. Harper, Anthony Notari, Joseph Lee, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, and Kenneth J. Davis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4623–4650,Short summary
HALO is a multi-functional lidar that measures CH4 columns and profiles of H2O mixing ratio and aerosol/cloud optical properties. HALO supports carbon cycle, weather dynamics, and radiation science suborbital research and is a technology testbed for future space-based differential absorption lidar missions. In 2019 HALO collected CH4 columns and aerosol/cloud profiles during the ACT-America campaign. Here we assess HALO's CH4 accuracy and precision compared to co-located in situ observations.
Fernando Chouza, Thierry Leblanc, Mark Brewer, Patrick Wang, Giovanni Martucci, Alexander Haefele, Hélène Vérèmes, Valentin Duflot, Guillaume Payen, and Philippe Keckhut
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4241–4256,Short summary
The comparison of water vapor lidar measurements with co-located radiosondes and aerosol backscatter profiles indicates that laser-induced aerosol fluorescence in smoke layers injected into the stratosphere can introduce very large and chronic wet biases above 15 km, thus impacting the ability of these systems to accurately estimate long-term water vapor trends. The proposed correction method presented in this work is able to reduce this fluorescence-induced bias from 75 % to under 5 %.
Boris D. Belan, Gerard Ancellet, Irina S. Andreeva, Pavel N. Antokhin, Viktoria G. Arshinova, Mikhail Y. Arshinov, Yurii S. Balin, Vladimir E. Barsuk, Sergei B. Belan, Dmitry G. Chernov, Denis K. Davydov, Alexander V. Fofonov, Georgii A. Ivlev, Sergei N. Kotel'nikov, Alexander S. Kozlov, Artem V. Kozlov, Katharine Law, Andrey V. Mikhal'chishin, Igor A. Moseikin, Sergei V. Nasonov, Philippe Nédélec, Olesya V. Okhlopkova, Sergei E. Ol'kin, Mikhail V. Panchenko, Jean-Daniel Paris, Iogannes E. Penner, Igor V. Ptashnik, Tatyana M. Rasskazchikova, Irina K. Reznikova, Oleg A. Romanovskii, Alexander S. Safatov, Denis E. Savkin, Denis V. Simonenkov, Tatyana K. Sklyadneva, Gennadii N. Tolmachev, Semyon V. Yakovlev, and Polina N. Zenkova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3941–3967,Short summary
The change of the global climate is most pronounced in the Arctic, where the air temperature increases faster than the global average. This is associated with an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is important to study how the air composition in the Arctic changes in the changing climate. Thus this integrated experiment was carried out to measure the composition of the troposphere in the Russian sector of the Arctic from on board the aircraft laboratory.
Daochun Yu, Haitao Li, Baoquan Li, Mingyu Ge, Youli Tuo, Xiaobo Li, Wangchen Xue, Yaning Liu, Aoying Wang, Yajun Zhu, and Bingxian Luo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3141–3159,Short summary
In this work, the measurement of vertical atmospheric density profiles using X-ray Earth occultation is investigated. The Earth’s density profile for the lower thermosphere is obtained with Insight-HXMT. It is shown that the Insight-HXMT X-ray satellite of China can be used as an X-ray atmospheric diagnostics instrument for the upper atmosphere. The Insight-HXMT satellite can, with other X-ray astronomical satellites in orbit, form a network for X-ray Earth occultation sounding in the future.
Jörn Ungermann, Anne Kleinert, Guido Maucher, Irene Bartolomé, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Sören Johansson, Lukas Krasauskas, and Tom Neubert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2503–2530,Short summary
GLORIA is a 2-D infrared imaging spectrometer operated on two high-flying research aircraft. This paper details our instrument calibration and characterization efforts, which in particular leverage in-flight data almost exclusively and often exploit the novel 2-D nature of the measurements. We show that the instrument surpasses the original instrument specifications and conclude by analyzing how the derived errors affect temperature and ozone retrievals, two of our main derived quantities.
Carlos Alberti, Frank Hase, Matthias Frey, Darko Dubravica, Thomas Blumenstock, Angelika Dehn, Paolo Castracane, Gregor Surawicz, Roland Harig, Bianca C. Baier, Caroline Bès, Jianrong Bi, Hartmut Boesch, André Butz, Zhaonan Cai, Jia Chen, Sean M. Crowell, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dragos Ene, Jonathan E. Franklin, Omaira García, David Griffith, Bruno Grouiez, Michel Grutter, Abdelhamid Hamdouni, Sander Houweling, Neil Humpage, Nicole Jacobs, Sujong Jeong, Lilian Joly, Nicholas B. Jones, Denis Jouglet, Rigel Kivi, Ralph Kleinschek, Morgan Lopez, Diogo J. Medeiros, Isamu Morino, Nasrin Mostafavipak, Astrid Müller, Hirofumi Ohyama, Paul I. Palmer, Mahesh Pathakoti, David F. Pollard, Uwe Raffalski, Michel Ramonet, Robbie Ramsay, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, William Simpson, Wolfgang Stremme, Youwen Sun, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yao Té, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Voltaire A. Velazco, Felix Vogel, Masataka Watanabe, Chong Wei, Debra Wunch, Marcia Yamasoe, Lu Zhang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2433–2463,Short summary
Space-borne greenhouse gas missions require ground-based validation networks capable of providing fiducial reference measurements. Here, considerable refinements of the calibration procedures for the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) are presented. Laboratory and solar side-by-side procedures for the characterization of the spectrometers have been refined and extended. Revised calibration factors for XCO2, XCO and XCH4 are provided, incorporating 47 new spectrometers.
David A. Newnham, Mark A. Clilverd, William D. J. Clark, Michael Kosch, Pekka T. Verronen, and Alan E. E. Rogers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2361–2376,Short summary
Ozone (O3) is an important trace gas in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), affecting heating rates and chemistry. O3 profiles measured by the Ny-Ålesund Ozone in the Mesosphere Instrument agree with Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) for winter night-time, but autumn twilight SABER abundances are up to 50 % higher. O3 abundances in the MLT from two different SABER channels also show significant differences for both autumn twilight and summer daytime.
Luca Egli, Julian Gröbner, Gregor Hülsen, Herbert Schill, and René Stübi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1917–1930,Short summary
This study presents traceable total column ozone retrievals from direct solar spectral irradiance measurements. The retrieved ozone does not require any field calibration with a reference instrument as it is required for other operational network instruments such as Brewer or Dobson. Total column ozone can be retrieved with a traceable overall standard uncertainty of less than 0.8 % indicating a benchmark uncertainty for total column ozone measurements.
Yungang Wang, Liping Fu, Fang Jiang, Xiuqing Hu, Chengbao Liu, Xiaoxin Zhang, Jiawei Li, Zhipeng Ren, Fei He, Lingfeng Sun, Ling Sun, Zhongdong Yang, Peng Zhang, Jingsong Wang, and Tian Mao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1577–1586,Short summary
Far-ultraviolet (FUV) airglow radiation is particularly well suited for space-based remote sensing. The Ionospheric Photometer (IPM) instrument carried aboard the Feng Yun 3-D satellite measures the spectral radiance of the Earth FUV airglow. IPM is a tiny, highly sensitive, and robust remote sensing instrument. Initial results demonstrate that the performance of IPM meets the designed requirement and therefore can be used to study the thermosphere and ionosphere in the future.
Leon Kuhn, Jonas Kuhn, Thomas Wagner, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1395–1414,Short summary
We present a novel instrument for imaging measurements of NO2 with high spatiotemporal resolution based on gas correlation spectroscopy, called the GCS NO2 camera. The instrument works by placing two gas cells (cuvettes) in front of two photosensor arrays, one filled with air and one filled with a high concentration of NO2, acting as a non-dispersive spectral filter. NO2 images are then generated on the basis of the signal ratio of the two channels in the spectral region of 430–445 nm.
Tobias Küchler, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, John Philip Burrows, Thomas Wagner, Christian Borger, Tobias Borsdorff, and Andreas Schneider
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 297–320,Short summary
We applied the air-mass-corrected differential optical absorption spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS) method to derive total column water vapour (TCWV) from Sentinel-5P measurements and compared it to independent data sets. The correlation coefficients of typically more than 0.9 and the small deviations up to 2.5 kg m−2 reveal good agreement between our data product and other TCWV data sets. In particular for the different Sentinel-5P water vapour products, the deviations are around 1 kg m−2.
Jonas Kuhn, Nicole Bobrowski, Thomas Wagner, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7873–7892,Short summary
We propose spectrograph implementations using Fabry–Pérot interferometers for atmospheric trace gas remote sensing. Compared with widely used grating spectrographs, we find substantial light throughput and mobility advantages for high resolving powers. Besides lowering detection limits and increasing the spatial and temporal resolution of many atmospheric trace gas measurements, this approach might enable remote sensing of further important gases such as tropospheric OH radicals.
King-Fai Li, Ryan Khoury, Thomas J. Pongetti, Stanley P. Sander, Franklin P. Mills, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7495–7510,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) plays a dominant role in the stratospheric ozone-destroying catalytic cycle. We have retrieved the diurnal cycle of NO2 over Table Mountain in Southern California, USA, during a week in October 2018. Under clean conditions, we are able to predict the diurnal cycle using standard photochemistry. On a day with significant pollution, we see the effect of NO2 sources in the nearby Los Angeles Basin.
Ulrich Platt, Thomas Wagner, Jonas Kuhn, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6867–6883,Short summary
Absorption spectroscopy of scattered sunlight is extremely useful for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas distributions. A central parameter for the achievable sensitivity of spectroscopic instruments is the light throughput, which can be enhanced in a number of ways. We present new ideas and considerations of how instruments could be optimized. Particular emphasis is on arrays of massively parallel instruments. Such arrays can reduce the size and weight of instruments by orders of magnitude.
Jonas Hamperl, Clément Capitaine, Jean-Baptiste Dherbecourt, Myriam Raybaut, Patrick Chazette, Julien Totems, Bruno Grouiez, Laurence Régalia, Rosa Santagata, Corinne Evesque, Jean-Michel Melkonian, Antoine Godard, Andrew Seidl, Harald Sodemann, and Cyrille Flamant
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6675–6693,Short summary
Laser active remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor is a promising technology for enhancing our understanding of processes governing the global hydrological cycle. We investigate the potential of a ground-based lidar to monitor the main water vapor isotopes at high spatio-temporal resolutions in the lower troposphere. Using a realistic end-to-end simulator, we show that high-precision measurements can be achieved within a range of 1.5 km, in mid-latitude or tropical environments.
Qin Wang, Farhan Mustafa, Lingbing Bu, Shouzheng Zhu, Jiqiao Liu, and Weibiao Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6601–6617,Short summary
In this work, an airborne experiment was carried out to validate a newly developed CO2 monitoring IPDA lidar against the in situ measurements obtained from a commercial CO2 monitoring instrument installed on an aircraft. The XCO2 values calculated with the IPDA lidar measurements were compared with the dry-air CO2 mole fraction measurements obtained from the in situ instruments, and the results showed a good agreement between the two datasets.
Matthias M. Frey, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Darko Dubravica, Jochen Groß, Frank Göttsche, Martin Handjaba, Petrus Amadhila, Roland Mushi, Isamu Morino, Kei Shiomi, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Martine de Mazière, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5887–5911,Short summary
In this study, we present measurements of carbon dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide from a recently established site in Gobabeb, Namibia. Gobabeb is the first site observing these gases on the African mainland and improves the global coverage of measurement sites. Gobabeb is a hyperarid desert site, offering unique characteristics. Measurements started 2015 as part of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network. We compare our results with other datasets and find a good agreement.
René Stübi, Herbert Schill, Jörg Klausen, Eliane Maillard Barras, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5757–5769,Short summary
In the first half of the 20th century, Prof. Dobson developed an instrument to measure the ozone column. Around 50 of these Dobson instruments, manufactured in the second half of the 20th century, are still used today to monitor the state of the ozone layer. Started in 1926, the Arosa series was, until recently, based on manually operated Dobsons. To ensure its future operation, a fully automated version of the Dobson has been developed. This well-working automated system is described here.
Timon Hummel, Christian Meister, Corneli Keim, Jasper Krauser, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5459–5472,Short summary
The impact of heterogeneous scene radiance affects the quality of trace gas retrieval products of Earth observation imaging spectrometers. This effect can be mitigated by introducing on-board hardware solutions called slit homogenizers, which scramble the light entering the instrument and thereby make it insensitive to Earth scene contrast. Here we present a comprehensive modeling of the slit homogenizer present in the Sentinel-5/UVNS instrument and quantify the spectral performance.
Quentin Errera, Emmanuel Dekemper, Noel Baker, Jonas Debosscher, Philippe Demoulin, Nina Mateshvili, Didier Pieroux, Filip Vanhellemont, and Didier Fussen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4737–4753,Short summary
ALTIUS is a micro-satellite which will measure the distribution of the ozone layer. Micro-satellites are intended to be cost-effective, but does this make the ALTIUS measurements any less valuable? To answer this, we simulated ALTIUS data and measured how it could constrain a model of the ozone layer; we then compared these results with those obtained from the state-of-the-art NASA Aura MLS satellite ozone measurements. The outcome shows us that the ALTIUS
budgetinstrument is indeed valuable.
Scott M. Spuler, Matthew Hayman, Robert A. Stillwell, Joshua Carnes, Todd Bernatsky, and Kevin S. Repasky
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4593–4616,Short summary
Continuous water vapor and temperature profiles are critically needed for improved understanding of the lower atmosphere and potential advances in weather forecasting skill. To address this observation need, an active remote sensing technology based on a diode-laser-based lidar architecture is being developed. We discuss the details of the lidar architecture and analyze how it addresses a national-scale profiling network's need to provide continuous thermodynamic observations.
Bo Galle, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Vladimir Conde, Tobias P. Fischer, Gustav Gerdes, Alexandra Gutmann, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ima Itikarai, Tomas Krejci, Emma J. Liu, Kila Mulina, Scott Nowicki, Tom Richardson, Julian Rüdiger, Kieran Wood, and Jiazhi Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4255–4277,Short summary
Measurements of volcanic gases are important for geophysical research, risk assessment and environmental impact studies. Some gases, like SO2 and BrO, may be studied from the ground at a safe distance using remote sensing techniques. Many other gases require in situ access to the gas plume. Here, a drone may be an attractive alternative. This paper describes a drone specially adapted for volcanic gas studies and demonstrates its use in a field campaign at Manam volcano in Papua New Guinea.
Jia Su, M. Patrick McCormick, Matthew S. Johnson, John T. Sullivan, Michael J. Newchurch, Timothy A. Berkoff, Shi Kuang, and Guillaume P. Gronoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4069–4082,Short summary
A new technique using a three-wavelength differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique based on an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser is proposed to obtain more accurate measurements of NO2. The retrieval uncertainties in aerosol extinction using the three-wavelength DIAL technique are reduced to less than 2 % of those when using the two-wavelength DIAL technique. Hampton University (HU) lidar NO2 profiles are compared with simulated data from the WRF-Chem model, and they agree well.
Carly Staebell, Kang Sun, Jenna Samra, Jonathan Franklin, Christopher Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, Eamon Conway, Kelly Chance, Scott Milligan, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3737–3753,Short summary
Given the high global warming potential of CH4, the identification and subsequent reduction of anthropogenic CH4 emissions presents a significant opportunity for climate change mitigation. Satellites are an integral piece of this puzzle, providing data to quantify emissions at a variety of spatial scales. This work presents the spectral calibration of MethaneAIR, the airborne instrument used as a test bed for the forthcoming MethaneSAT satellite.
Marek Šmíd, Geiland Porrovecchio, Jiří Tesař, Tim Burnitt, Luca Egli, Julian Grőbner, Petr Linduška, and Martin Staněk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3573–3582,Short summary
We designed and developed a tuneable and portable radiation source (TuPS) to provide a reference wavelength scale, with a bandwidth of emitted radiation of 0.13 nm and uncertainty in wavelength of 0.02 nm. TuPS was successfully used for the in-field characterization of 14 Dobson spectrophotometers in campaigns in Europe. The line spread functions of Dobsons measured by TuPS in conjunction with the cross-sections from IUP improves the consistency between the Dobson and Brewer from 3 % to 1 %.
Nicholas M. Deutscher, Travis A. Naylor, Christopher G. R. Caldow, Hamish L. McDougall, Alex G. Carter, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3119–3130,Short summary
This work describes the performance of an open-path measurement system for greenhouse gases in an extended field trial. The instrument obtained measurement repeatability of 0.1 % or better for CO2 and CH4 measurements over a 1.55 km one-way pathway. Comparison to co-located in situ measurements allows characterisation of biases relative to global reference scales. The research was done to show the applicability of the technique and its ability to detect atmospheric-relevant sources and sinks.
Sebastian Wolff, Gerhard Ehret, Christoph Kiemle, Axel Amediek, Mathieu Quatrevalet, Martin Wirth, and Andreas Fix
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2717–2736,Short summary
We report on CO2 emissions of a coal-fired power plant derived from flight measurements performed with the IPDA lidar CHARM-F during the CoMet campaign in spring 2018. Despite the results being in broad agreement with reported emissions, we observe strong variations between successive flyovers. Using a high-resolution large eddy simulation, we identify strong atmospheric turbulence as the cause for the variations and recommend more favorable measurement conditions for future campaign planning.
Dylan Jervis, Jason McKeever, Berke O. A. Durak, James J. Sloan, David Gains, Daniel J. Varon, Antoine Ramier, Mathias Strupler, and Ewan Tarrant
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2127–2140,Short summary
We describe how the GHGSat-D demonstration satellite is designed and operated in order to measure greenhouse gas emissions from different types of industrial facilities. The distinguishing features of GHGSat-D, or
Claire, are its compact size (< 15 kg) and high spatial resolution (< 50 m). We give a mathematical model of the instrument and describe the techniques used to infer a methane concentration from a measurement of the sunlight that has reflected off the Earth's surface.
Hiroshi Suto, Fumie Kataoka, Nobuhiro Kikuchi, Robert O. Knuteson, Andre Butz, Markus Haun, Henry Buijs, Kei Shiomi, Hiroko Imai, and Akihiko Kuze
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2013–2039,Short summary
The Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2), in orbit since October 2018, is the follow-up mission of GOSAT, which has been operating since January 2009. Both satellites are dedicated to the monitoring of global carbon dioxide and methane to further knowledge of the global carbon cycle. This paper has reported on the function and performance of the TANSO-FTS-2 instrument, level-1 data processing, and calibrations for the first year of GOSAT-2 observation.
Florian Richter, Corneli Keim, Jérôme Caron, Jasper Krauser, Dennis Weise, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1561–1571,Short summary
Much effort has gone into obtaining crucial information about the progress of climate change, which depends on trace gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Satellite-based imaging spectrometers are used to record the Earth's reflectance in order to quantify the concentration of relevant trace gases. This work contributes an approach to a well-known calibration uncertainty regarding diffuser speckle and could significantly reduce overheads in the future planning phases of such instruments.
Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Axel Keens, Denis Czurlok, Orfeo Colebatch, Omaira Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Pauli Heikkinen, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Erik Lutsch, Maria Makarova, Hamud K. Imhasin, Johan Mellqvist, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Uwe Raffalski, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Matthias Schneider, Christian Servais, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1239–1252,Short summary
This study investigates the level of channeling (optical resonances) of each FTIR spectrometer within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Since the air gap of the beam splitter is a significant source of channeling, we propose new beam splitters with an increased wedge of the air gap. This study shows the potential for reducing channeling in the FTIR spectrometers operated by the NDACC, thereby increasing the quality of recorded spectra across the network.
Florian Dietrich, Jia Chen, Benno Voggenreiter, Patrick Aigner, Nico Nachtigall, and Björn Reger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1111–1126,Short summary
Climate change is one of the defining issues of our time. However, most of the current emission estimates are based on calculations, not on actual measurements as it is difficult to quantify the emissions of large sources such as cities. This study shows how to use the relatively new approach of column measurements to quantify urban greenhouse gas emissions in an exact way using only a few compact measurement systems. The approach can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation policies.
Maria V. Makarova, Carlos Alberti, Dmitry V. Ionov, Frank Hase, Stefani C. Foka, Thomas Blumenstock, Thorsten Warneke, Yana A. Virolainen, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Matthias Frey, Anatoly V. Poberovskii, Yuri M. Timofeyev, Nina N. Paramonova, Kristina A. Volkova, Nikita A. Zaitsev, Egor Y. Biryukov, Sergey I. Osipov, Boris K. Makarov, Alexander V. Polyakov, Viktor M. Ivakhov, Hamud Kh. Imhasin, and Eugene F. Mikhailov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1047–1073,Short summary
Fundamental understanding of the major processes driving climate change is a key problem which is to be solved, not only on a global but also on a regional scale. The Emission Monitoring Mobile Experiment (EMME) carried out in 2019 with two portable Bruker EM27/SUN spectrometers as core instruments provided new information on the emissions of greenhouse (CO2, CH4) and reactive (CO, NOx) gases from St. Petersburg (Russia), which is the largest northern megacity with a population of 5 million.
Elena Spinei, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, Manuel Gebetsberger, Alexander Cede, Luke Valin, James Szykman, Andrew Whitehill, Alexander Kotsakis, Fernando Santos, Nader Abbuhasan, Xiaoyi Zhao, Vitali Fioletov, Sum Chi Lee, and Robert Swap
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 647–663,Short summary
Plastics are widely used in everyday life and scientific equipment. This paper presents Delrin plastic off-gassing as a function of temperature on the atmospheric measurements of formaldehyde by Pandora spectroscopic instruments. The sealed telescope assembly containing Delrin components emitted large amounts of formaldehyde at 30–45 °C, interfering with the Pandora measurements. These results have a broader implication since electronic products often experience the same temperature.
Lisa Klanner, Katharina Höveler, Dina Khordakova, Matthias Perfahl, Christian Rolf, Thomas Trickl, and Hannes Vogelmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 531–555,Short summary
The importance of water vapour as the most influential greenhouse gas and for air composition calls for detailed investigations. The details of the highly inhomogeneous distribution of water vapour can be determined with lidar, the very low concentrations at high altitudes imposing a major challenge. An existing water-vapour lidar in the Bavarian Alps was recently complemented by a powerful Raman lidar that provides water vapour up to 20 km and temperature up to 90 km within just 1 h.
Liang Xi, Fuqi Si, Yu Jiang, Haijin Zhou, Kai Zhan, Zhen Chang, Xiaohan Qiu, and Dongshang Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 435–454,Short summary
In this paper, we present a novel airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument: the Ultraviolet Visible Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer (UVHIS), which is developed for trace gas monitoring and pollution mapping. In the first demonstration flight on 23 June 2018, the UVHIS instrument clearly detected several NO2 emission plumes transporting from south to north. UVHIS NO2 vertical columns are well correlated with ground-based mobile DOAS observations.
Christopher Fuchs, Jonas Kuhn, Nicole Bobrowski, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 295–307,Short summary
We present first measurements of volcanic SO2 emissions with a novel imaging technique for atmospheric trace gases in the UV and visible spectral range. Periodic spectral Fabry–Pérot interferometer transmission features are matched to differential absorption cross sections of the investigated trace gas, yielding high selectivity and sensitivity. The technique can be extended to measure many other trace gases with high spatio-temporal resolution.
Thomas Trickl, Helmuth Giehl, Frank Neidl, Matthias Perfahl, and Hannes Vogelmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6357–6390,Short summary
Lidar sounding of ozone and other atmospheric constituents has proved to be an invaluable tool for atmospheric studies. The ozone lidar systems developed at Garmisch-Partenkirchen have reached an accuracy level almost matching that of in situ sensors. Since the late 1990s numerous important scientific discoveries have been made, such as the first observation of intercontinental transport of ozone and the very high occurrence of intrusions of stratospheric air into the troposphere.
John Robinson, Dan Smale, David Pollard, and Hisako Shiona
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5855–5871,Short summary
Solar trackers are used by spectrometers to measure atmospheric trace gas concentrations using direct-sun spectroscopy. The ideal tracker should be sufficiently accurate, highly reliable, and with a longevity that exceeds the lifetime of the spectrometer which it serves. It should also be affordable, easy to use, and not too complex should maintenance be required. We present a design that fulfils these requirements using some simple innovations.
Luis Millán, Richard Roy, and Matthew Lebsock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5193–5205,Short summary
This paper describes the feasibility of using a differential absorption radar technique for the remote sensing of total column water vapor from a spaceborne platform.
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NOAA’s Geostationary Extended Observations (GeoXO) constellation is planned to consist of an atmospheric composition instrument (ACX) to support air quality forecasting and monitoring. As design trade-offs are being studied, we investigated one parameter, the polarization sensitivity, which has yet to be fully documented for NO2 retrievals. Our simulation study explores these impacts to inform the ACX’s development and better understand polarization’s role in trace gas retrievals.
NOAA’s Geostationary Extended Observations (GeoXO) constellation is planned to consist of an...