Articles | Volume 9, issue 12
Research article 01 Dec 2016
Research article | 01 Dec 2016
Measuring OVOCs and VOCs by PTR-MS in an urban roadside microenvironment of Hong Kong: relative humidity and temperature dependence, and field intercomparisons
Long Cui et al.
No articles found.
Hao Guo, Clare M. Flynn, Michael J. Prather, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Louisa Emmons, Forrest Lacey, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Gus Correa, Lee T. Murray, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Michelle Kim, John Crounse, Glenn Diskin, Joshua DiGangi, Bruce C. Daube, Roisin Commane, Kathryn McKain, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea Thompson, Thomas F. Hanisco, Donald Blake, Nicola J. Blake, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13729–13746,Short summary
The NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission built a climatology of the chemical composition of tropospheric air parcels throughout the middle of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The level of detail allows us to reconstruct the photochemical budgets of O3 and CH4 over these vast, remote regions. We find that most of the chemical heterogeneity is captured at the resolution used in current global chemistry models and that the majority of reactivity occurs in the
hottest20 % of parcels.
Jianqiang Zeng, Yanli Zhang, Huina Zhang, Wei Song, Zhenfeng Wu, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from plant leaves is an essential part of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Here we demonstrate how a dynamic chamber for measuring branch-scale BVOC emissions could be characterized both in the lab for adsorptive losses and in the field for ambient-enclosure environmental differences. The results also imply emission factors for terpenes might be underestimated if measured using dynamic chambers without certified transfer efficiencies.
Dongwook Kim, Changmin Cho, Seokhan Jeong, Soojin Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Rainer Volkamer, Donald R. Blake, Armin Wisthaler, Alan Fried, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Jack Dibb, Christoph J. Knote, and Kyung-Eun Min
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
CHOCHO was simulated using a 0-D box model constrained by measurements during the KORUS-AQ mission. High CHOCHO concentrations were observed over highly populated cities and industrial areas. Aromatics were the most important precursors of CHOCHO production. Loss path to aerosol was the highest sink contributing to ~20 % of SOA formation. CHOCHO uptake rate can be affected by aerosol viscosity and irradiation. Finally, our work highlights the lacking knowledge to explain the CHOCHO solubility.
Wei Sun, Yuzhen Fu, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Feng Jiang, Xiufeng Lian, Bin Jiang, Yuhong Liao, Xinhui Bi, Duohong Chen, Jianmin Chen, Xinming Wang, Jie Ou, Ping'an Peng, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We sampled cloud water at a remote mountain site and investigate the molecular characteristics using ESI(-) FT-ICR MS. CHON and CHO are dominant in cloud water. No statistical difference of oxidation state is observed between cloud water and interstitial PM2.5. Most of formulas are aliphatic and olefinic species. CHON with aromatic structures and organosulfates are abundant, especially in nighttime samples. The in-cloud and multi-phase dark reactions likely contribute to them significantly.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Haichao Wang, Chao Peng, Xuan Wang, Shengrong Lou, Keding Lu, Guicheng Gan, Xiaohong Jia, Xiaorui Chen, Jun Chen, Hongli Wang, Shaojia Fan, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Via combining laboratory and modeling work, we found that heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 with saline mineral dust aerosol could be an important source of tropospheric ClNO2 in inland regions.
Peng Wang, Juanyong Shen, Men Xia, Shida Sun, Yanli Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10347–10356,Short summary
Ozone (O3) pollution has received extensive attention due to worsening air quality and rising health risks. The Chinese National Day holiday (CNDH), which is associated with intensive commercial and tourist activities, serves as a valuable experiment to evaluate the O3 response during the holiday. We find sharply increasing trends of observed O3 concentrations throughout China during the CNDH, leading to 33 % additional total daily deaths.
Hua Fang, Xiaoqing Huang, Yanli Zhang, Chenglei Pei, Zuzhao Huang, Yujun Wang, Yanning Chen, Jianhong Yan, Jianqiang Zeng, Shaoxuan Xiao, Shilu Luo, Sheng Li, Jun Wang, Ming Zhu, Xuewei Fu, Zhenfeng Wu, Runqi Zhang, Wei Song, Guohua Zhang, Weiwei Hu, Mingjin Tang, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10005–10013,Short summary
A tunnel test was initiated to measure the vehicular IVOC emissions under real-world driving conditions. Higher SOA formation estimated from vehicular IVOCs compared to those from traditional VOCs emphasized the greater importance of IVOCs in modulating urban SOA. The results also revealed that non-road diesel-fueled engines greatly contributed to IVOCs in China.
Ira Leifer, Christopher Melton, and Donald R. Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We demonstrate a novel approach using air quality station data to derive three decade averaged emissions from the Coal Oil Point seep field, a highly variable geological migration system spatially and temporally. Emissions were 19 Gigagrams per year, suggesting that the COP seep field contributes 0.25 % of the marine seep budget based on a recent global estimate. Unlike surveys, which provide snapshots of seepage – a highly variable geo-migration process.
Juanjuan Qin, Jihua Tan, Xueming Zhou, Yanrong Yang, Yuanyuan Qin, Xiaobo Wang, Shaoxuan Shi, Kang Xiao, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
1. The Excitation-Emission Matrix spectra exhibit macroscopical variation with particle size increase, fluorescence intensity peaked at 0.26–0.44 µm. 2. The aromaticity and humification degree were highest between 0.26 to 0.44 µm. 3. The condensation of organics might occur in submicron particles (< 0.44) and oxidized gradually. 4. Humic-like substances were rich in fine particles and protein-like substances were high in the coarse mode.
Christina J. Williamson, Agnieszka Kupc, Andrew Rollins, Jan Kazil, Karl D. Froyd, Eric A. Ray, Daniel M. Murphy, Gregory P. Schill, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea Thompson, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, Donald R. Blake, Thao Paul V. Bui, Maximilian Dollner, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Charles A. Brock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9065–9088,Short summary
Aerosols in the stratosphere influence climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight and through chemical reactions occurring on the particles’ surfaces. We observed more nucleation mode aerosols (small aerosols, with diameters below 12 nm) in the mid- and high-latitude lowermost stratosphere (8–13 km) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) than in the Southern Hemisphere. The most likely cause of this is aircraft emissions, which are concentrated in the NH at similar altitudes to our observations.
Anke Mutzel, Yanli Zhang, Olaf Böge, Maria Rodigast, Agata Kolodziejczyk, Xinming Wang, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8479–8498,Short summary
This study investigates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and particle growth from α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol oxidation through NO3 and OH radicals and the effect of relative humidity. The formed SOA is comprehensively characterized with respect to the content of OC / EC, WSOC, SOA-bound peroxides, and SOA marker compounds. The findings present new insights and implications of nighttime chemistry, which can form SOA more efficiently than OH radical reaction during daytime.
Chenshuo Ye, Bin Yuan, Yi Lin, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Tiange Li, Wei Chen, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, E Zheng, Jordan E. Krechmer, Penglin Ye, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8455–8478,Short summary
We performed measurements of gaseous and particulate organic compounds using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Using the dataset, we provide a holistic chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the polluted urban atmosphere, which can serve as a reference for the future field measurements of organic compounds in cities.
Chao Peng, Patricia N. Razafindrambinina, Kotiba A. Malek, Lanxiadi Chen, Weigang Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Yuqing Zhang, Xiang Ding, Maofa Ge, Xinming Wang, Akua A. Asa-Awuku, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7135–7148,Short summary
Organosulfates are important constituents in tropospheric aerosol particles, but their hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activities are not well understood. In our work, three complementary techniques were employed to investigate the interactions of 11 organosulfates with water vapor under sub- and supersaturated conditions.
Yihang Yu, Peng Cheng, Huirong Li, Wenda Yang, Baobin Han, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Xinming Wang, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Zhijiong Huang, Zhen Li, Junyu Zheng, Haichao Wang, and Xiaofang Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The research content of this paper is the budget of nitrous acid (HONO) and its impacts on atmospheric oxidation capacity at an urban site in Guangzhou of China. We conducted a comprehensive atmospheric observation at an urban site in Guangzhou in autumn of 2018. The results further showed that the direct and indirect contributions of primary emission to HONO are great at the site both during daytime and nighttime. And HONO contributed significantly to the atmospheric oxidation of Guangzhou.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Dianne Sanchez, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Alex Guenther, John Mak, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, Don Blake, Scott Herndon, Daun Jeong, John T. Sullivan, Thomas Mcgee, Rokjin Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6331–6345,Short summary
We present observations of total reactive gases in a suburban forest observatory in the Seoul metropolitan area. The quantitative comparison with speciated trace gas observations illustrated significant underestimation in atmospheric reactivity from the speciated trace gas observational dataset. We present scientific discussion about potential causes.
Long Peng, Lei Li, Guohua Zhang, Xubing Du, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Xinhui Bi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5605–5613,Short summary
We build a novel system that utilizes an aerodynamic aerosol classifier (AAC) combined with a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) to simultaneously characterize the volume equivalent diameter (Dve), chemical compositions, and effective density (ρe) of individual particles in real time. A test of the AAC-SPAMS with both spherical and aspherical particles shows that the deviations between the measured and theoretical values are less than 6 %.
Zhiyuan Li, Kin-Fai Ho, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5063–5078,Short summary
This study established land-use regression (LUR) models using only routine air quality measurement data to support long-term health studies in an Asian metropolitan area. The established LUR models captured the spatial variability in exposure to air pollution with remarkable predictive accuracy. This is the first Asian study to evaluate intercity transferability of LUR models, and it highlights that there exist uncertainties when transferring LUR models between nearby cities.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Mike J. Newland, Daniel J. Bryant, Rachel E. Dunmore, Thomas J. Bannan, W. Joe F. Acton, Ben Langford, James R. Hopkins, Freya A. Squires, William Dixon, William S. Drysdale, Peter D. Ivatt, Mathew J. Evans, Peter M. Edwards, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James D. Lee, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Xinming Wang, Alastair C. Lewis, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1613–1625,Short summary
We report the formation of secondary pollutants in the urban megacity of Beijing that are typically associated with remote regions such as rainforests. This is caused by extremely low levels of nitric oxide (NO), typically expected to be high in urban areas, observed in the afternoon. This work has significant implications for how we understand atmospheric chemistry in the urban environment and thus for how to implement effective policies to improve urban air quality.
W. Joe F. Acton, Zhonghui Huang, Brian Davison, Will S. Drysdale, Pingqing Fu, Michael Hollaway, Ben Langford, James Lee, Yanhui Liu, Stefan Metzger, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Claire E. Reeves, Freya A. Squires, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Zhaoyi Wang, Oliver Wild, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15101–15125,Short summary
Air quality in Beijing is of concern to both policy makers and the general public. In order to address concerns about air quality it is vital that the sources of atmospheric pollutants are understood. This work presents the first top-down measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Beijing. These measurements are used to evaluate the emissions inventory and assess the impact of VOC emission from the city centre on atmospheric chemistry.
Eloise J. Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa Kramer, William Bloss, Tuan Vu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14847–14871,Short summary
The paper details atmospheric chemistry in a megacity (Beijing), focussing on radicals which mediate the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Highly polluted conditions were experienced, including the highest ever levels of nitric oxide (NO), with simultaneous radical measurements. Radical concentrations were large during "haze" events, demonstrating active photochemistry. Modelling showed that our understanding of the chemistry at high NOx levels is incomplete.
Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Hongli Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Weiwei Hu, Shengrong Lou, Chenshuo Ye, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Yan Xie, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, Xuemei Wang, Bin Jiang, Zhanyi Zhang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14769–14785,Short summary
Based on measurements from an online mass spectrometer, we quantify volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations from numerous ions of the mass spectrometer, using information from laboratory-obtained calibration results. We find that most VOC concentrations are from oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). We further show that these OVOCs also contribute significantly to OH reactivity. Our results suggest the important role of OVOCs in VOC emissions and chemistry in urban air.
Qingqing Yu, Xiang Ding, Quanfu He, Weiqiang Yang, Ming Zhu, Sheng Li, Runqi Zhang, Ruqin Shen, Yanli Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Yuesi Wang, Ping'an Peng, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14581–14595,Short summary
We carried out a 1-year PM concurrent observation at 12 sites across six regions of China, and size-segregated PAHs were measured. We found both PAHs and BaPeq were concentrated in PM1.1, and northern China had higher PAHs' pollution and inhalation cancer risk than southern China. Nationwide increases in both PAH levels and inhalation cancer risk occurred in winter. We suggest reducing coal and biofuel consumption in the residential sector is an important option to mitigate PAHs' health risks.
Benjamin Gaubert, Louisa K. Emmons, Kevin Raeder, Simone Tilmes, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Avelino F. Arellano Jr., Nellie Elguindi, Claire Granier, Wenfu Tang, Jérôme Barré, Helen M. Worden, Rebecca R. Buchholz, David P. Edwards, Philipp Franke, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Marielle Saunois, Jason Schroeder, Jung-Hun Woo, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, Simone Meinardi, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Alex Teng, Michelle Kim, Russell R. Dickerson, Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sally E. Pusede, and Glenn S. Diskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14617–14647,Short summary
This study investigates carbon monoxide pollution in East Asia during spring using a numerical model, satellite remote sensing, and aircraft measurements. We found an underestimation of emission sources. Correcting the emission bias can improve air quality forecasting of carbon monoxide and other species including ozone. Results also suggest that controlling VOC and CO emissions, in addition to widespread NOx controls, can improve ozone pollution over East Asia.
Chaomin Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Sihang Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Chenshuo Ye, Wenjie Wang, Yele Sun, Chen Wang, Shan Huang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Suxia Yang, Shenyang Zhang, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Zhanyi Zhang, Bin Jiang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14123–14138,Short summary
We utilized a novel online mass spectrometry method to measure the total concentration of higher alkanes at each carbon number at two different sites in China, allowing us to take into account SOA contributions from all isomers for higher alkanes. We found that higher alkanes account for significant fractions of SOA formation at the two sites. The contributions are comparable to or even higher than single-ring aromatics, the most-recognized SOA precursors in urban air.
Yuzhen Fu, Qinhao Lin, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Yiping Yang, Xiufeng Lian, Long Peng, Feng Jiang, Xinhui Bi, Lei Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Duohong Chen, Jie Ou, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Jianxi Zhu, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14063–14075,Short summary
Based on the analysis of the morphology and mixing structure of the activated and unactivated particles, our results emphasize the role of in-cloud processes in the chemistry and microphysical properties of individual activated particles. Given that organic coatings may determine the particle hygroscopicity and heterogeneous chemical reactivity, the increase of OM-shelled particles upon in-cloud processes should have considerable implications for their evolution and climate impact.
Chao Peng, Yu Wang, Zhijun Wu, Lanxiadi Chen, Ru-Jin Huang, Weigang Wang, Zhe Wang, Weiwei Hu, Guohua Zhang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13877–13903,
Lanxiadi Chen, Chao Peng, Wenjun Gu, Hanjing Fu, Xing Jian, Huanhuan Zhang, Guohua Zhang, Jianxi Zhu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13611–13626,Short summary
We investigated hygroscopic properties of a number of mineral dust particles in a quantitative manner, via measuring the sample mass at different relative humidities. The robust and comprehensive data obtained would significantly improve our knowledge of hygroscopicity of mineral dust and its impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate.
Yee Ka Wong, X. H. Hilda Huang, Peter K. K. Louie, Alfred L. C. Yu, Damgy H. L. Chan, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9871–9882,Short summary
We present an approach to track separate contributions to PM2.5 by gasoline and diesel vehicles through a positive matrix factorization analysis of online monitoring data measurable by relatively inexpensive analytical instruments. They are PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon, C2–C9 volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxide concentrations. The method was demonstrated to be effective by applying monitoring data spanning 6 years (2011–2017) from a roadside environment in Hong Kong.
Amir H. Souri, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Lei Zhu, Donald R. Blake, Alan Fried, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Armin Wisthaler, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Christopher E. Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9837–9854,Short summary
For the first time, we provide a joint nonlinear optimal estimate of NOx and NMVOC emissions during the KORUS-AQ campaign by simultaneously incorporating SAO's new product of HCHO columns from OMPS and OMI tropospheric NO2 columns into a regional model. Results demonstrate a promising improvement in the performance of the model in terms of HCHO and NO2 concentrations, which in turn enables us to quantify the impact of the emission changes on different pathways of ozone formation and loss.
Freya A. Squires, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Oliver Wild, Will S. Drysdale, W. Joe F. Acton, Pingqing Fu, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Simone Kotthaus, James Lee, Stefan Metzger, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Marvin Shaw, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Ruili Wu, Qiang Zhang, and Yanli Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8737–8761,Short summary
Significant air quality problems exist in megacities like Beijing, China. To manage air pollution, legislators need a clear understanding of pollutant emissions. However, emissions inventories have large uncertainties, and reliable field measurements of pollutant emissions are required to constrain them. This work presents the first measurements of traffic-dominated emissions in Beijing which suggest that inventories overestimate these emissions in the region during both winter and summer.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Yi Ji, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Young Ro Lee, Patrick R. Veres, J. Andrew Neuman, Yuhang Wang, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3683–3696,Short summary
A common way of measuring trace gases in the atmosphere is chemical ionization mass spectrometry. One large drawback of these instruments is that they require radioactive ion sources. In this work we demonstrate a simple ion source that uses a small krypton lamp that can be used to replace a radioactive source.
Katherine R. Travis, Colette L. Heald, Hannah M. Allen, Eric C. Apel, Stephen R. Arnold, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Xin Chen, Róisín Commane, John D. Crounse, Bruce C. Daube, Glenn S. Diskin, James W. Elkins, Mathew J. Evans, Samuel R. Hall, Eric J. Hintsa, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Prasad S. Kasibhatla, Michelle J. Kim, Gan Luo, Kathryn McKain, Dylan B. Millet, Fred L. Moore, Jeffrey Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Tomás Sherwen, Alexander B. Thames, Kirk Ullmann, Xuan Wang, Paul O. Wennberg, Glenn M. Wolfe, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7753–7781,Short summary
Atmospheric models overestimate the rate of removal of trace gases by the hydroxyl radical (OH). This is a concern for studies of the climate and air quality impacts of human activities. Here, we evaluate the performance of a commonly used model of atmospheric chemistry against data from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) over the remote oceans where models have received little validation. The model is generally successful, suggesting that biases in OH may be a concern over land.
Junchen Guo, Shengzhen Zhou, Mingfu Cai, Jun Zhao, Wei Song, Weixiong Zhao, Weiwei Hu, Yele Sun, Yao He, Chengqiang Yang, Xuezhe Xu, Zhisheng Zhang, Peng Cheng, Qi Fan, Jian Hang, Shaojia Fan, Xinming Wang, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7595–7615,Short summary
We characterized non-refractory submicron particulate matter (PM1.0) during winter in Guangzhou, south China. Chemical composition and key sources of ambient PM1.0 are revealed, highlighting the significant role of SOA. The relationship with SOA and peroxy radicals indicated gas-phase oxidation contributed predominantly to SOA formation during non-pollution periods, while heterogeneous/multiphase reactions played more important roles in SOA formation during pollution periods.
Jingyi Li, Haowen Zhang, Qi Ying, Zhijun Wu, Yanli Zhang, Xinming Wang, Xinghua Li, Yele Sun, Min Hu, Yuanhang Zhang, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7291–7306,Short summary
Large gaps still exist in modeled and observed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass loading and properties. Here we investigated the impacts of water partitioning into organic aerosol and nonideality of the organic–water mixture on SOA over eastern China using a regional 3D model. SOA is increased more significantly in humid and hot environments. Increases in SOA further cause an enhancement of the cooling effects of aerosols. It is crucial to consider the above processes in modeling SOA.
Jing Cai, Xiangying Zeng, Guorui Zhi, Sasho Gligorovski, Guoying Sheng, Zhiqiang Yu, Xinming Wang, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6115–6128,Short summary
The composition and light-induced evolution of a water-soluble organic carbon mixture from fresh biomass burning aerosols was investigated with direct infusion electrospray ionisation high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography coupled with HRMS. Our findings indicate that the water-soluble organic fraction of combustion-derived aerosols has the potential to form more oxidised organic matter, contributing to the highly oxygenated nature of atmospheric organic aerosols.
Yonggang Xue, Yu Huang, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Long Chen, Liqin Wang, Shuncheng Lee, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5425–5436,Short summary
Particulate active metallic oxides in dust were proposed to influence the photochemical reactions of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A case study investigated the origin and transformation of VOCs during a windblown dust-to-haze pollution episode. In the dust event, a sharp decrease in VOC loading and aging of their components was observed. An increase in Ti and Fe and a fast decrease in trans-/cis-2-butene ratios demonstrated that dust can accelerate the oxidation of ambient VOCs.
Jianjun Li, Qi Zhang, Gehui Wang, Jin Li, Can Wu, Lang Liu, Jiayuan Wang, Wenqing Jiang, Lijuan Li, Kin Fai Ho, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4889–4904,Short summary
We examined light absorption properties and molecular composition of water-soluble (WS) and water-insoluble (WI) BrC in PM2.5 collected from northwest China. We found that photochemical formation contributes significantly to light absorption of WI-BrC in summer, whereas aqueous-phase reactions play an important role in secondary WS-BrC formation in winter. BrC was estimated to account for 1.36 % and 3.74 %, respectively, of total down-welling solar radiation in the UV range in summer and winter.
Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, David O. Miller, Hannah M. Allen, Eric C. Apel, Donald R. Blake, T. Paul Bui, Roisin Commane, John D. Crounse, Bruce C. Daube, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, James W. Elkins, Samuel R. Hall, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Eric Hintsa, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Michelle J. Kim, Kathryn McKain, Fred L. Moore, Julie M. Nicely, Jeffrey Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jason M. St. Clair, Colm Sweeney, Alex Teng, Chelsea R. Thompson, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4013–4029,Short summary
Oceans and the atmosphere exchange volatile gases that react with the hydroxyl radical (OH). During a NASA airborne study, measurements of the total frequency of OH reactions, called the OH reactivity, were made in the marine boundary layer of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The measured OH reactivity often exceeded the OH reactivity calculated from measured chemical species. This missing OH reactivity appears to be from unmeasured volatile organic compounds coming out of the ocean.
Rebecca H. Schwantes, Louisa K. Emmons, John J. Orlando, Mary C. Barth, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Jason M. St. Clair, Donald R. Blake, Armin Wisthaler, and Thao Paul V. Bui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3739–3776,Short summary
Ozone is a greenhouse gas and air pollutant that is harmful to human health and plants. During the summer in the southeastern US, many regional and global models are biased high for surface ozone compared to observations. Here adding more complex and updated chemistry for isoprene and terpenes, which are biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from trees and vegetation, into an earth system model greatly reduces the simulated surface ozone bias compared to aircraft and monitoring station data.
Md. Robiul Islam, Thilina Jayarathne, Isobel J. Simpson, Benjamin Werden, John Maben, Ashley Gilbert, Puppala S. Praveen, Sagar Adhikari, Arnico K. Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, Donald R. Blake, Robert J. Yokelson, Peter F. DeCarlo, William C. Keene, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2927–2951,Short summary
The Kathmandu Valley experiences high levels of air pollution. In this study, atmospheric gases and particulate matter were characterized by online and off-line measurements, with an emphasis on understanding their sources. The major sources of particulate matter and trace gases were identified as garbage burning, biomass burning, and vehicles. The majority of secondary organic aerosol was attributed to anthropogenic precursors, while a minority was attributed to biogenic gases.
Zhenfeng Wu, Yanli Zhang, Junjie He, Hongzhan Chen, Xueliang Huang, Yujun Wang, Xu Yu, Weiqiang Yang, Runqi Zhang, Ming Zhu, Sheng Li, Hua Fang, Zhou Zhang, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1887–1900,Short summary
As ship emissions impact air quality in coastal areas, ships are required to switch their fuel from high-sulfur residual fuel oil to low-sulfur diesel or heavy oil in emission control areas (ECA). Our study reveals that while this policy did result in a large drop in ship emissions of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), however, became over 10 times larger and therefore risks ozone pollution control in harbor cities.
Guohua Zhang, Xiufeng Lian, Yuzhen Fu, Qinhao Lin, Lei Li, Wei Song, Zhanyong Wang, Mingjin Tang, Duohong Chen, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1469–1481,Short summary
Seasonal atmospheric processing of NOCs was investigated using single-particle mass spectrometry in urban Guangzhou. The abundance of NOCs was found to be strongly enhanced by internal mixing with photochemically produced secondary oxidized organics. A multiple linear regression analysis and a positive matrix factorization analysis were performed to predict the relative abundance of NOCs. More than 70 % of observed NOCs could be well explained by oxidized organics and ammonium.
Yu-Qing Zhang, Duo-Hong Chen, Xiang Ding, Jun Li, Tao Zhang, Jun-Qi Wang, Qian Cheng, Hao Jiang, Wei Song, Yu-Bo Ou, Peng-Lin Ye, Gan Zhang, and Xin-Ming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14403–14415,Short summary
BSOA formation is affected by human activities, which are not well understood in polluted areas. In the polluted PRD region, we find that monoterpene SOA is aged, which probably results from high Ox and sulfate levels. NOx levels significantly affect isoprene SOA formation pathways. An unexpected increase of β-caryophyllene SOA in winter is also highly associated with enhanced biomass burning, Ox, and sulfate. Our results indicate that BSOA could be reduced by lowering anthropogenic emissions.
Daun Jeong, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Youngro Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Christoph J. Knote, Tom Mcgee, John T. Sullivan, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Donald R. Blake, Dianne Sanchez, Alex B. Guenther, David Tanner, L. Gregory Huey, Russell Long, Bruce E. Anderson, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Hye-jung Shin, Scott C. Herndon, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12779–12795,
Mingjin Tang, Chak K. Chan, Yong Jie Li, Hang Su, Qingxin Ma, Zhijun Wu, Guohua Zhang, Zhe Wang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12631–12686,Short summary
Hygroscopicity is one of the most important properties of aerosol particles, and a number of experimental techniques, which differ largely in principles, configurations and cost, have been developed to investigate hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant particles. Our paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of available techniques for aerosol hygroscopicity studies.
Qinhao Lin, Yuxiang Yang, Yuzhen Fu, Guohua Zhang, Feng Jiang, Long Peng, Xiufeng Lian, Fengxian Liu, Xinhui Bi, Lei Li, Duohong Chen, Mei Li, Jie Ou, Mingjin Tang, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10469–10479,Short summary
The effects of the chemical composition and size of sea-salt-containing particles on their cloud condensation nuclei activity are incompletely understood. Our results showed that submicron sea-salt-containing particles can enrich in small cloud droplets, likely due to change in the chemical composition, while supermicron sea-salt-containing particles tended in the large cloud droplets less affected by chemical composition. This difference might further influence their atmospheric residence time.
Xin Chen, Dylan B. Millet, Hanwant B. Singh, Armin Wisthaler, Eric C. Apel, Elliot L. Atlas, Donald R. Blake, Ilann Bourgeois, Steven S. Brown, John D. Crounse, Joost A. de Gouw, Frank M. Flocke, Alan Fried, Brian G. Heikes, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Tomas Mikoviny, Kyung-Eun Min, Markus Müller, J. Andrew Neuman, Daniel W. O'Sullivan, Jeff Peischl, Gabriele G. Pfister, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Stephen R. Shertz, Chelsea R. Thompson, Victoria Treadaway, Patrick R. Veres, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Petter Weibring, and Bin Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9097–9123,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect air quality and modify the lifetimes of other pollutants. We combine a high-resolution 3-D atmospheric model with an ensemble of aircraft observations to perform an integrated analysis of the VOC budget over North America. We find that biogenic emissions provide the main source of VOC reactivity even in most major cities. Our findings point to key gaps in current models related to oxygenated VOCs and to the distribution of VOCs in the free troposphere.
Brigitte Rooney, Ran Zhao, Yuan Wang, Kelvin H. Bates, Ajay Pillarisetti, Sumit Sharma, Seema Kundu, Tami C. Bond, Nicholas L. Lam, Bora Ozaltun, Li Xu, Varun Goel, Lauren T. Fleming, Robert Weltman, Simone Meinardi, Donald R. Blake, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Rufus D. Edwards, Ankit Yadav, Narendra K. Arora, Kirk R. Smith, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7719–7742,Short summary
Approximately 3 billion people worldwide cook with solid fuels, such as wood, charcoal, and agricultural residues, that are often combusted in inefficient cookstoves. Here, we simulate the distribution of the two major health-damaging outdoor pollution species (PM2.5 and O3) using state-of-the-science emissions databases and atmospheric chemical transport models to estimate the impact of household combustion on ambient air quality in India.
Moshe Shechner, Alex Guenther, Robert Rhew, Asher Wishkerman, Qian Li, Donald Blake, Gil Lerner, and Eran Tas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7667–7690,Short summary
Along with other recent studies, our findings point to strong emission of a suite of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs) from saline soils and salt lakes. Some emitted VHOCs were not known to be emitted from terrestrial sources, and our observations point to apparent new common controls for the emission of several VHOCs. These findings are an important milestone toward a more complete understanding of the effect of VHOCs on atmospheric ozone concentrations and oxidation capacity.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Hongmei Xu, Jean-François Léon, Cathy Liousse, Benjamin Guinot, Véronique Yoboué, Aristide Barthélémy Akpo, Jacques Adon, Kin Fai Ho, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Lijuan Li, Eric Gardrat, Zhenxing Shen, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6637–6657,Short summary
This paper discusses the personal exposure characteristics and health implication of PM2.5 and bounded chemical species based on three anthropogenic sources and related populations (domestic fires for women, waste burning for students and motorcycle traffic for drivers) in Abidjan and Cotonou in dry and wet seasons of 2016. This work can be regarded as the first attempt at measuring personal exposure to PM2.5 and its related health risks in underdeveloped countries of Africa.
Xinning Wang, Yin Shen, Yanfen Lin, Jun Pan, Yan Zhang, Peter K. K. Louie, Mei Li, and Qingyan Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6315–6330,Short summary
Shipping emissions were measured online at Shanghai Port, and their impacts on local air quality at the port and in the surrounding area were quantitatively assessed. Ship emission plumes were readily detectable before they dissipated. We captured ship emission plumes using synchronized peaks of SO2 and vanadium particles. By measuring the pollutant concentrations during plumes and their occurrence frequency, we made quantitative estimations of ship emission impacts on port air quality.
Yuqing Ye, Zhouqing Xie, Ming Zhu, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Aerosol samples from the Arctic Ocean and Antarctic atmosphere were analysed by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry coupled with negative ion mode electrospray ionization. Hundreds of organic compounds, including organosulfates, nitrooxy-organosulfates, organonitrates and oxygenated hydrocarbons, were detected. Our study presents the first overview of OSs and ONs in the polar regions and promotes the understanding of their characteristics and sources.
Long Chen, Yu Huang, Yonggang Xue, Zhenxing Shen, Junji Cao, and Wenliang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4075–4091,Short summary
The present calculations show that the sequential addition of CIs to HHPs affords oligomers containing CIs as chain units. The addition of an –OOH group in HHPs to the central carbon atom of CIs is identified as the most energetically favorable channel, with a barrier height strongly dependent on both CI substituent number (one or two) and position (syn- or anti-). In particular, the introduction of a methyl group into the anti-position significantly increases the rate coefficient.
Mingjin Tang, Wenjun Gu, Qingxin Ma, Yong Jie Li, Cheng Zhong, Sheng Li, Xin Yin, Ru-Jin Huang, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2247–2258,
Liya Guo, Wenjun Gu, Chao Peng, Weigang Wang, Yong Jie Li, Taomou Zong, Yujing Tang, Zhijun Wu, Qinhao Lin, Maofa Ge, Guohua Zhang, Min Hu, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2115–2133,Short summary
In this work, hygroscopic properties of eight Ca- and Mg-containing salts were systematically investigated using two complementary techniques. The results largely improve our knowledge of the physicochemical properties of mineral dust and sea salt aerosols.
Qinhao Lin, Xinhui Bi, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Long Peng, Xiufeng Lian, Yuzhen Fu, Mei Li, Duohong Chen, Mark Miller, Ji Ou, Mingjin Tang, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1195–1206,
Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Bruce Anderson, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Yonghoon Choi, Chelsea A. Corr, Joost A. de Gouw, Jack Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Alan Fried, L. Gregory Huey, Michelle J. Kim, Christoph J. Knote, Kara D. Lamb, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Sally E. Pusede, Eric Scheuer, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jung-Hun Woo, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17769–17800,Short summary
Aerosol impacts visibility and human health in large cities. Sources of aerosols are still highly uncertain, especially for cities surrounded by numerous other cities. We use observations collected during the Korea–United States Air Quality study to determine sources of organic aerosol (OA). We find that secondary OA (SOA) is rapidly produced over Seoul, South Korea, and that the sources of the SOA originate from short-lived hydrocarbons, which originate from local emissions.
Lauren T. Fleming, Robert Weltman, Ankit Yadav, Rufus D. Edwards, Narendra K. Arora, Ajay Pillarisetti, Simone Meinardi, Kirk R. Smith, Donald R. Blake, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15169–15182,Short summary
Brushwood- and dung-burning cookstoves are used for cooking and heating and influence ambient air quality for millions of people. We report emission factors from the more efficient cookstove, the chulha, compared to the smoldering angithi, for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and 76 volatile organic compounds. This comprehensive gas emission inventory should inform policy makers about the magnitude of the effect of cookstoves on the air quality in India.
William H. Brune, Xinrong Ren, Li Zhang, Jingqiu Mao, David O. Miller, Bruce E. Anderson, Donald R. Blake, Ronald C. Cohen, Glenn S. Diskin, Samuel R. Hall, Thomas F. Hanisco, L. Gregory Huey, Benjamin A. Nault, Jeff Peischl, Ilana Pollack, Thomas B. Ryerson, Taylor Shingler, Armin Sorooshian, Kirk Ullmann, Armin Wisthaler, and Paul J. Wooldridge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14493–14510,Short summary
Thunderstorms pull in polluted air from near the ground, transport it up through clouds containing lightning, and deposit it at altitudes where airplanes fly. The resulting chemical mixture in this air reacts to form ozone and particles, which affect climate. In this study, aircraft observations of the reactive gases responsible for this chemistry generally agree with modeled values, even in ice clouds. Thus, atmospheric oxidation chemistry appears to be mostly understood for this environment.
Weiqiang Yang, Yanli Zhang, Xinming Wang, Sheng Li, Ming Zhu, Qingqing Yu, Guanghui Li, Zhonghui Huang, Huina Zhang, Zhenfeng Wu, Wei Song, Jihua Tan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12663–12682,Short summary
We present observation-based evaluations of the reduction of ambient VOCs under intervention control measures during APEC China 2014 in Beijing and the contributions of emissions from domestic solid fuel burning to ambient VOCs during winter heating. Controlling vehicle exhaust and solvent use was found to be effective in reducing ambient VOCs in non-heating periods, and controlling emissions from residential burning of solid fuels became much more important during winter heating.
Tengyu Liu, Zhaoyi Wang, Xinming Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11363–11374,Short summary
POA and SOA from seven heated cooking oil emissions were investigated in a smog chamber. We found that PMF analysis separated POA and SOA better than the residual spectrum method and the traditional method, assuming first-order POA loss. The PMF factors mass spectra were compared with those of ambient PMF factors. Our results suggest that COA source analysis from ambient data is likely complicated by the cooking style and atmospheric oxidation conditions.
Yanhong Zhu, Lingxiao Yang, Jianmin Chen, Kimitaka Kawamura, Mamiko Sato, Andreas Tilgner, Dominik van Pinxteren, Ying Chen, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Isobel J. Simpson, Hartmut Herrmann, Donald R. Blake, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10741–10758,Short summary
Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the free troposphere are identified, and their concentration variations between 2014 and 2006 are presented. High nighttime concentrations were probably due to precursor emissions and aqueous-phase oxidation. Biomass burning was significant, but its tracer levoglucosan in 2014 was 5 times lower than 2006 concentrations. Finally, regional emission from anthropogenic activities was identified as a major source.
Roya Bahreini, Ravan Ahmadov, Stu A. McKeen, Kennedy T. Vu, Justin H. Dingle, Eric C. Apel, Donald R. Blake, Nicola Blake, Teresa L. Campos, Chris Cantrell, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Alan J. Hills, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Greg Huey, Lisa Kaser, Brian M. Lerner, Roy L. Mauldin, Simone Meinardi, Denise D. Montzka, Dirk Richter, Jason R. Schroeder, Meghan Stell, David Tanner, James Walega, Peter Weibring, and Andrew Weinheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8293–8312,Short summary
We measured organic aerosol (OA) and relevant trace gases during FRAPPÉ in the Colorado Front Range, with the goal of characterizing summertime OA formation. Our results indicate a significant production of secondary OA (SOA) in this region. About 2 μg m−3 of OA was present at background CO levels, suggesting contribution of non-combustion sources to SOA. Contribution of oil- and gas-related activities to anthropogenic SOA was modeled to be ~38 %. Biogenic SOA contributed to >40 % of OA.
Felix A. Mackenzie-Rae, Helen J. Wallis, Andrew R. Rickard, Kelly L. Pereira, Sandra M. Saunders, Xinming Wang, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4673–4693,Short summary
Native to Australasia, the remarkable adaptability, rapid growth rates and high quality wood of eucalypt trees has led to them the most widely planted hardwood forest trees in the world. In contrast to boreal and tropical forests, there has been little study of aerosol formation in these regions. Here, we study the secondary organic aerosol formation from the very fast reaction of α-phellandrene, emitted from eucalypts, and identify key products and reaction pathways.
Hao Wang, Xiaopu Lyu, Hai Guo, Yu Wang, Shichun Zou, Zhenhao Ling, Xinming Wang, Fei Jiang, Yangzong Zeren, Wenzhuo Pan, Xiaobo Huang, and Jin Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4277–4295,Short summary
While oceanic air is generally thought to be clean, the air pollution over waters in proximity to the coasts is not well recognized. This research indicated that ozone was higher over South China Sea (SCS) than that in the adjacent continental area, while continental anticyclone, tropical cyclone and land breeze favored O3 formation over SCS. In addition, weaker NO titration and stronger atmospheric oxidative capacity led to higher O3 production efficiency over SCS.
Yan-Lin Zhang, Imad El-Haddad, Ru-Jin Huang, Kin-Fai Ho, Jun-Ji Cao, Yongming Han, Peter Zotter, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Jay G. Slowik, Gary Salazar, André S. H. Prévôt, and Sönke Szidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4005–4017,Short summary
Here we present a quantitative source apportionment of WSOC, isolated from aerosols in China using radiocarbon (14C) and offline high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer measurements. We demonstrate a dominant contribution of non-fossil emissions to WSOC aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the fossil fraction is substantially larger in aerosols from East Asia and the east Asian pollution outflow, especially during winter, due to increasing coal combustion.
Jian Sun, Zhenxing Shen, Yu Huang, Junji Cao, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Xinyi Niu, Taobo Wang, Qian Zhang, Yali Lei, Hongmei Xu, and Hongxia Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Lauren T. Fleming, Peng Lin, Alexander Laskin, Julia Laskin, Robert Weltman, Rufus D. Edwards, Narendra K. Arora, Ankit Yadav, Simone Meinardi, Donald R. Blake, Ajay Pillarisetti, Kirk R. Smith, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2461–2480,Short summary
Household cooking emissions in India, which rely on traditional meal preparation with dung- and brushwood-fueled cookstoves, produce copious amounts of particulate matter. Detailed chemical analysis of the compounds found in this particulate matter detected a large number of previously unidentified nitrogen-containing organic compounds, originating from dung-fueled cookstoves.
Berto Paul Lee, Peter Kwok Keung Louie, Connie Luk, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15121–15135,Short summary
Road traffic is an important source of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between traffic-related airborne carbonaceous particles and the composition of traffic to reveal how emissions from different vehicle types affect ambient air quality. On average, LPG vehicles showed very small contributions, while gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles emitted similar total amounts of carbon-containing particles but with differences in chemical composition.
Guohua Zhang, Qinhao Lin, Long Peng, Xinhui Bi, Duohong Chen, Mei Li, Lei Li, Fred J. Brechtel, Jianxin Chen, Weijun Yan, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14975–14985,Short summary
The mixing state of black carbon (BC)-containing particles and the mass scavenging efficiency of BC in cloud were investigated at a mountain site (1690 m a.s.l.) in southern China. The measured BC-containing particles were internally mixed extensively with sulfate, and thus the number fraction of scavenged BC-containing particles is close to that of all the measured particles. BC-containing particles with higher fractions of organics were scavenged relatively less.
Zheng Fang, Wei Deng, Yanli Zhang, Xiang Ding, Mingjin Tang, Tengyu Liu, Qihou Hu, Ming Zhu, Zhaoyi Wang, Weiqiang Yang, Zhonghui Huang, Wei Song, Xinhui Bi, Jianmin Chen, Yele Sun, Christian George, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14821–14839,Short summary
Primary emissions and aging of open straw burning plumes were characterized in ambient dilution conditions in a chamber. Rich in alkenes, the plumes have high O3 formation potential. The emissions of specific particulate and gaseous compounds were less when the straws were fully burned. Organic aerosol (OA) mass increased by a factor of 2–8 with 3–9 h photo-oxidation, yet > 70 % of the mass cannot be explained by the known precursors. OA gained more O- and N-containing compounds during aging.
Guohua Zhang, Qinhao Lin, Long Peng, Yuxiang Yang, Yuzhen Fu, Xinhui Bi, Mei Li, Duohong Chen, Jianxin Chen, Zhang Cai, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13891–13901,Short summary
We first reported the size-resolved mixing state of oxalate in the cloud droplet residual, the cloud interstitial, and cloud-free particles by single particle mass spectrometry. Individual particle analysis provides unique insight into the formation and evolution of oxalate during in-cloud processing. The data show that in-cloud aqueous reactions dramatically improved the formation of oxalate from organic acids that were strongly associated with the aged biomass burning particles.
Wenjun Gu, Yongjie Li, Jianxi Zhu, Xiaohong Jia, Qinhao Lin, Guohua Zhang, Xiang Ding, Wei Song, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3821–3832,Short summary
In this work we describe a method to directly quantify water adsorption and mass hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles as a function of RH at different temperature, using a commercial vapor sorption analyzer. We have demonstrated that this commercial instrument provides a simple, sensitive, and robust method to determine water adsorption and hygroscopicity of atmospheric particles.
Mingjin Tang, Xin Huang, Keding Lu, Maofa Ge, Yongjie Li, Peng Cheng, Tong Zhu, Aijun Ding, Yuanhang Zhang, Sasho Gligorovski, Wei Song, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11727–11777,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is also assessed. In addition, we have outlined major open questions and challenges in this field and discussed research strategies to address them.
Bianca C. Baier, William H. Brune, David O. Miller, Donald Blake, Russell Long, Armin Wisthaler, Christopher Cantrell, Alan Fried, Brian Heikes, Steven Brown, Erin McDuffie, Frank Flocke, Eric Apel, Lisa Kaser, and Andrew Weinheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11273–11292,Short summary
Ozone production rates were measured using the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS). Measurements are compared to modeled ozone production rates using two different chemical mechanisms. At high nitric oxide levels, observed rates are higher than those modeled, prompting the need to revisit current model photochemistry. These direct measurements can add to our understanding of the ozone chemistry within air quality models and can be used to guide government regulatory strategies.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Yu Wang, Hao Wang, Hai Guo, Xiaopu Lyu, Hairong Cheng, Zhenhao Ling, Peter K. K. Louie, Isobel J. Simpson, Simone Meinardi, and Donald R. Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10919–10935,Short summary
Though the Hong Kong government has made great efforts toward a reduction in emissions, ambient O3 levels have presented an increasing trend in the past decade. Data analysis and model simulations indicated that the locally produced O3 in Hong Kong varied by seasons, while regional transport from the PRD region made a substantial contribution to ambient O3 in Hong Kong and even increased in autumn. This long-term study has important implications for other Chinese cities to reduce O3 pollution.
Qinhao Lin, Guohua Zhang, Long Peng, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, Fred J. Brechtel, Mei Li, Duohong Chen, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8473–8488,Short summary
A ground-based counterflow virtual impactor coupled with a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to assess the mixing state of individual cloud residue particles. Abundant aged EC cloud residues that internally mixed with inorganic salts were found in air masses from northerly polluted areas. K-rich cloud residues significantly increased within southwesterly air masses. This study increases our understanding of the impacts of aerosols on cloud droplets in southern China.
Yunfei Wu, Xiaojia Wang, Jun Tao, Rujin Huang, Ping Tian, Junji Cao, Leiming Zhang, Kin-Fai Ho, Zhiwei Han, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7965–7975,Short summary
As black carbon (BC) aerosols play an important role in the climate and environment, the size distribution of refractory BC (rBC) was investigated. On this basis, the source of rBC was further analyzed. The local traffic exhausts contributed greatly to the rBC in urban areas. However, its contribution decreased significantly in the polluted period compared to the clean period, implying the increasing contribution of other sources, e.g., coal combustion or biomass burning, in the polluted period.
Felix A. Mackenzie-Rae, Tengyu Liu, Wei Deng, Sandra M. Saunders, Zheng Fang, Yanli Zhang, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6583–6609,Short summary
The atmospheric decomposition of the biogenic α-phellandrene with ozone is characterised by conducting carefully controlled experiments in a smog chamber. Major gas-phase products are identified based on theoretical/mechanism insight, with yields quantified. Meanwhile, a significant amount of aerosol is formed and characterised, with Criegee intermediates found to be important for new particle formation. It is concluded that α-phellandrene contributes to aerosol formation/growth where emitted.
Chunlin Li, Yunjie Hu, Fei Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Zhen Ma, Xingnan Ye, Xin Yang, Lin Wang, Xingfu Tang, Renhe Zhang, Mu Mu, Guihua Wang, Haidong Kan, Xinming Wang, and Abdelwahid Mellouki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4957–4988,Short summary
Detailed emission factors for smoke particulate species in PM2.5 and PM1.0 were derived from laboratory simulation of crop straw burning using aerosol chamber systems. Based on this, emissions for crop residue field burning in China were calculated and characterized with respect to five different burning scenarios. Moreover, health effects and health-related economic loss from smoke particle exposure were assessed; a practical emission control policy for agricultural field burning was proposed.
Lindsay E. Hatch, Robert J. Yokelson, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Patrick R. Veres, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, John J. Orlando, and Kelley C. Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1471–1489,Short summary
The most comprehensive database of gaseous biomass burning emissions to date was compiled. Four complementary instruments were deployed together during laboratory fires. The results generally compared within experimental uncertainty and highlighted that a range of measurement approaches are required for adequate characterization of smoke composition. Observed compounds were binned based on volatility, and priority recommendations were made to improve secondary organic aerosol predictions.
Samuel A. Atwood, Jeffrey S. Reid, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Donald R. Blake, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Nofel D. Lagrosas, Peng Xian, Elizabeth A. Reid, Walter R. Sessions, and James B. Simpas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1105–1123,Short summary
Aerosol particles were measured by ship in remote marine regions of the South China Sea as part of the 2012 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) experiments. As the particle populations changed throughout the experiment, the distribution of particle sizes and the amount of water that collected on them changed as well. These changes were associated with various impacts from smoke, sea salt, and pollution sources, and impact how clouds form and precipitation occurs in the region.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Brent N. Holben, Edward J. Hyer, Elizabeth A. Reid, Santo V. Salinas, Jianglong Zhang, James R. Campbell, Boon Ning Chew, Robert E. Holz, Arunas P. Kuciauskas, Nofel Lagrosas, Derek J. Posselt, Charles R. Sampson, Annette L. Walker, E. Judd Welton, and Chidong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14041–14056,Short summary
This paper describes aspects of the 2012 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operations period, the largest within the Maritime Continent. Included were an enhanced deployment of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometers, multiple lidars, and a Singapore supersite. Simultaneously, a ship was dispatched to the Palawan Archipelago and Sulu Sea of the Philippines for September 2012 to observe transported smoke and pollution as it entered the southwest monsoon trough.
Debra Wunch, Geoffrey C. Toon, Jacob K. Hedelius, Nicholas Vizenor, Coleen M. Roehl, Katherine M. Saad, Jean-François L. Blavier, Donald R. Blake, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14091–14105,Short summary
This paper investigates the cause of the known underestimate of bottom-up inventories of methane in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). We use total column measurements of methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and other trace gases beginning in the late 1980s to calculate emissions and attribute sources of excess methane to the atmosphere. We conclude that more than half of the excess methane to the SoCAB atmosphere is attributable to processed natural gas.
Jeffrey S. Reid, Nofel D. Lagrosas, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Elizabeth A. Reid, Samuel A. Atwood, Thomas J. Boyd, Virendra P. Ghate, Peng Xian, Derek J. Posselt, James B. Simpas, Sherdon N. Uy, Kimo Zaiger, Donald R. Blake, Anthony Bucholtz, James R. Campbell, Boon Ning Chew, Steven S. Cliff, Brent N. Holben, Robert E. Holz, Edward J. Hyer, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Arunas P. Kuciauskas, Simone Lolli, Min Oo, Kevin D. Perry, Santo V. Salinas, Walter R. Sessions, Alexander Smirnov, Annette L. Walker, Qing Wang, Liya Yu, Jianglong Zhang, and Yongjing Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14057–14078,Short summary
This paper describes aspects of the 2012 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operations period, the largest within the Maritime Continent. Included were an enhanced deployment of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometers, multiple lidars, and a Singapore supersite. Simultaneously, a ship was dispatched to the Palawan Archipelago and Sulu Sea of the Philippines for September 2012 to observe transported smoke and pollution as it entered the southwest monsoon trough.
Chelsea E. Stockwell, Thilina Jayarathne, Mark A. Cochrane, Kevin C. Ryan, Erianto I. Putra, Bambang H. Saharjo, Ati D. Nurhayati, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, and Robert J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11711–11732,Short summary
We present the first or rare field measurements of emission factors for Indonesian peat fires made in Borneo during the 2015 El Niño. The data include up to 90 gases, aerosol mass, and aerosol optical properties at two wavelengths (405 and 870 nm). Brown carbon dominates aerosol absorption, revisions to previous values for greenhouse gas emissions are supported and air toxics are assessed.
Chelsea E. Stockwell, Ted J. Christian, J. Douglas Goetz, Thilina Jayarathne, Prakash V. Bhave, Puppala S. Praveen, Sagar Adhikari, Rashmi Maharjan, Peter F. DeCarlo, Elizabeth A. Stone, Eri Saikawa, Donald R. Blake, Isobel J. Simpson, Robert J. Yokelson, and Arnico K. Panday
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11043–11081,Short summary
We present the first, or rare, field measurements in South Asia of emission factors for up to 80 gases (pollutants, greenhouse gases, and precursors) and black carbon and aerosol optical properties at 405 and 870 nm for many previously under-sampled sources that are important in developing countries such as cooking with dung and wood, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, motorcycles, generators and pumps, etc. Brown carbon contributes significantly to total aerosol absorption.
Likun Xue, Rongrong Gu, Tao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Sandra Saunders, Donald Blake, Peter K. K. Louie, Connie W. Y. Luk, Isobel Simpson, Zheng Xu, Zhe Wang, Yuan Gao, Shuncheng Lee, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9891–9903,Short summary
The chemical budgets and principal sources of ROx and NO3 radicals during a multi-day photochemical smog episode in Hong Kong are elucidated by an observation-constrained MCM model. NO3 was shown to be an important oxidant even during daytime in a pollution case when high aerosol loading attenuated the solar irradiation. This study suggests the potential important role of daytime NO3 chemistry in polluted atmospheres under conditions with the co-existence of abundant O3, NO2, VOCs, and aerosols.
Zhenhao Ling, Hai Guo, Isobel Jane Simpson, Sandra Maria Saunders, Sean Ho Man Lam, Xiaopu Lyu, and Donald Ray Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8141–8156,
Xiaopu Lyu, Hai Guo, Isobel J. Simpson, Simone Meinardi, Peter K. K. Louie, Zhenhao Ling, Yu Wang, Ming Liu, Connie W. Y. Luk, Nan Wang, and Donald R. Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6609–6626,Short summary
In this study, the effectiveness of a LPG converter replacement program was evaluated. It was found that LPG-related VOCs and NOx decreased significantly due to the implementation of the program. Source apportionment also revealed the reduction of VOCs and NOx in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust. From before to during the program, O3 increased slightly, mainly due to the reduction of NOx in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust. To retain zero O3 increment, the lowest reduction ratio of VOCs / NOx was determined.
Simone Tilmes, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Louisa K. Emmons, Doug E. Kinnison, Dan Marsh, Rolando R. Garcia, Anne K. Smith, Ryan R. Neely, Andrew Conley, Francis Vitt, Maria Val Martin, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Isobel Simpson, Don R. Blake, and Nicola Blake
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1853–1890,Short summary
The state of the art Community Earth System Model, CESM1 CAM4-chem has been used to perform reference and sensitivity simulations as part of the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). Specifics of the model and details regarding the setup of the simulations are described. In additions, the main behavior of the model, including selected chemical species have been evaluated with climatological datasets. This paper is therefore a references for studies that use the provided model results.
Jenny A. Fisher, Daniel J. Jacob, Katherine R. Travis, Patrick S. Kim, Eloise A. Marais, Christopher Chan Miller, Karen Yu, Lei Zhu, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jingqiu Mao, Paul O. Wennberg, John D. Crounse, Alex P. Teng, Tran B. Nguyen, Jason M. St. Clair, Ronald C. Cohen, Paul Romer, Benjamin A. Nault, Paul J. Wooldridge, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Paul B. Shepson, Fulizi Xiong, Donald R. Blake, Allen H. Goldstein, Pawel K. Misztal, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas B. Ryerson, Armin Wisthaler, and Tomas Mikoviny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5969–5991,Short summary
We use new airborne and ground-based observations from two summer 2013 campaigns in the southeastern US, interpreted with a chemical transport model, to understand the impact of isoprene and monoterpene chemistry on the atmospheric NOx budget via production of organic nitrates (RONO2). We find that a diversity of species contribute to observed RONO2. Our work implies that the NOx sink to RONO2 production is only sensitive to NOx emissions in regions where they are already low.
Véronique Perraud, Simone Meinardi, Donald R. Blake, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1325–1340,Short summary
Gas phase organosulfur compounds in air serve as precursors of particles which impact human health, visibility, and climate. We compare here two different approaches to measuring these compounds, one an online mass spectrometry technique and the other canister sampling followed by offline analysis by gas chromatography. We show that each approach has its own advantages and limitations in measuring these compounds in complex mixtures, including some artifacts due to reactions on surfaces.
Miriam Elser, Ru-Jin Huang, Robert Wolf, Jay G. Slowik, Qiyuan Wang, Francesco Canonaco, Guohui Li, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Yu Huang, Renjian Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Junji Cao, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3207–3225,Short summary
This work represents the first online chemical characterization of the PM2.5 using a high-resolution time-of flight aerosol mass spectrometer during extreme haze events China. The application of novel source apportionment techniques allowed for an improved identification and quantification of the sources of organic aerosols. The main sources and processes driving the extreme haze events are assessed.
Junwen Liu, Jun Li, Di Liu, Ping Ding, Chengde Shen, Yangzhi Mo, Xinming Wang, Chunling Luo, Zhineng Cheng, Sönke Szidat, Yanlin Zhang, Yingjun Chen, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2985–2996,Short summary
Many Chinese cities now are suffering the high loadings of fine particular matters, which can bring a lot of negative impacts on air quality, human health, and the climate system. The Chinese government generally focuses on the control of the emissions from vehicles and industry. Our results evidently show that the burning of biomass materials such as wood and agricultural residues can lead to the urban air pollution in China. The characteristic of haze covering China is distinct from regions.
Guohua Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Ning Qiu, Bingxue Han, Qinhao Lin, Long Peng, Duohong Chen, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2631–2640,Short summary
This paper first presents an estimate of the real part of the refractive indices and effective densities of chemically segregated aerosols in China. The results indicate the presence of spherical or nearly spherical shape for the majority of particle types. While sharing refractive index in a narrow range (1.47–1.53), they exhibited a wide range of effective density (0.87–1.51). Detailed relationship between physical and chemical properties benefits future research on visibility and climate.
Wei Deng, Qihou Hu, Tengyu Liu, Xinming Wang, Yanli Zhang, Xiang Ding, Yele Sun, Xinhui Bi, Jianzhen Yu, Weiqiang Yang, Xinyu Huang, Zhou Zhang, Zhonghui Huang, Quanfu He, A. Mellouki, and Christian George
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
C. Sun, B. P. Lee, D. Huang, Y. Jie Li, M. I. Schurman, P. K. K. Louie, C. Luk, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1713–1728,Short summary
This study presents results of long-term submicron aerosol measurements in Hong Kong. The presented work covers fall and winter 2013. It serves to characterize aerosol in a densely built-up urban area of a typical Asian megacity with strong primary emission sources from vehicles and cooking and presents an in-depth analysis of distinct clean and heavily polluted time periods tied with meteorological data and other gas-phase species observed in the study period.
T. Liu, X. Wang, Q. Hu, W. Deng, Y. Zhang, X. Ding, X. Fu, F. Bernard, Z. Zhang, S. Lü, Q. He, X. Bi, J. Chen, Y. Sun, J. Yu, P. Peng, G. Sheng, and J. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 675–689,Short summary
The formation of SOA and sulfate aerosols from the photooxidation of gasoline vehicle exhaust (GVE) when mixing with SO2 was investigated in a smog chamber. We found that the presence of GVE enhanced the conversion of SO2 to sulfate predominantly through reactions with stabilized Criegee intermediates. On the other hand, the elevated particle acidity enhanced the SOA production from GVE. This study indicated that SO2 and GVE could enhance each other in forming secondary aerosols.
T. Liu, X. Wang, W. Deng, Q. Hu, X. Ding, Y. Zhang, Q. He, Z. Zhang, S. Lü, X. Bi, J. Chen, and J. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9049–9062,
R.-Q. Shen, X. Ding, Q.-F. He, Z.-Y. Cong, Q.-Q. Yu, and X.-M. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8781–8793,Short summary
1) Seasonal trends of SOA tracers and origins were studied in the remote TP for the first time. 2) Seasonal variation of isoprene SOA tracers was mainly influenced by emission. 3) Due to the transport of air pollutants from the Indian subcontinent, aromatics SOA tracer presented relatively higher levels in the summer and elevated mass fractions in the winter. 4) Biogenic SOC dominated over anthropogenic SOC in the remote TP.
L. K. Emmons, S. R. Arnold, S. A. Monks, V. Huijnen, S. Tilmes, K. S. Law, J. L. Thomas, J.-C. Raut, I. Bouarar, S. Turquety, Y. Long, B. Duncan, S. Steenrod, S. Strode, J. Flemming, J. Mao, J. Langner, A. M. Thompson, D. Tarasick, E. C. Apel, D. R. Blake, R. C. Cohen, J. Dibb, G. S. Diskin, A. Fried, S. R. Hall, L. G. Huey, A. J. Weinheimer, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, J. Nowak, J. Peischl, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, C. Warneke, and D. Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6721–6744,Short summary
Eleven 3-D tropospheric chemistry models have been compared and evaluated with observations in the Arctic during the International Polar Year (IPY 2008). Large differences are seen among the models, particularly related to the model chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and reactive nitrogen (NOx, PAN, HNO3) partitioning. Consistency among the models in the underestimation of CO, ethane and propane indicates the emission inventory is too low for these compounds.
K. F. Ho, R.-J. Huang, K. Kawamura, E. Tachibana, S. C. Lee, S. S. H. Ho, T. Zhu, and L. Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3111–3123,Short summary
The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during the CAREBeijing-2007 in summer. This study demonstrates that even when primary exhaust was controlled by traffic restrictions, the contribution of secondary organic species formed from photochemical processes was critical with long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants.
S. Dai, X. Bi, L. Y. Chan, J. He, B. Wang, X. Wang, P. Peng, G. Sheng, and J. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3097–3108,
J. S. Reid, N. D. Lagrosas, H. H. Jonsson, E. A. Reid, W. R. Sessions, J. B. Simpas, S. N. Uy, T. J. Boyd, S. A. Atwood, D. R. Blake, J. R. Campbell, S. S. Cliff, B. N. Holben, R. E. Holz, E. J. Hyer, P. Lynch, S. Meinardi, D. J. Posselt, K. A. Richardson, S. V. Salinas, A. Smirnov, Q. Wang, L. Yu, and J. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1745–1768,Short summary
This paper reports on the first measurements of aerosol particles embedded in the convectively active southwest monsoonal flow of the South China Sea. The paper describes the research cruise and discusses how variability in aerosol characteristics relates to regional meteorological phenomena such as and the Madden Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and the monsoonal flow itself. Of special interest is how aerosol transport relates to meteorological drivers of convective activity.
Y.-L. Zhang, R.-J. Huang, I. El Haddad, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, P. Zotter, C. Bozzetti, K. R. Daellenbach, F. Canonaco, J. G. Slowik, G. Salazar, M. Schwikowski, J. Schnelle-Kreis, G. Abbaszade, R. Zimmermann, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, and S. Szidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1299–1312,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols using radiocarbon and other organic markers measurements during 2013 winter haze episodes was conducted at four megacities in China. Our results demonstrate that fossil emissions predominate EC with a mean contribution of 75±8%, whereas non-fossil sources account for 55±10% of OC; and the increment of TC on heavily polluted days was mainly driven by the increase of secondary OC from both fossil-fuel and non-fossil emissions.
L. K. Xue, T. Wang, J. Gao, A. J. Ding, X. H. Zhou, D. R. Blake, X. F. Wang, S. M. Saunders, S. J. Fan, H. C. Zuo, Q. Z. Zhang, and W. X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13175–13188,
M. Maione, F. Graziosi, J. Arduini, F. Furlani, U. Giostra, D. R. Blake, P. Bonasoni, X. Fang, S. A. Montzka, S. J. O'Doherty, S. Reimann, A. Stohl, and M. K. Vollmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9755–9770,
X. H. H. Huang, Q. J. Bian, P. K. K. Louie, and J. Z. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9279–9293,
R.-J. Huang, W.-B. Li, Y.-R. Wang, Q. Y. Wang, W. T. Jia, K.-F. Ho, J. J. Cao, G. H. Wang, X. Chen, I. EI Haddad, Z. X. Zhuang, X. R. Wang, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. D. O'Dowd, and T. Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2027–2035,
Q. Liang, E. Atlas, D. Blake, M. Dorf, K. Pfeilsticker, and S. Schauffler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5781–5792,
D. R. Gentner, T. B. Ford, A. Guha, K. Boulanger, J. Brioude, W. M. Angevine, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, J. B. Gilman, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, S. Meinardi, D. R. Blake, E. Atlas, W. A. Lonneman, T. E. Kleindienst, M. R. Beaver, J. M. St. Clair, P. O. Wennberg, T. C. VandenBoer, M. Z. Markovic, J. G. Murphy, R. A. Harley, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4955–4978,
C. J. Young, R. A. Washenfelder, P. M. Edwards, D. D. Parrish, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, L. H. Mielke, H. D. Osthoff, C. Tsai, O. Pikelnaya, J. Stutz, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, S. Griffith, S. Dusanter, P. S. Stevens, J. Flynn, N. Grossberg, B. Lefer, J. S. Holloway, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. L. Atlas, D. R. Blake, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3427–3440,
B. D. Hall, A. Engel, J. Mühle, J. W. Elkins, F. Artuso, E. Atlas, M. Aydin, D. Blake, E.-G. Brunke, S. Chiavarini, P. J. Fraser, J. Happell, P. B. Krummel, I. Levin, M. Loewenstein, M. Maione, S. A. Montzka, S. O'Doherty, S. Reimann, G. Rhoderick, E. S. Saltzman, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, M. K. Vollmer, R. F. Weiss, D. Worthy, and Y. Yokouchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 469–490,
X. Wang, T. Liu, F. Bernard, X. Ding, S. Wen, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Q. He, S. Lü, J. Chen, S. Saunders, and J. Yu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 301–313,
S. Tegtmeier, K. Krüger, B. Quack, E. Atlas, D. R. Blake, H. Boenisch, A. Engel, H. Hepach, R. Hossaini, M. A. Navarro, S. Raimund, S. Sala, Q. Shi, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11869–11886,
S. Situ, A. Guenther, X. Wang, X. Jiang, A. Turnipseed, Z. Wu, J. Bai, and X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11803–11817,
J. J. Li, G. H. Wang, J. J. Cao, X. M. Wang, and R. J. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11535–11549,
L. K. Xue, T. Wang, J. Gao, A. J. Ding, X. H. Zhou, D. R. Blake, X. F. Wang, S. M. Saunders, S. J. Fan, H. C. Zuo, Q. Z. Zhang, and W. X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
L. K. Xue, T. Wang, H. Guo, D. R. Blake, J. Tang, X. C. Zhang, S. M. Saunders, and W. X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8551–8567,
X. Ding, X.-M. Wang, Q.-F. He, X.-X. Fu, and B. Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
G. Zhang, X. Bi, L. Li, L. Y. Chan, M. Li, X. Wang, G. Sheng, J. Fu, and Z. Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4723–4735,
E. C. Browne, K.-E. Min, P. J. Wooldridge, E. Apel, D. R. Blake, W. H. Brune, C. A. Cantrell, M. J. Cubison, G. S. Diskin, J. L. Jimenez, A. J. Weinheimer, P. O. Wennberg, A. Wisthaler, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4543–4562,
L. Xing, T.-M. Fu, J. J. Cao, S. C. Lee, G. H. Wang, K. F. Ho, M.-C. Cheng, C.-F. You, and T. J. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4307–4318,
S. K. Akagi, R. J. Yokelson, I. R. Burling, S. Meinardi, I. Simpson, D. R. Blake, G. R. McMeeking, A. Sullivan, T. Lee, S. Kreidenweis, S. Urbanski, J. Reardon, D. W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, and D. R. Weise
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1141–1165,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsValidation of a new cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring tropospheric gaseous hydrogen chlorideComparison of formaldehyde measurements by Hantzsch, CRDS and DOAS in the SAPHIR chamberA field intercomparison of three passive air samplers for gaseous mercury in ambient airBeef cattle methane emissions measured with tracer-ratio and inverse dispersion modelling techniquesMethane emissions from an oil sands tailings pond: a quantitative comparison of fluxes derived by different methodsPerformance of open-path GasFinder3 devices for CH4 concentration measurements close to ambient levelsWater vapor density and turbulent fluxes from three generations of infrared gas analyzersQuantifying fugitive gas emissions from an oil sands tailings pond with open-path Fourier transform infrared measurementsRobust statistical calibration and characterization of portable low-cost air quality monitoring sensors to quantify real-time O3 and NO2 concentrations in diverse environmentsA miniature Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) for real-driving monitoring of motorcyclesIn situ measurement of CO2 and CH4 from aircraft over northeast China and comparison with OCO-2 dataMobile-platform measurement of air pollutant concentrations in California: performance assessment, statistical methods for evaluating spatial variations, and spatial representativenessContinuous methane concentration measurements at the Greenland ice sheet–atmosphere interface using a low-cost, low-power metal oxide sensor systemThe development of the Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light Spectrometer (AMULSE) greenhouse gas profiling system and application for satellite retrieval validationAtmospheric observations of the water vapour continuum in the near-infrared windows between 2500 and 6600 cm−1Intercomparison study of atmospheric 222Rn and 222Rn progeny monitorsSources of error in open-path FTIR measurements of N2O and CO2 emitted from agricultural fieldsConstraining the accuracy of flux estimates using OTM 33AEvaluating the measurement interference of wet rotating-denuder–ion chromatography in measuring atmospheric HONO in a highly polluted areaIntercomparison of nitrous acid (HONO) measurement techniques in a megacity (Beijing)Validity and limitations of simple reaction kinetics to calculate concentrations of organic compounds from ion counts in PTR-MSRecent advances in measurement techniques for atmospheric carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide observationsTrue eddy accumulation trace gas flux measurements: proof of conceptSimultaneous detection of C2H6, CH4, and δ13C-CH4 using optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region: towards application for dissolved gas measurementsAn improved low-power measurement of ambient NO2 and O3 combining electrochemical sensor clusters and machine learningComparison of slant open-path flux gradient and static closed chamber techniques to measure soil N2O emissionsField measurements of methylglyoxal using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry and comparison to the DNPH–HPLC–UV methodHow well can global chemistry models calculate the reactivity of short-lived greenhouse gases in the remote troposphere, knowing the chemical compositionEstimation of nocturnal CO2 and N2O soil emissions from changes in surface boundary layer mass storageIntra-urban spatial variability of surface ozone in Riverside, CA: viability and validation of low-cost sensorsField calibration of electrochemical NO2 sensors in a citizen science contextCalibration and field testing of cavity ring-down laser spectrometers measuring CH4, CO2, and δ13CH4 deployed on towers in the Marcellus Shale regionCalibration and assessment of electrochemical air quality sensors by co-location with regulatory-grade instrumentsComparison of VOC measurements made by PTR-MS, adsorbent tubes–GC-FID-MS and DNPH derivatization–HPLC during the Sydney Particle Study, 2012: a contribution to the assessment of uncertainty in routine atmospheric VOC measurementsMeasurement of interferences associated with the detection of the hydroperoxy radical in the atmosphere using laser-induced fluorescenceMeasurements of a potential interference with laser-induced fluorescence measurements of ambient OH from the ozonolysis of biogenic alkenesStatistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissionsComparison of OH reactivity measurements in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIRUse of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurementsObservations of VOC emissions and photochemical products over US oil- and gas-producing regions using high-resolution H3O+ CIMS (PTR-ToF-MS)Simultaneous multicopter-based air sampling and sensing of meteorological variablesEvaluation and environmental correction of ambient CO2 measurements from a low-cost NDIR sensorA closed-chamber method to measure greenhouse gas fluxes from dry aquatic sedimentsMethods to homogenize electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde measurements across changes in sensing solution concentration or ozonesonde manufacturerComparison of optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for ground-based and airborne measurements of atmospheric CO concentrationA European-wide 222radon and 222radon progeny comparison studyAn eddy-covariance system with an innovative vortex intake for measuring carbon dioxide and water fluxes of ecosystemsFlux calculation of short turbulent events – comparison of three methodsUsing in situ GC-MS for analysis of C2–C7 volatile organic acids in ambient air of a boreal forest siteComparison of two closed-path cavity-based spectrometers for measuring air–water CO2 and CH4 fluxes by eddy covariance
Teles C. Furlani, Patrick R. Veres, Kathryn E. R. Dawe, J. Andrew Neuman, Steven S. Brown, Trevor C. VandenBoer, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5859–5871,Short summary
This study characterized and validated a commercial spectroscopic instrument for the measurement of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the atmosphere. Near the Earth’s surface, HCl acts as the dominant reservoir for other chlorine-containing reactive chemicals that play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. The properties of HCl make it challenging to measure. This instrument can overcome many of these challenges, enabling reliable HCl measurements.
Marvin Glowania, Franz Rohrer, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4239–4253,Short summary
Three instruments that use different techniques to measure gaseous formaldehyde concentrations were compared in experiments in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The results demonstrated the need to correct the baseline in measurements by instruments that use the Hantzsch reaction or make use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. After applying corrections, all three methods gave accurate and precise measurements within their specifications.
Attilio Naccarato, Antonella Tassone, Maria Martino, Sacha Moretti, Antonella Macagnano, Emiliano Zampetti, Paolo Papa, Joshua Avossa, Nicola Pirrone, Michelle Nerentorp, John Munthe, Ingvar Wängberg, Geoff W. Stupple, Carl P. J. Mitchell, Adam R. Martin, Alexandra Steffen, Diana Babi, Eric M. Prestbo, Francesca Sprovieri, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3657–3672,Short summary
Mercury monitoring in support of the Minamata Convention requires effective and reliable analytical tools. Passive sampling is a promising approach for creating a sustainable long-term network for atmospheric mercury with improved spatial resolution and global coverage. In this study the analytical performance of three passive air samplers (CNR-PAS, IVL-PAS, and MerPAS) was assessed over extended deployment periods and the accuracy of concentrations was judged by comparison with active sampling.
Mei Bai, José I. Velazco, Trevor W. Coates, Frances A. Phillips, Thomas K. Flesch, Julian Hill, David G. Mayer, Nigel W. Tomkins, Roger S. Hegarty, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3469–3479,Short summary
The development and validation of management practices to mitigate methane (CH4) emissions from livestock require accurate emission measurements. We compared the inverse dispersion modelling (IDM) and tracer-ratio techniques to measure CH4 emissions from cattle. Both measurements agreed well but were higher than IPCC estimates. We suggest that the IDM approach can provide an accurate method of estimating cattle emissions, and IPCC estimates may have larger uncertainties.
Yuan You, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, James Beck, and Richard L. Mittermeier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1879–1892,Short summary
Tailings ponds in the Alberta oil sands can be significant sources of methane, an important greenhouse gas. This paper describes a 1-month study conducted in 2017 to measure methane emissions from a pond using a variety of micrometeorological flux methods and demonstrates some advantages of these methods over flux chambers.
Christoph Häni, Marcel Bühler, Albrecht Neftel, Christof Ammann, and Thomas Kupper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1733–1741,
Seth Kutikoff, Xiaomao Lin, Steven R. Evett, Prasanna Gowda, David Brauer, Jerry Moorhead, Gary Marek, Paul Colaizzi, Robert Aiken, Liukang Xu, and Clenton Owensby
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1253–1266,Short summary
Fast-response infrared gas sensors have been used over 3 decades for long-term monitoring of water vapor fluxes. As optically improved infrared gas sensors are newly employed, we evaluated the performance of water vapor density and water vapor flux from three generations of infrared gas sensors in Bushland, Texas, USA. From our experiments, fluxes from the old sensors were best representative of evapotranspiration based on a world-class lysimeter reference measurement.
Yuan You, Samar G. Moussa, Lucas Zhang, Long Fu, James Beck, and Ralf M. Staebler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 945–959,Short summary
Tailings ponds in the Alberta oil sands represent an insufficiently characterized source of fugitive emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere. In this study, a novel approach of using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer along with measurements of atmospheric turbulence is shown to present a practical, non-intrusive method of quantifying emission rates for ammonia, alkanes, and methane. Results from a 1-month field study are presented and discussed.
Ravi Sahu, Ayush Nagal, Kuldeep Kumar Dixit, Harshavardhan Unnibhavi, Srikanth Mantravadi, Srijith Nair, Yogesh Simmhan, Brijesh Mishra, Rajesh Zele, Ronak Sutaria, Vidyanand Motiram Motghare, Purushottam Kar, and Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 37–52,Short summary
A unique feature of our low-cost sensor deployment is a swap-out experiment wherein four of the six sensors were relocated to different sites in the two phases. The swap-out experiment is crucial in investigating the efficacy of calibration models when applied to weather and air quality conditions vastly different from those present during calibration. We developed a novel local calibration algorithm based on metric learning that offers stable and accurate calibration performance.
Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Alessandro A. Zardini, Martin Pechout, Lubos Dittrich, Fausto Forni, François Montigny, Massimo Carriero, Barouch Giechaskiel, and Giorgio Martini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5827–5843,Short summary
The feasibility of monitoring on-road emissions from small motorcycles with two highly compact portable emissions monitoring systems was evaluated on three motorcycles, with positive results. Mass emissions measured on the road were consistent among repeated runs, with differences between laboratory and on-road tests much larger than those between portable and laboratory systems, which were, on the average, within units of percent over standard test cycles.
Xiaoyu Sun, Minzheng Duan, Yang Gao, Rui Han, Denghui Ji, Wenxing Zhang, Nong Chen, Xiangao Xia, Hailei Liu, and Yanfeng Huo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3595–3607,Short summary
The accurate measurement of greenhouse gases and their vertical distribution in the atmosphere is significant to the study of climate change and satellite remote sensing. Carbon dioxide and methane between 0.6 and 7 km were measured by the aircraft King Air 350ER in Jiansanjiang, northeast China, on 7–11 August 2018. The profiles show strong variation with the altitude and time, so the vertical structure of gases should be taken into account in the current satellite retrieval algorithm.
Paul A. Solomon, Dena Vallano, Melissa Lunden, Brian LaFranchi, Charles L. Blanchard, and Stephanie L. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3277–3301,Short summary
Analyzing street-level air pollutants (2016–2017), this assessment indicates that mobile measurement is precise and accurate (5 % to 25 % bias) relative to regulatory sites, with higher spatial resolution. Collocated sensor measurements in California showed differences less than 20 %, suggesting that greater differences represent spatial variability. Mobile data confirm regulatory-site spatial representation and that pollutant levels can also be 6 to 8 times higher just blocks apart.
Christian Juncher Jørgensen, Jacob Mønster, Karsten Fuglsang, and Jesper Riis Christiansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3319–3328,Short summary
Recent discoveries have shown large emissions of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere from meltwater at the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). Low-cost and low-power gas sensor technology offers great potential to supplement CH4 measurements using very expensive reference analyzers under harsh and remote conditions. In this paper we evaluate the in situ performance at the GrIS of a low-cost CH4 sensor to a state-of-the-art analyzer and find very excellent agreement between the two methods.
Lilian Joly, Olivier Coopmann, Vincent Guidard, Thomas Decarpenterie, Nicolas Dumelié, Julien Cousin, Jérémie Burgalat, Nicolas Chauvin, Grégory Albora, Rabih Maamary, Zineb Miftah El Khair, Diane Tzanos, Joël Barrié, Éric Moulin, Patrick Aressy, and Anne Belleudy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3099–3118,Short summary
This article presents an instrument weighing less than 3 kg for accurate and rapid measurement of greenhouse gases between 0 and 30 km altitude using a meteorological balloon. This article shows the interest of these measurements for the validation of simulations of infrared satellite observations.
Jonathan Elsey, Marc D. Coleman, Tom D. Gardiner, Kaah P. Menang, and Keith P. Shine
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2335–2361,Short summary
Water vapour is an important component in trying to understand the flows of energy between the Sun and Earth, since it is opaque to radiation emitted by both the surface and the Sun. In this paper, we study how it absorbs sunlight by way of its
continuum, a property which is poorly understood and with few measurements. Our results indicate that this continuum absorption may be more significant than previously thought, potentially impacting satellite observations and climate studies.
Claudia Grossi, Scott D. Chambers, Olivier Llido, Felix R. Vogel, Victor Kazan, Alessandro Capuana, Sylvester Werczynski, Roger Curcoll, Marc Delmotte, Arturo Vargas, Josep-Anton Morguí, Ingeborg Levin, and Michel Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2241–2255,Short summary
The sustainable support of radon metrology at the environmental level offers new scientific possibilities for the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the determination of their source terms as well as for the identification of radioactive sources for the assessment of radiation exposure. This study helps to harmonize the techniques commonly used for atmospheric radon and radon progeny activity concentration measurements.
Cheng-Hsien Lin, Richard H. Grant, Albert J. Heber, and Cliff T. Johnston
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2001–2013,Short summary
Gas quantification using the open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) is subject to interferences of environmental variables, leading to errors in gas concentration calculations. This study investigated the effects of ambient water vapour content, temperature, path lengths, and wind speed on the quantification of N2O and CO2 concentrations, which can help the OP-FTIR users to avoid these errors and improve the precision and accuracy of the atmospheric gas quantification.
Rachel Edie, Anna M. Robertson, Robert A. Field, Jeffrey Soltis, Dustin A. Snare, Daniel Zimmerle, Clay S. Bell, Timothy L. Vaughn, and Shane M. Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 341–353,Short summary
Ground-based measurements of emissions from oil and natural gas production are important for understanding emission distributions and improving emission inventories. Here, measurement technique Other Test Method 33A (OTM 33A) is validated through several test releases staged at the Methane Emissions Technology Evaluation Center. These tests suggest OTM 33A has no inherent bias and that a group of OTM measurements is within 5 % of the known mean emission rate.
Zheng Xu, Yuliang Liu, Wei Nie, Peng Sun, Xuguang Chi, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6737–6748,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of HONO measurement by a wet-denuder--ion0chromatography system (WD/IC, MARGA). We found significant artificial HONO formed from the reaction of NO2 oxidizing SO2 in the denuder solution. High ambient NH3 would elevate the pH of the denuder solution and promote the overestimation of HONO. A method was established to correct the HONO measurement by WD/IC instruments.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Bin Ouyang, Jun Duan, Wenqian Zhang, Shengrui Tong, Maofa Ge, Ke Tang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, James Allan, Carl J. Percival, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is key species for understanding tropospheric chemistry, yet accurate and precise measurements are challenging. Here we report an inter–comparison exercise of a number of instruments that measured HONO in a highly polluted location (Beijing). All instruments agreed on the temporal trends yet displayed divergence in absolute concentrations. The cause of this divergence was unclear, but it may in part be due to spatial variability in instrument location.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Christoph Zellweger, Rainer Steinbrecher, Olivier Laurent, Haeyoung Lee, Sumin Kim, Lukas Emmenegger, Martin Steinbacher, and Brigitte Buchmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5863–5878,Short summary
We analysed results obtained through CO and N2O performance audits conducted within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) quality management system of the World Meteorology Organization (WMO). The results reveal that current spectroscopic measurement techniques have clear advantages with respect to data quality objectives compared to more traditional methods. Further, they allow for a smooth continuation of historic CO and N2O time series.
Lukas Siebicke and Anas Emad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4393–4420,Short summary
We present the emerging flux measurement method
true eddy accumulation(TEA), able to quantify the land–atmosphere exchange of a large number of trace gases which are important for air quality and atmospheric composition. Our innovative implementation provides proof of concept of TEA and compared well to the established reference, outperforming previous works on TEA. Key to the success was the innovative high-speed air sampling and fully digital real-time data processing system.
Loic Lechevallier, Roberto Grilli, Erik Kerstel, Daniele Romanini, and Jérôme Chappellaz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3101–3109,Short summary
In this work we describe a highly sensitive optical spectrometer for simultaneous measurement of methane, ethane, and the isotopic composition of methane. The coupling of the spectrometer with a dissolved gas extraction system will provide a suitable tool for understanding the origins of the dissolved hydrocarbons and discriminate between the different sources (e.g., biogenic vs. thermogenic).
Kate R. Smith, Peter M. Edwards, Peter D. Ivatt, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, Chengliang Dai, Richard E. Peltier, Mat J. Evans, Yele Sun, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1325–1336,Short summary
Clusters of low-cost, low-power atmospheric gas sensors were built into a sensor instrument to monitor NO2 and O3 in Beijing, alongside reference instruments, aiming to improve the reliability of sensor measurements. Clustering identical sensors and using the median sensor signal was used to minimize drift over short and medium timescales. Three different machine learning techniques were used for all the sensor data in an attempt to correct for cross-interferences, which worked to some degree.
Mei Bai, Helen Suter, Shu Kee Lam, Thomas K. Flesch, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1095–1102,Short summary
Improving direct field measurement techniques to quantify gas emissions from large agriculture farm is challenging. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions with static closed chambers and slant open-path flux gradient (FG) approaches following chicken manure application. The concurrent emission ratios (FG / chamber) showed N2O fluxes measured by FG were 1.22-1.40 times higher than those from the chambers. This study provides important information for the agriculture gas measurement community.
Vincent Michoud, Stéphane Sauvage, Thierry Léonardis, Isabelle Fronval, Alexandre Kukui, Nadine Locoge, and Sébastien Dusanter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5729–5740,Short summary
This study presents the first measurements of ambient methylglyoxal, an important atmospheric α-dicarbonyl, using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These measurements mostly agree with concomitant measurements from a reference technique: the DNPH derivatization technique and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. In addition, a careful investigation of the differences between the two techniques is carried out to explain the disagreements observed.
Michael J. Prather, Clare M. Flynn, Xin Zhu, Stephen D. Steenrod, Sarah A. Strode, Arlene M. Fiore, Gustavo Correa, Lee T. Murray, and Jean-Francois Lamarque
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2653–2668,Short summary
A new protocol for merging in situ atmospheric chemistry measurements with 3-D models is developed. This technique can identify the most reactive air parcels in terms of tropospheric production/loss of O3 & CH4. This approach highlights differences in 6 global chemistry models even with composition specified. Thus in situ measurements from, e.g., NASA's ATom mission can be used to develop a chemical climatology of, not only the key species, but also the rates of key reactions in each air parcel.
Richard H. Grant and Rex A. Omonode
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2119–2133,Short summary
Annual emissions of trace gases requires knowledge of the emissions throughout the day and year. Unfortunately emissions into the surface boundary layer during calm nights are rarely measured. During such conditions surface layer concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) often accumulate in the surface boundary layer and the time rate of change of this accumulation was used to estimate emissions. Results showed this approach to be reasonable.
Kira Sadighi, Evan Coffey, Andrea Polidori, Brandon Feenstra, Qin Lv, Daven K. Henze, and Michael Hannigan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1777–1792,Short summary
Ground-level ozone has negative human health impacts. In the summer of 2015, 13 low-cost sensor monitors were deployed to several neighborhoods around Riverside, California. There were significant spatial differences between monitors. This is important because it means that ozone in certain places may be higher than what EPA monitors report for an area, which is pertinent for residents of those communities. This research helps inform the limitations and advantages of low-cost sensor networks.
Bas Mijling, Qijun Jiang, Dave de Jonge, and Stefano Bocconi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1297–1312,Short summary
Although in many cities the population is exposed to air pollution, real-time air quality is usually only measured at a few locations. New low-cost sensor technology has the potential to extend the monitoring network significantly. We show that citizen science campaigns using the current generations of electrochemical NO2 sensors may provide useful complementary data on local air quality in an urban setting, provided that experiments are properly set up and the data are carefully analysed.
Natasha L. Miles, Douglas K. Martins, Scott J. Richardson, Christopher W. Rella, Caleb Arata, Thomas Lauvaux, Kenneth J. Davis, Zachary R. Barkley, Kathryn McKain, and Colm Sweeney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1273–1295,Short summary
Analyzers measuring methane and methane isotopic ratio were deployed at four towers in the Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction region of Pennsylvania. The methane isotopic ratio is helpful for differentiating emissions from natural gas activities from other sources (e.g., landfills). We describe the analyzer calibration. The signals observed in the study region were generally small, but the instrumental performance demonstrated here could be used in regions with stronger enhancements.
David H. Hagan, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Jonathan P. Franklin, Lisa M. M. Wallace, Benjamin D. Kocar, Colette L. Heald, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 315–328,Short summary
The use of low-cost sensors for air pollution research has outpaced our understanding of their capabilities and limitations under real-world conditions. Here we describe the deployment, calibration and evaluation of electrochemical sensors on the Island of Hawai‘i. We obtain excellent performance (RMSE < 7 ppb, r2 = 0.997) across a wide dynamic range (1 ppb–2 ppm). We introduce a hybrid regression algorithm which works across a large dynamic range and shows little decay in sensitivity over time.
Erin Dunne, Ian E. Galbally, Min Cheng, Paul Selleck, Suzie B. Molloy, and Sarah J. Lawson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 141–159,Short summary
A comparison of measurements of 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban air by 3 different methods is presented. An uncertainty was calculated for each method and VOCs measured to provide some idea of the reliability of the data. Even when this uncertainty was accounted for, the measurements from the different methods did not agree for 4 of the 7 VOCs. Thus, there is unaccounted uncertainty in VOC measurements which must be considered when utilizing the data and assessing their reliability.
Michelle M. Lew, Sebastien Dusanter, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 95–109,Short summary
This paper describes measurements of the conversion efficiency of several organic peroxy radicals upon reaction with nitric oxide to the hydroperoxy radical, which can interfere with measurements of the latter. This interference could explain some of the discrepancies between measurements and model predictions of the hydroperoxy radical. Previous measurements of the hydroperoxy radical during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area campaign in 2006 are reanalyzed to account for the interference.
Pamela Rickly and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1–16,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical is the primary atmospheric oxidant in the atmosphere, and measurements of its concentration provide a rigorous test of our understanding of atmospheric chemistry. This paper presents measurements of a potential interference with measurements of OH using laser-induced fluorescence techniques, which may contribute to measurements of OH in forested environments. The results may help to explain discrepancies between measurements and model predictions in these environments.
Sébastien Ars, Grégoire Broquet, Camille Yver Kwok, Yelva Roustan, Lin Wu, Emmanuel Arzoumanian, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 5017–5037,Short summary
This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site combining the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a practical implementation based on a series of inversions of controlled methane and tracer point sources in different spatial configurations to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison with the classic tracer method.
Hendrik Fuchs, Anna Novelli, Michael Rolletter, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stephan Kessel, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Nadine Locoge, Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Francois Truong, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Paul W. Seakins, Dwayne E. Heard, Coralie Schoemaecker, Marion Blocquet, Sebastien Coudert, Sebastien Batut, Christa Fittschen, Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, Cheryl Ernest, Hartwig Harder, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Thomas Elste, Dagmar Kubistin, Stefanie Andres, Birger Bohn, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Qi Zou, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4023–4053,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical reactivity (k(OH)) is closely related to processes that lead to the formation of oxidised, secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosol. In order to compare the performances of instruments measuring k(OH), experiments were conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Chemical conditions were chosen either to be representative of the atmosphere or to test potential limitations of instruments. Overall, the results show that instruments are capable of measuring k(OH).
Eben S. Cross, Leah R. Williams, David K. Lewis, Gregory R. Magoon, Timothy B. Onasch, Michael L. Kaminsky, Douglas R. Worsnop, and John T. Jayne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3575–3588,Short summary
Low-cost air quality sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements of air pollution, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. We present results from a newly developed integrated AQ-sensor system (ARISense) and demonstrate the utility of using high-dimensional model representation to improve the conversion of raw sensor signal to ambient concentration.
Abigail Koss, Bin Yuan, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Patrick R. Veres, Jeff Peischl, Scott Eilerman, Rob Wild, Steven S. Brown, Chelsea R. Thompson, Thomas Ryerson, Thomas Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Mitchell Thayer, Frank N. Keutsch, Shane Murphy, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2941–2968,Short summary
Oil and gas extraction activity can cause air quality issues through emission of reactive chemicals. VOCs related to extraction operations in the United States were measured by PTR-ToF-MS from aircraft during the SONGNEX campaign in March–April 2015. The detailed analysis in this work provides a guide to interpreting PTR-ToF measurements in oil- and gas-producing regions, and it includes fundamental observations of VOC speciation and mixing ratios.
Caroline Brosy, Karina Krampf, Matthias Zeeman, Benjamin Wolf, Wolfgang Junkermann, Klaus Schäfer, Stefan Emeis, and Harald Kunstmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2773–2784,Short summary
Vertical and horizontal sounding of the planetary boundary layer can be complemented by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Utilizing a multicopter-type UAV spatial sampling of air and simultaneously sensing of meteorological variables is possible for the study of surface exchange processes. During stable atmospheric conditions, vertical methane gradients of about 300 ppb were found. This approach extended the vertical profile height of existing tower-based infrastructure by a factor of five.
Cory R. Martin, Ning Zeng, Anna Karion, Russell R. Dickerson, Xinrong Ren, Bari N. Turpie, and Kristy J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2383–2395,Short summary
A low-cost sensor for measuring carbon dioxide is evaluated for its performance in detecting concentrations in Earth's atmosphere. After a multivariate regression correcting for environmental variables, the root mean square error between it and a research-grade gas analyzer is less than 0.5 % of the observed average value. This demonstrates the viability for using these sensors in certain real-world atmospheric observing applications.
Lukas Lesmeister and Matthias Koschorreck
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2377–2382,Short summary
Greenhouse gas emissions from dry aquatic sediments are probably globally relevant. However, they are difficult to measure because of the often rocky substrate. We tested the performance of different materials to seal a closed chamber to stony ground both in laboratory and field experiments. Pottery clay was a convenient sealing material, while the use of on-site material produced artefacts. We confirmed that CO2 fluxes from dry aquatic sediments were similar to fluxes from
Terry Deshler, Rene Stübi, Francis J. Schmidlin, Jennifer L. Mercer, Herman G. J. Smit, Bryan J. Johnson, Rigel Kivi, and Bruno Nardi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2021–2043,Short summary
Ozonesondes, small balloon-borne instruments to measure ozone profiles, are used once and lost. Quality control is thus essential. From the mid-1990s to late 2000s differences in manufacturers' (Science Pump and ENSCI) recommended sensor solution concentrations, 1.0 % and 0.5 % potassium iodide, led to some confusion. This paper uses comparison measurements to derive transfer functions to homogenize the measurements made with non-standard combinations of instrument and sensor solution.
Irène Ventrillard, Irène Xueref-Remy, Martina Schmidt, Camille Yver Kwok, Xavier Faïn, and Daniele Romanini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1803–1812,Short summary
We present a comparison of CO measurements performed with a portable OF-CEAS laser spectrometer against a high-performance gas chromatograph. For both surface and airborne measurements, the instruments show an excellent agreement very close to the 2 ppb World Meteorological Organization recommendation for CO inter-laboratory comparison. This work establishes that this laser technique allows for the development of sensitive, compact, robust and reliable instruments for in situ trace-gas analysis.
Dominik Schmithüsen, Scott Chambers, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Juha Hatakka, Victor Kazan, Rolf Neubert, Jussi Paatero, Michel Ramonet, Clemens Schlosser, Sabine Schmid, Alex Vermeulen, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1299–1312,Short summary
A European-wide 222radon/222radon progeny comparison study has been conducted at nine measurement stations in order to determine differences between existing 222radon instrumentation and atmospheric data sets, respectively. Mean differences up to 45 % were found between monitors. These differences need to be taken into account if the data shall serve for quantitative regional atmospheric transport model validation.
Jingyong Ma, Tianshan Zha, Xin Jia, Steve Sargent, Rex Burgon, Charles P.-A. Bourque, Xinhua Zhou, Peng Liu, Yujie Bai, and Yajuan Wu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1259–1267,Short summary
The vortex intake significantly reduced maintenance requirements and downtime for a closed-path eddy-covariance system compared to the original inline filter design. Vortex intake kept the sample cell windows cleaner, preserving the optical signal strength of CO2 longer. Its installation also avoided the need for an inline filter in the sample path, sustaining an acceptable sample cell differential pressure over a much longer period. There was no significant attenuation of high frequencies.
Carsten Schaller, Mathias Göckede, and Thomas Foken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 869–880,Short summary
The eddy covariance (EC) method allows for measuring and calculating vertical turbulent exchange fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere. It fails in non-steady-state flow conditions, e.g. in Arctic regions. Two alternative calculation methods, conditional sampling and wavelet analysis, were implemented and compared to EC. Wavelet analysis for allows calculating a trustworthy flux even in non-stationary times and offers new possibilities for exact flux calculation in difficult environments.
Heidi Hellén, Simon Schallhart, Arnaud P. Praplan, Tuukka Petäjä, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 281–289,Short summary
There is a lack of knowledge of volatile organic acids (VOAs), other than formic and acetic acids in gas phase, and this is at least partly due to the lack of sensitive enough measurement methods. In the present study we developed an in situ GC–MS measurement method for measuring C2–C7 monocarboxylic VOAs at ambient air concentration levels, which we used to measure ambient air concentrations in a boreal forest site. In addition, found mixing ratios were compared with PTR-TOFMS data.
Mingxi Yang, John Prytherch, Elena Kozlova, Margaret J. Yelland, Deepulal Parenkat Mony, and Thomas G. Bell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5509–5522,Short summary
The exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane between the ocean and the atmosphere is of critical importance for the earth's climate. Despite this, direct measurements of these fluxes are relatively scarce, especially for methane, in large part due to instrumental challenges. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two of the latest carbon dioxide and methane flux analysers. We also compare their detection limits to predicted air–sea fluxes of these gases.
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In this manuscript, the effect of ambient RH and T on HCHO measurements by PTR-MS was investigated, and the Poly 2-D regression was found to be a good nonlinear surface simulation of R (RH, T) for correcting measured HCHO concentration. Intercomparisons between PTR-MS and other OVOC and VOC measuring techniques were conducted through a field study in urban roadside areas of Hong Kong primarily, and good agreements were found between these different techniques.
In this manuscript, the effect of ambient RH and T on HCHO measurements by PTR-MS was...