EarthCARE Level 2 algorithms and data products
EarthCARE Level 2 algorithms and data products
Editor(s): Ulla Wandinger, Pavlos Kollias, Anthony Illingworth, Hajime Okamoto, and Robin Hogan

The EarthCARE (Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer) satellite is a joint ESA–JAXA mission that was launched on 28 May 2024; it carries a Doppler cloud profiling radar (CPR), a high-spectral-resolution atmospheric lidar (ATLID), a multi-spectral imager (MSI), and a broadband radiometer (BBR). A large number of cloud, aerosol, precipitation, and radiation data products will be produced, some derived from individual EarthCARE instruments and some from the synergy of multiple instruments. This collection of papers describes the theoretical basis for the EarthCARE Level 2 algorithms and provides a prelaunch evaluation of their performance. An innovative aspect that links a number of the papers together is the use of realistic 3D test scenes, 6000 km in length, with cloud, precipitation, and aerosol fields from a high-resolution cloud-resolving model and an aerosol transport model, with which observations by the four EarthCARE instruments have been simulated using state-of-the-art instrument simulators. This approach has enabled these algorithms to be evaluated and compared using a common dataset. The special issue is limited to papers describing official ESA or JAXA retrieval algorithms and their evaluation as well as several closely related papers.

Review process: all papers of this special issue underwent the regular interactive peer-review process of Atmospheric Measurement Techniques handled by guest editors designated by the AMT executive editors.

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22 May 2024
Preface to the special issue “EarthCARE Level 2 algorithms and data products”: Editorial in memory of Tobias Wehr
Robin J. Hogan, Anthony J. Illingworth, Pavlos Kollias, Hajime Okamoto, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 17, 3081–3083, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-3081-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-3081-2024, 2024
Overview papers
04 Aug 2023
| Highlight paper
The EarthCARE mission – science and system overview
Tobias Wehr, Takuji Kubota, Georgios Tzeremes, Kotska Wallace, Hirotaka Nakatsuka, Yuichi Ohno, Rob Koopman, Stephanie Rusli, Maki Kikuchi, Michael Eisinger, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Masatoshi Taga, Patrick Deghaye, Eichi Tomita, and Dirk Bernaerts
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3581–3608, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3581-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3581-2023, 2023
Short summary
31 Jan 2024
The EarthCARE mission: science data processing chain overview
Michael Eisinger, Fabien Marnas, Kotska Wallace, Takuji Kubota, Nobuhiro Tomiyama, Yuichi Ohno, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Eichi Tomita, Tobias Wehr, and Dirk Bernaerts
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 17, 839–862, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-839-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-839-2024, 2024
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02 Jul 2024
JAXA Level2 algorithms for EarthCARE mission from single to four sensors: new perspective of cloud, aerosol, radiation and dynamics
Hajime Okamoto, Kaori Sato, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Yoshitaka Jin, Takashi Nakajima, Minrui Wang, Masaki Satoh, Kentaroh Suzuki, Woosub Roh, Akira Yamauchi, Hiroaki Horie, Yuichi Ohno, Yuichiro Hagihara, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Rei Kudo, Takuji Kubota, and Toshiyuki Tanaka
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2024-101,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2024-101, 2024
Preprint under review for AMT (discussion: open, 0 comments)
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Simulated data and models for development and testing of algorithms
27 Oct 2023
Numerical model generation of test frames for pre-launch studies of EarthCARE's retrieval algorithms and data management system
Zhipeng Qu, David P. Donovan, Howard W. Barker, Jason N. S. Cole, Mark W. Shephard, and Vincent Huijnen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4927–4946, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-4927-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-4927-2023, 2023
Short summary
10 Nov 2023
The generation of EarthCARE L1 test data sets using atmospheric model data sets
David P. Donovan, Pavlos Kollias, Almudena Velázquez Blázquez, and Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5327–5356, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-5327-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-5327-2023, 2023
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30 Jun 2023
Introduction to EarthCARE synthetic data using a global storm-resolving simulation
Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, Shuhei Matsugishi, Tomoe Nasuno, and Takuji Kubota
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3331–3344, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3331-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3331-2023, 2023
Short summary
25 May 2023
HETEAC – the Hybrid End-To-End Aerosol Classification model for EarthCARE
Ulla Wandinger, Athena Augusta Floutsi, Holger Baars, Moritz Haarig, Albert Ansmann, Anja Hünerbein, Nicole Docter, David Donovan, Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, Shannon Mason, and Jason Cole
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2485–2510, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-2485-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-2485-2023, 2023
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05 Jun 2024
An evaluation of microphysics in a numerical model using Doppler velocity measured by ground-based radar for application to the EarthCARE satellite
Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Yuichiro Hagihara, Hiroaki Horie, Yuichi Ohno, and Takuji Kubota
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 17, 3455–3466, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-3455-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-3455-2024, 2024
Short summary
01 Feb 2024
An intercomparison of EarthCARE cloud, aerosol, and precipitation retrieval products
Shannon L. Mason, Howard W. Barker, Jason N. S. Cole, Nicole Docter, David P. Donovan, Robin J. Hogan, Anja Hünerbein, Pavlos Kollias, Bernat Puigdomènech Treserras, Zhipeng Qu, Ulla Wandinger, and Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 17, 875–898, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-875-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-875-2024, 2024
Short summary
31 May 2024
An Improved Geolocation Methodology for Spaceborne Radar and Lidar Systems
Bernat Puigdomènech Treserras and Pavlos Kollias
EGUsphere, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1546,https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1546, 2024
Preprint under review for AMT (discussion: open, 0 comments)
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Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) algorithms
28 Jun 2023
Global evaluation of Doppler velocity errors of EarthCARE cloud-profiling radar using a global storm-resolving simulation
Yuichiro Hagihara, Yuichi Ohno, Hiroaki Horie, Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, and Takuji Kubota
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3211–3219, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3211-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3211-2023, 2023
Short summary
12 Apr 2023
Processing reflectivity and Doppler velocity from EarthCARE's cloud-profiling radar: the C-FMR, C-CD and C-APC products
Pavlos Kollias, Bernat Puidgomènech Treserras, Alessandro Battaglia, Paloma C. Borque, and Aleksandra Tatarevic
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1901–1914, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-1901-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-1901-2023, 2023
Short summary
09 Jun 2023
Cloud and precipitation microphysical retrievals from the EarthCARE Cloud Profiling Radar: the C-CLD product
Kamil Mroz, Bernat Puidgomènech Treserras, Alessandro Battaglia, Pavlos Kollias, Aleksandra Tatarevic, and Frederic Tridon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2865–2888, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-2865-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-2865-2023, 2023
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Atmospheric Lidar (ATLID) algorithms
08 Aug 2023
Detection of aerosol and cloud features for the EarthCARE atmospheric lidar (ATLID): the ATLID FeatureMask (A-FM) product
Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, David P. Donovan, and Ping Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3631–3651, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3631-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3631-2023, 2023
Short summary
15 Feb 2024
The EarthCARE lidar cloud and aerosol profile processor (A-PRO): the A-AER, A-EBD, A-TC and A-ICE products
David Patrick Donovan, Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, and Ping Wang
EGUsphere, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-218,https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-218, 2024
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT (discussion: final response, 7 comments)
Short summary
07 Sep 2023
Cloud top heights and aerosol layer properties from EarthCARE lidar observations: the A-CTH and A-ALD products
Ulla Wandinger, Moritz Haarig, Holger Baars, David Donovan, and Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4031–4052, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-4031-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-4031-2023, 2023
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05 Jul 2023
Incorporating EarthCARE observations into a multi-lidar cloud climate record: the ATLID (Atmospheric Lidar) cloud climate product
Artem G. Feofilov, Hélène Chepfer, Vincent Noël, and Frederic Szczap
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3363–3390, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3363-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3363-2023, 2023
Short summary
24 Jun 2024
Algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical properties using lidar measurements on board the EarthCARE satellite
Tomoaki Nishizawa, Rei Kudo, Eiji Oikawa, Akiko Higurashi, Yoshitaka Jin, Nobuo Sugimoto, Kaori Sato, and Hajime Okamoto
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2024-100,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2024-100, 2024
Preprint under review for AMT (discussion: open, 0 comments)
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Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) algorithms
07 Jun 2023
Cloud mask algorithm from the EarthCARE Multi-Spectral Imager: the M-CM products
Anja Hünerbein, Sebastian Bley, Stefan Horn, Hartwig Deneke, and Andi Walther
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2821–2836, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-2821-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-2821-2023, 2023
Short summary
11 Jul 2023
Aerosol optical depth retrieval from the EarthCARE Multi-Spectral Imager: the M-AOT product
Nicole Docter, Rene Preusker, Florian Filipitsch, Lena Kritten, Franziska Schmidt, and Jürgen Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3437–3457, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3437-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3437-2023, 2023
Short summary
16 Jan 2024
Cloud optical and physical properties retrieval from EarthCARE multi-spectral imager: the M-COP products
Anja Hünerbein, Sebastian Bley, Hartwig Deneke, Jan Fokke Meirink, Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, and Andi Walther
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 17, 261–276, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-261-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-261-2024, 2024
Short summary
31 Jan 2023
Evaluation of the spectral misalignment on the Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer/multi-spectral imager cloud product
Minrui Wang, Takashi Y. Nakajima, Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Kentaroh Suzuki, Takuji Kubota, and Mayumi Yoshida
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 603–623, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-603-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-603-2023, 2023
Short summary
23 Apr 2024
Assessment of the spectral misalignment effect (SMILE) on EarthCARE's Multi-Spectral Imager aerosol and cloud property retrievals
Nicole Docter, Anja Hünerbein, David P. Donovan, Rene Preusker, Jürgen Fischer, Jan Fokke Meirink, Piet Stammes, and Michael Eisinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 17, 2507–2519, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-2507-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-2507-2024, 2024
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Multiple-instrument algorithms and radiation closure
06 Jun 2023
The classification of atmospheric hydrometeors and aerosols from the EarthCARE radar and lidar: the A-TC, C-TC and AC-TC products
Abdanour Irbah, Julien Delanoë, Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, David P. Donovan, Pavlos Kollias, Bernat Puigdomènech Treserras, Shannon Mason, Robin J. Hogan, and Aleksandra Tatarevic
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2795–2820, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-2795-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-2795-2023, 2023
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13 Dec 2023
Cloud top heights and aerosol columnar properties from combined EarthCARE lidar and imager observations: the AM-CTH and AM-ACD products
Moritz Haarig, Anja Hünerbein, Ulla Wandinger, Nicole Docter, Sebastian Bley, David Donovan, and Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5953–5975, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-5953-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-5953-2023, 2023
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12 Jul 2023
A unified synergistic retrieval of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation from EarthCARE: the ACM-CAP product
Shannon L. Mason, Robin J. Hogan, Alessio Bozzo, and Nicola L. Pounder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3459–3486, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3459-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-3459-2023, 2023
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17 Jul 2024
Unfiltering of the EarthCARE Broadband Radiometer (BBR) observations: the BM-RAD product
Almudena Velázquez Blázquez, Edward Baudrez, Nicolas Clerbaux, and Carlos Domenech
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 17, 4245–4256, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-4245-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-4245-2024, 2024
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04 Jun 2024
Retrieval of top-of-atmosphere fluxes from combined EarthCARE LiDAR, imager and broadband radiometer observations: the BMA-FLX product
Almudena Velázquez Blázquez, Carlos Domenech, Edward Baudrez, Nicolas Clerbaux, Carla Salas Molar, and Nils Madenach
EGUsphere, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1539,https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-1539, 2024
Preprint under review for AMT (discussion: final response, 2 comments)
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04 May 2023
Across-track extension of retrieved cloud and aerosol properties for the EarthCARE mission: the ACMB-3D product
Zhipeng Qu, Howard W. Barker, Jason N. S. Cole, and Mark W. Shephard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2319–2331, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-2319-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-2319-2023, 2023
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25 Sep 2023
Broadband radiative quantities for the EarthCARE mission: the ACM-COM and ACM-RT products
Jason N. S. Cole, Howard W. Barker, Zhipeng Qu, Najda Villefranque, and Mark W. Shephard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4271–4288, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-4271-2023,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-4271-2023, 2023
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13 May 2024
Description and validation of the Japanese algorithm for radiative flux and heating rate products with all four EarthCARE instruments: Pre-launch test with A-Train
Akira Yamauchi, Kentaroh Suzuki, Eiji Oikawa, Miho Sekiguchi, Takashi Nagao, and Haruma Ishida
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2024-78,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2024-78, 2024
Preprint under review for AMT (discussion: open, 3 comments)
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11 Jun 2024
JAXA Level 2 cloud and precipitation microphysics retrievals based on EarthCARE CPR, ATLID and MSI
Kaori Sato, Hajime Okamoto, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Yoshitaka Jin, Takashi Nakajima, Minrui Wang, Masaki Satoh, Woosub Roh, Hiroshi Ishimoto, and Rei Kudo
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2024-99,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2024-99, 2024
Preprint under review for AMT (discussion: final response, 2 comments)
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