Articles | Volume 10, issue 12
Research article
08 Dec 2017
Research article |  | 08 Dec 2017

Correcting negatively biased refractivity below ducts in GNSS radio occultation: an optimal estimation approach towards improving planetary boundary layer (PBL) characterization

Kuo-Nung Wang, Manuel de la Torre Juárez, Chi O. Ao, and Feiqin Xie

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Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
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Cited articles

Alishouse, J. C., Snyder, S. A., Vongsathorn, J., and Ferraro, R. R.: Determination of oceanic total precipitable water from the SSM/I, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 28, 811–816, 1990.
Ao, C. O.: Effect of ducting on radio occultation measurements: an assessment based on high-resolution radiosonde soundings, Radio Sci., 42, RS2008,, 2007.
Ao, C. O., Waliser, D. E., Chan, S. K., Li, J.-L., Tian, B., Xie, F., and Mannucci, A. J.: Planetary boundary layer heights from GPS radio occultation refractivity and humidity profiles, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D16117,, 2012.
Beljaars, A. C. M. and Viterbo, P.: Role of the boundary layer in a numerical weather prediction model, Clear and Cloudy Boundary Layers, edited by: Holtslag, A. A. M. and Duynkerke, P. G., Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 287–304, 1998.
Short summary
Refractivity retrievals from GNSS radio occultation (RO) are known to be negatively biased within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). We propose an optimization-based reconstruction method in this paper to correct the negative bias with external measurements of precipitable water (PW). Our results show that the proposed method can greatly reduce the bias and better characterize the PBL.