Articles | Volume 7, issue 10
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Mirror contamination in space I: mirror modelling
J. M. Krijger
SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht, the Netherlands
SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht, the Netherlands
G. van Harten
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333CA Leiden, the Netherlands
J. H. H. Rietjens
SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht, the Netherlands
SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht, the Netherlands
No articles found.
Kirk Knobelspiesse, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Christine Bradley, Carol Bruegge, Brian Cairns, Gao Chen, Jacek Chowdhary, Anthony Cook, Antonio Di Noia, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, David J. Diner, Richard Ferrare, Guangliang Fu, Meng Gao, Michael Garay, Johnathan Hair, David Harper, Gerard van Harten, Otto Hasekamp, Mark Helmlinger, Chris Hostetler, Olga Kalashnikova, Andrew Kupchock, Karla Longo De Freitas, Hal Maring, J. Vanderlei Martins, Brent McBride, Matthew McGill, Ken Norlin, Anin Puthukkudy, Brian Rheingans, Jeroen Rietjens, Felix C. Seidel, Arlindo da Silva, Martijn Smit, Snorre Stamnes, Qian Tan, Sebastian Val, Andrzej Wasilewski, Feng Xu, Xiaoguang Xu, and John Yorks
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2183–2208,Short summary
The Aerosol Characterization from Polarimeter and Lidar (ACEPOL) field campaign is a resource for the next generation of spaceborne multi-angle polarimeter (MAP) and lidar missions. Conducted in the fall of 2017 from the Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, California, four MAP instruments and two lidars were flown on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft over a variety of scene types and ground assets. Data are freely available to the public and useful for algorithm development and testing.
Guangliang Fu, Otto Hasekamp, Jeroen Rietjens, Martijn Smit, Antonio Di Noia, Brian Cairns, Andrzej Wasilewski, David Diner, Felix Seidel, Feng Xu, Kirk Knobelspiesse, Meng Gao, Arlindo da Silva, Sharon Burton, Chris Hostetler, John Hair, and Richard Ferrare
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 553–573,Short summary
In this paper, we present aerosol retrieval results from the ACEPOL (Aerosol Characterization from Polarimeter and Lidar) campaign, which was a joint initiative between NASA and SRON (the Netherlands Institute for Space Research). We perform aerosol retrievals from different multi-angle polarimeters employed during the ACEPOL campaign and evaluate them against ground-based AERONET measurements and High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2) measurements.
T. Borsdorff, P. Tol, J. E. Williams, J. de Laat, J. aan de Brugh, P. Nédélec, I. Aben, and J. Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 227–248,
A. Wassmann, T. Borsdorff, J. M. J. aan de Brugh, O. P. Hasekamp, I. Aben, and J. Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4429–4451,Short summary
We present an extensive sensitivity study of retrieved total ozone columns from clear sky Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) measurements between 325 and 335nm which are corrected for instrument degradation. We address the choice of the scaling ozone profile, the choice of the radiative transfer solver, and the approximation of Earth's sphericity. Finally, we study the effect of instrument degradation on the retrieved total ozone columns for the first 4 years of the mission.
S. Pandey, S. Houweling, M. Krol, I. Aben, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8615–8629,Short summary
This study attempts to determine the feasibility of a new assimilation method of satellite measurements of CH4 and CO2 for optimization of their surface fluxes in a synthetic environment. Instead of their absolute concentrations, we assimilate the ratios of their concentrations (CH4/CO2) in our inversion. Doing so helps us to reduce the effect of atmospheric scattering on the measurements in our system. However, assimilation of the ratios makes the inversion non-linear.
L. Guanter, I. Aben, P. Tol, J. M. Krijger, A. Hollstein, P. Köhler, A. Damm, J. Joiner, C. Frankenberg, and J. Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1337–1352,Short summary
This paper investigates the potential of the upcoming TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) instrument for the retrieval of the chlorophyll fluorescence signal emitted in the 650–850nm spectral range by the photosynthetic machinery of green plants. We find that TROPOMI will allow substantial improvements in the space monitoring of fluorescence with respect to current spaceborne instruments such as GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY.
S. J. Sutanto, G. Hoffmann, R. A. Scheepmaker, J. Worden, S. Houweling, K. Yoshimura, I. Aben, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 999–1019,
A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, G. van Harten, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, F. Snik, J. S. Henzing, J. de Boer, C. U. Keller, and H. Volten
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 281–299,Short summary
A neural network algorithm has been developed to retrieve aerosol microphysical parameters from ground-based measurements of skylight intensity and polarization. The neural network is capable of producing accurate estimates of aerosol optical thicknesses, effective radii and refractive index. In addition, it is shown that the use of the neural retrievals as initial guess for an iterative retrieval algorithm results in improved convergence and retrieval accuracy.
G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Di Noia, F. Snik, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, O. P. Hasekamp, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4341–4351,
A. T. J. de Laat, I. Aben, M. Deeter, P. Nédélec, H. Eskes, J.-L. Attié, P. Ricaud, R. Abida, L. El Amraoui, and J. Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3783–3799,
L. G. Tilstra, R. Lang, R. Munro, I. Aben, and P. Stammes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2047–2059,
S. Massart, A. Agusti-Panareda, I. Aben, A. Butz, F. Chevallier, C. Crevoisier, R. Engelen, C. Frankenberg, and O. Hasekamp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6139–6158,
B. Dils, M. Buchwitz, M. Reuter, O. Schneising, H. Boesch, R. Parker, S. Guerlet, I. Aben, T. Blumenstock, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, N. M. Deutscher, C. Frankenberg, F. Hase, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Heymann, M. De Mazière, J. Notholt, R. Sussmann, T. Warneke, D. Griffith, V. Sherlock, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1723–1744,
A. Galli, S. Guerlet, A. Butz, I. Aben, H. Suto, A. Kuze, N. M. Deutscher, J. Notholt, D. Wunch, P. O. Wennberg, D. W. T. Griffith, O. Hasekamp, and J. Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1105–1119,
S. Houweling, M. Krol, P. Bergamaschi, C. Frankenberg, E. J. Dlugokencky, I. Morino, J. Notholt, V. Sherlock, D. Wunch, V. Beck, C. Gerbig, H. Chen, E. A. Kort, T. Röckmann, and I. Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3991–4012,
A. du Piesanie, A. J. M. Piters, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, P. Wang, and S. Noël
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2925–2940,
R. A. Scheepmaker, C. Frankenberg, A. Galli, A. Butz, H. Schrijver, N. M. Deutscher, D. Wunch, T. Warneke, S. Fally, and I. Aben
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 879–894,
H. M. Worden, M. N. Deeter, C. Frankenberg, M. George, F. Nichitiu, J. Worden, I. Aben, K. W. Bowman, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, A. T. J. de Laat, R. Detweiler, J. R. Drummond, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, D. Hurtmans, M. Luo, S. Martínez-Alonso, S. Massie, G. Pfister, and J. X. Warner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 837–850,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalEstimation of NO2 emission strengths over Riyadh and Madrid from space from a combination of wind-assigned anomalies and a machine learning techniqueMichelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research/Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía version 8 retrieval of nitric oxide and lower-thermospheric temperatureNear-real-time detection of unexpected atmospheric events using principal component analysis on the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) radiancesDifferences in MOPITT surface level CO retrievals and trends from Level 2 and Level 3 products in coastal grid boxesUpdated merged SAGE-CCI-OMPS+ dataset for the evaluation of ozone trends in the stratosphereAccounting for meteorological biases in simulated plumes using smarter metricsAccounting for surface reflectance spectral features in TROPOMI methane retrievalsInvestigation of three-dimensional radiative transfer effects for UV–Vis satellite and ground-based observations of volcanic plumesRetrievals of precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical depth from direct sun measurements with EKO MS711 and MS712 spectroradiometersUpdate on the GOSAT TANSO–FTS SWIR Level 2 retrieval algorithmCorrecting 3D cloud effects in XCO2 retrievals from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)Version 8 IMK–IAA MIPAS ozone profiles: nominal observation modeUsing portable low-resolution spectrometers to evaluate Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) biases in North AmericaA new algorithm to generate a priori trace gas profiles for the GGG2020 retrieval algorithmHighly resolved mapping of NO2 vertical column densities from GeoTASO measurements over a megacity and industrial area during the KORUS-AQ campaignAdvances in retrieving XCH4 and XCO from Sentinel-5 Precursor: improvements in the scientific TROPOMI/WFMD algorithmUse of machine learning and principal component analysis to retrieve nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with hyperspectral imagers and reduce noise in spectral fittingUnderstanding the variations and sources of CO, C2H2, C2H6, H2CO, and HCN columns based on 3 years of new ground-based Fourier transform infrared measurements at Xianghe, ChinaDetecting and quantifying methane emissions from oil and gas production: algorithm development with ground-truth calibration based on Sentinel-2 satellite imageryAn improved formula for the complete data fusionInferring the vertical distribution of CO and CO2 from TCCON total column values using the TARDISS algorithmTUNER-compliant error estimation for MIPAS: methodologySynergistic retrieval and complete data fusion methods applied to simulated FORUM and IASI-NG measurementsRetrieval of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 from high-resolution FTIR observations at Hefei and comparisons with other independent datasetsEvaluation of the methane full-physics retrieval applied to TROPOMI ocean sun glint measurementsHarmonized retrieval of middle atmospheric ozone from two microwave radiometers in SwitzerlandUsing a deep neural network to detect methane point sources and quantify emissions from PRISMA hyperspectral satellite imagesAssessment of the error budget for stratospheric ozone profiles retrieved from OMPS limb scatter measurementsAlgorithm theoretical basis for ozone and sulfur dioxide retrievals from DSCOVR EPICImpact of 3D cloud structures on the atmospheric trace gas products from UV–Vis sounders – Part 2: Impact on NO2 retrieval and mitigation strategiesTropospheric ozone retrieval by a combination of TROPOMI/S5P measurements with BASCOE assimilated dataA new machine-learning-based analysis for improving satellite-retrieved atmospheric composition data: OMI SO2 as an exampleComplementing XCO2 imagery with ground-based CO2 and 14CO2 measurements to monitor CO2 emissions from fossil fuels on a regional to local scaleOn the potential of a neural-network-based approach for estimating XCO2 from OCO-2 measurementsThe Space Carbon Observatory (SCARBO) concept: assessment of XCO2 and XCH4 retrieval performanceImproved retrieval of SO2 plume height from TROPOMI using an iterative Covariance-Based Retrieval AlgorithmImpact of instrumental line shape characterization on ozone monitoring by FTIR spectrometrySynergetic use of IASI profile and TROPOMI total-column level 2 methane retrieval productsComment on “Synergetic use of IASI profile and TROPOMI total-column level 2 methane retrieval products” by Schneider et al. (2022)An optimal estimation-based retrieval of upper atmospheric oxygen airglow and temperature from SCIAMACHY limb observationsOzone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) collection 4: establishing a 17-year-long series of detrended level-1b dataImpact of 3D cloud structures on the atmospheric trace gas products from UV–Vis sounders – Part 3: Bias estimate using synthetic and observational dataRetrieval of greenhouse gases from GOSAT and GOSAT-2 using the FOCAL algorithmSynergy of Using Nadir and Limb Instruments for Tropospheric Ozone Monitoring (SUNLIT)DARCLOS: a cloud shadow detection algorithm for TROPOMICombined UV and IR ozone profile retrieval from TROPOMI and CrIS measurementsImproved ozone monitoring by ground-based FTIR spectrometryOn the consistency of methane retrievals using the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and multiple spectroscopic databasesThe MOPITT Version 9 CO product: sampling enhancements and validationRetrieving H2O/HDO columns over cloudy and clear-sky scenes from the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)
Qiansi Tu, Frank Hase, Zihan Chen, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Shuo Chen, Thomas Blumenstock, Fang Liu, Kai Qin, Jason Cohen, Qin He, Song Lin, Hongyan Jiang, and Dianjun Fang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2237–2262,Short summary
Four-year TROPOMI observations are used to derive tropospheric NO2 emissions in two mega(cities) with high anthropogenic activity. Wind-assigned anomalies are calculated, and the emission rates and spatial patterns are estimated based on a machine learning algorithm. The results are in reasonable agreement with previous studies and the inventory. Our method is quite robust and can be used as a simple method to estimate the emissions of NO2 as well as other gases in other regions.
Bernd Funke, Maya García-Comas, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Sylvia Kellmann, Michael Kiefer, Andrea Linden, Manuel López-Puertas, Gabriele P. Stiller, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2167–2196,Short summary
New global nitric oxide (NO) volume-mixing-ratio and lower-thermospheric temperature data products, retrieved from Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) spectra with the IMK-IAA MIPAS data processor, have been released. The dataset covers the entire Envisat mission lifetime and includes retrieval results from all MIPAS observation modes. The data are based on ESA version 8 calibration and were processed using an improved retrieval approach.
Adrien Vu Van, Anne Boynard, Pascal Prunet, Dominique Jolivet, Olivier Lezeaux, Patrice Henry, Claude Camy-Peyret, Lieven Clarisse, Bruno Franco, Pierre-François Coheur, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2107–2127,Short summary
With its near-real-time observations and good horizontal coverage, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument can contribute to the monitoring systems for a systematic and continuous detection of exceptional atmospheric events such as fires, anthropogenic pollution episodes, volcanic eruptions, or industrial releases. In this paper, a new approach is described for the detection and characterization of unexpected events in terms of trace gases using IASI radiance spectra.
Ian Ashpole and Aldona Wiacek
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1923–1949,Short summary
The MOPITT instrument has been measuring atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from space since 2000. Its data products are valuable for CO trend analysis. This paper compares products with different spatial resolutions to identify discrepancies in mean CO amounts and detectable trends for coastal grid boxes. It is found that CO amounts and trends differ significantly between data products for a large number of these grid boxes, essentially due to how the coarser-resolution products are created.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Monika Szelag, Johanna Tamminen, Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Doug Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Daniel Zawada, Michael Kiefer, Alexandra Laeng, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Sheese, Daan Hubert, Michel van Roozendael, Christian Retscher, Robert Damadeo, and Jerry D. Lumpe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1881–1899,Short summary
The paper presents the updated SAGE-CCI-OMPS+ climate data record of monthly zonal mean ozone profiles. This dataset covers the stratosphere and combines measurements by nine limb and occultation satellite instruments (SAGE II, OSIRIS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, GOMOS, ACE-FTS, OMPS-LP, POAM III, and SAGE III/ISS). The update includes new versions of MIPAS, ACE-FTS, and OSIRIS datasets and introduces data from additional sensors (POAM III and SAGE III/ISS) and retrieval processors (OMPS-LP).
Pierre J. Vanderbecken, Joffrey Dumont Le Brazidec, Alban Farchi, Marc Bocquet, Yelva Roustan, Élise Potier, and Grégoire Broquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1745–1766,Short summary
Instruments dedicated to monitoring atmospheric gaseous compounds from space will provide images of urban-scale plumes. We discuss here the use of new metrics to compare observed plumes with model predictions that will be less sensitive to meteorology uncertainties. We have evaluated our metrics on diverse plumes and shown that by eliminating some aspects of the discrepancies, they are indeed less sensitive to meteorological variations.
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Mari C. Martinez-Velarte, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1597–1608,Short summary
In the TROPOMI methane data, there are few false methane anomalies that can be misinterpreted as enhancements caused by strong emission sources. These artefacts are caused by features of the underlying surfaces that are not well characterized in the retrieval algorithm. Here we improve the representation of the surface reflectance dependency with wavelength in the forward model, removing the artificial localized CH4 enhancements found in several locations like Siberia, Australia and Algeria.
Thomas Wagner, Simon Warnach, Steffen Beirle, Nicole Bobrowski, Adrian Jost, Janis Puķīte, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1609–1662,Short summary
We investigate 3D effects of volcanic plumes on the retrieval results of satellite and ground-based UV–Vis observations. With its small ground pixels of 3.5 x 5.5 km², the TROPOMI instrument can detect much smaller volcanic plumes than previous instruments. At the same time, 3D effects become important. The effect of horizontal photon paths especially can lead to a strong underestimation of the derived plume contents of up to > 50 %, which can be further increased for strong absorbers like SO2.
Congcong Qiao, Song Liu, Juan Huo, Xihan Mu, Ping Wang, Shengjie Jia, Xuehua Fan, and Minzheng Duan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1539–1549,Short summary
We established a spectral-fitting method to derive precipitable water vapor (PWV) and aerosol optical depth based on a strict radiative transfer theory by the spectral measurements of direct sun from EKO MS711 and MS712 spectroradiometers. The retrievals were compared with that of the colocated CE-318 photometer; the results showed a high degree of consistency. In the PWV inversion, a strong water vapor absorption band around 1370 nm is introduced to retrieve PWV in a relatively dry atmosphere.
Yu Someya, Yukio Yoshida, Hirofumi Ohyama, Shohei Nomura, Akihide Kamei, Isamu Morino, Hitoshi Mukai, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Joshua L. Laughner, Voltaire A. Velazco, Benedikt Herkommer, Yao Té, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Rigel Kivi, Minqiang Zhou, Young Suk Oh, Nicholas M. Deutscher, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1477–1501,Short summary
The updated retrieval algorithm for the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite level 2 product is presented. The main changes in the algorithm from the previous one are the treatment of cirrus clouds, the degradation model of the sensor, solar irradiance, and gas absorption coefficient tables. The retrieval results showed improvements in fitting accuracy and an increase in the data amount over land. On the other hand, there are still large biases of XCO2 which should be corrected over the ocean.
Steffen Mauceri, Steven Massie, and Sebastian Schmidt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1461–1476,Short summary
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 makes space-based measurements of reflected sunlight. Using a retrieval algorithm these measurements are converted to CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. However, the converted CO2 concentrations contain errors for observations close to clouds. Using a simple machine learning approach, we developed a model to correct these remaining errors. The model is able to reduce errors over land and ocean by 20 % and 40 %, respectively.
Michael Kiefer, Thomas von Clarmann, Bernd Funke, Maya García-Comas, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Michael Höpfner, Sylvia Kellmann, Alexandra Laeng, Andrea Linden, Manuel López-Puertas, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1443–1460,Short summary
A new ozone data set, derived from radiation measurements of the space-borne instrument MIPAS, is presented. It consists of more than 2 million single ozone profiles from 2002–2012, covering virtually all latitudes and altitudes between 5 and 70 km. Progress in data calibration and processing methods allowed for significant improvement of the data quality, compared to previous data versions. Hence, the data set will help to better understand e.g. the time evolution of ozone in the stratosphere.
Nasrin Mostafavi Pak, Jacob K. Hedelius, Sébastien Roche, Liz Cunningham, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, Coleen Roehl, Joshua Laughner, Geoffrey Toon, Paul Wennberg, Harrison Parker, Colin Arrowsmith, Joseph Mendonca, Pierre Fogal, Tyler Wizenberg, Beatriz Herrera, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, Felix Vogel, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1239–1261,Short summary
Ground-based remote sensing instruments in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) measure greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Consistency between TCCON measurements is crucial to accurately infer changes in atmospheric composition. We use portable remote sensing instruments (EM27/SUN) to evaluate biases between TCCON stations in North America. We also improve the retrievals of EM27/SUN instruments and evaluate the previous (GGG2014) and newest (GGG2020) retrieval algorithms.
Joshua L. Laughner, Sébastien Roche, Matthäus Kiel, Geoffrey C. Toon, Debra Wunch, Bianca C. Baier, Sébastien Biraud, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Thomas Laemmel, Kathryn McKain, Pierre-Yves Quéhé, Constantina Rousogenous, Britton B. Stephens, Kaley Walker, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1121–1146,Short summary
Observations using sunlight to measure surface-to-space total column of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere need an initial guess of the vertical distribution of those gases to start from. We have developed an approach to provide those initial guess profiles that uses readily available meteorological data as input. This lets us make these guesses without simulating them with a global model. The profiles generated this way match independent observations well.
Gyo-Hwang Choo, Kyunghwa Lee, Hyunkee Hong, Ukkyo Jeong, Wonei Choi, and Scott J. Janz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 625–644,Short summary
This study discusses the morning and afternoon distribution of NO2 emissions in large cities and industrial areas in South Korea, one of the largest NO2 emitters around the world, using GeoTASO, an airborne remote sensing instrument developed to support geostationary satellite missions. NO2 measurements from GeoTASO were compared with those from ground-based remote sensing instruments including Pandora and in situ sensors.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Jonas Hachmeister, Steffen Vanselow, Maximilian Reuter, Matthias Buschmann, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 669–694,Short summary
Methane and carbon monoxide are important constituents of the atmosphere in the context of climate change and air pollution. We present the latest advances in the TROPOMI/WFMD algorithm to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric methane and carbon monoxide abundances from space. The changes in the latest product version are described in detail, and the resulting improvements are demonstrated. An overview of the products is provided including a discussion of annual increases and validation results.
Joanna Joiner, Sergey Marchenko, Zachary Fasnacht, Lok Lamsal, Can Li, Alexander Vasilkov, and Nickolay Krotkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 481–500,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important trace gas for both air quality and climate. NO2 affects satellite ocean color products. A new ocean color instrument – OCI (Ocean Color Instrument) – will be launched in 2024 on a NASA satellite. We show that it will be possible to measure NO2 from OCI even though it was not designed for this. The techniques developed here, based on machine learning, can also be applied to instruments already in space to speed up algorithms and reduce the effects of noise.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Pucai Wang, Corinne Vigouroux, Qichen Ni, Christian Hermans, Bart Dils, Nicolas Kumps, Weidong Nan, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 273–293,Short summary
The ground-based FTIR measurements at Xianghe provide carbon monoxide (CO), acetylene (C2H2), ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns between June 2018 and November 2021. The retrieval strategies, information, and uncertainties of these five important trace gases are presented and discussed. This study provides insight into the time series, variations, and correlations of these five species in northern China.
Zhan Zhang, Evan D. Sherwin, Daniel J. Varon, and Adam R. Brandt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7155–7169,Short summary
This work developed a multi-band–multi-pass–multi-comparison-date Sentinel-2 methane retrieval algorithm, and the method was calibrated by data from a controlled release test. To our knowledge, this is the first study that validates the performance of a Sentinel-2 methane detection algorithm by calibration with a ground-truth testing. It illustrates the potential for additional validation with systematic future experiments wherein algorithms can be tuned to meet different detection expectations.
Simone Ceccherini, Nicola Zoppetti, and Bruno Carli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7039–7048,Short summary
A new formula of the complete data fusion that, differently from the original one, does not contain matrices that can be singular is discussed. We show that the new formula is a generalization of the original one and analytically and numerically, using a real IASI ozone measurement, derive the errors made with the old formula when the generalized inverse of singular matrices is used. An operational version of the new formula that includes interpolation and coincidence errors is also provided.
Harrison A. Parker, Joshua L. Laughner, Geoffrey C. Toon, Debra Wunch, Coleen M. Roehl, Laura T. Iraci, James R. Podolske, Kathryn McKain, Bianca Baier, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We describe a retrieval algorithm for determining limited information about the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from total column observations from ground-based observations. Our retrieved partial column values compare well with integrated in situ data. The average error for our retrieval is 0.857 ppb (~1 %) for CO and 3.55 ppm (~0.8 %) for CO2. We anticipate that this approach will find broad application for use in carbon cycle science
Thomas von Clarmann, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Bernd Funke, Michael Kiefer, Anne Kleinert, Gabriele P. Stiller, Andrea Linden, and Sylvia Kellmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6991–7018,Short summary
Errors of profiles of temperature and mixing ratios retrieved from spectra recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding are estimated. All known and quantified sources of uncertainty are considered. Some ongoing uncertaities contribute to both the random and to the systematic errors. In some cases, one source of uncertainty propagates onto the error budget via multiple pathways. Problems arise when the correlations of errors to be propagated are unknown.
Marco Ridolfi, Cecilia Tirelli, Simone Ceccherini, Claudio Belotti, Ugo Cortesi, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6723–6737,Short summary
Synergistic retrieval (SR) and complete data fusion (CDF) methods exploit the complementarity of coinciding remote-sensing measurements. We assess the performance of the SR and CDF methods on the basis of synthetic measurements of the FORUM and IASI-NG missions. In the case of perfectly matching measurements, SR and CDF results differ by less than 1 / 10 of the error due to measurement noise. In the case of a realistic mismatch, the two methods show differences in the order of their error bars.
Xiangyu Zeng, Wei Wang, Cheng Liu, Changgong Shan, Yu Xie, Peng Wu, Qianqian Zhu, Minqiang Zhou, Martine De Mazière, Emmanuel Mahieu, Irene Pardo Cantos, Jamal Makkor, and Alexander Polyakov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6739–6754,Short summary
CFC-11 and CFC-12, which are classified as ozone-depleting substances, also have high global warming potentials. This paper describes obtaining the CFC-11 and CFC-12 total columns from the solar spectra based on ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at Hefei, China. The seasonal variation and annual trend of the two gases are analyzed, and then the data are compared with other independent datasets.
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Mari C. Martinez-Velarte, Andre Butz, Otto P. Hasekamp, Lianghai Wu, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6585–6603,Short summary
The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) performs observations over ocean in every orbit, enhancing the monitoring capabilities of methane from space. In the sun glint geometry the mirror-like reflection at the water surface provides a signal that is high enough to retrieve methane with high accuracy and precision. We present 4 years of methane concentrations over the ocean, and we assess its quality. We also show the importance of ocean observations to quantify total CH4 emissions.
Eric Sauvageat, Eliane Maillard Barras, Klemens Hocke, Alexander Haefele, and Axel Murk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6395–6417,Short summary
We present new harmonized ozone time series from two ground-based microwave radiometers in Switzerland. The new series consist of hourly ozone profiles in the middle atmosphere (~ 20–70 km) from 2009 until 2021. Cross-validation of the new data series shows the benefit of the harmonization process compared to the previous versions. Comparisons with collocated satellite observations is used to further validate these time series for long-term ozone monitoring over central Europe.
Peter Joyce, Cristina Ruiz Villena, Yahui Huang, Alex Webb, Manuel Gloor, Fabien Hubert Wagner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Rocío Barrio Guilló, Chris Wilson, and Hartmut Boesch
Methane emissions are responsible for a lot of the warming caused by the greenhouse effect, much of which comes from a small number of point sources. We can identify methane point sources by analysing satellite data, but it requires a lot of time invested by experts and are prone to very high errors. Here, we produce a neural network that can automatically identify methane point sources and estimate the mass of methane that is being released per hour and are able to do so with far lower errors.
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Victor Gorshelev, Alexandra Laeng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5949–5967,Short summary
This paper characterizes the uncertainties affecting the ozone profiles retrieved at the University of Bremen through OMPS limb satellite observations. An accurate knowledge of the uncertainties is relevant for the validation of the product and to correctly interpret the retrieval results. We investigate several sources of uncertainties, estimate a total random and systematic component, and verify the consistency of the combined OMPS-MLS total uncertainty.
Xinzhou Huang and Kai Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5877–5915,Short summary
This paper describes the algorithm for O3 and SO2 retrievals from DSCOVR EPIC. Algorithm advances, including the improved O3 profile representation and the regulated direct fitting inversion technique, improve the accuracy of O3 and SO2 from the multi-channel measurements of DSCOVR EPIC. A thorough error analysis is provided to quantify O3 and SO2 retrieval uncertainties due to various error sources and simplified algorithm physics treatments.
Huan Yu, Claudia Emde, Arve Kylling, Ben Veihelmann, Bernhard Mayer, Kerstin Stebel, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5743–5768,Short summary
In this study, we have investigated the impact of 3D clouds on the tropospheric NO2 retrieval from UV–visible sensors. We applied standard NO2 retrieval methods including cloud corrections to synthetic data generated by the 3D radiative transfer model. A sensitivity study was done for synthetic data, and dependencies on various parameters were investigated. Possible mitigation strategies were investigated and compared based on 3D simulations and observed data.
Klaus-Peter Heue, Diego Loyola, Fabian Romahn, Walter Zimmer, Simon Chabrillat, Quentin Errera, Jerry Ziemke, and Natalya Kramarova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5563–5579,Short summary
To retrieve tropospheric ozone column information, we subtract stratospheric column data of BASCOE from TROPOMI/S5P total ozone columns. The new S5P-BASCOE data agree well with existing tropospheric data like OMPS-MERRA-2. The data are also compared to ozone soundings. The tropospheric ozone columns show the expected temporal and spatial patterns. We will also apply the algorithm to future UV nadir missions like Sentinel 4 or 5 or to recent and ongoing missions like GOME_2 or OMI.
Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Fei Liu, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Vitali Fioletov, and Chris McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5497–5514,Short summary
Satellite observations provide information on the sources of SO2, an important pollutant that affects both air quality and climate. However, these observations suffer from relatively poor data quality due to weak signals of SO2. Here, we use a machine learning technique to analyze satellite SO2 observations in order to reduce the noise and artifacts over relatively clean areas while keeping the signals near pollution sources. This leads to significant improvement in satellite SO2 data.
Elise Potier, Grégoire Broquet, Yilong Wang, Diego Santaren, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Julia Marshall, Philippe Ciais, François-Marie Bréon, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5261–5288,Short summary
Atmospheric inversion at local–regional scales over Europe and pseudo-data assimilation are used to evaluate how CO2 and 14CO2 ground-based measurement networks could complement satellite CO2 imagers to monitor fossil fuel (FF) CO2 emissions. This combination significantly improves precision in the FF emission estimates in areas with a dense network but does not strongly support the separation of the FF from the biogenic signals or the spatio-temporal extrapolation of the satellite information.
François-Marie Bréon, Leslie David, Pierre Chatelanaz, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5219–5234,Short summary
The estimate of atmospheric CO2 from space measurement is difficult. Current methods are based on a detailed description of the atmospheric radiative transfer. These are affected by significant biases and errors and are very computer intensive. Instead we have proposed using a neural network approach. A first attempt led to confusing results. Here we provide an interpretation for these results and describe a new version that leads to high-quality estimates.
Matthieu Dogniaux, Cyril Crevoisier, Silvère Gousset, Étienne Le Coarer, Yann Ferrec, Laurence Croizé, Lianghai Wu, Otto Hasekamp, Bojan Sic, and Laure Brooker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4835–4858,Short summary
The Space Carbon Observatory (SCARBO) concept proposes a constellation of small satellites that would carry a miniaturized Fabry–Pérot imaging interferometer named NanoCarb and an aerosol instrument named SPEXone. In this work, we assess the performance of this concept for the retrieval of the total weighted columns of CO2 and CH4 and show the interest of adding the SPEXone aerosol instrument to improve the CO2 and CH4 column retrieval.
Nicolas Theys, Christophe Lerot, Hugues Brenot, Jeroen van Gent, Isabelle De Smedt, Lieven Clarisse, Mike Burton, Matthew Varnam, Catherine Hayer, Benjamin Esse, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4801–4817,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide plume height after a volcanic eruption is an important piece of information for many different scientific studies and applications. Satellite UV retrievals are useful in this respect, but available algorithms have shown so far limited sensitivity to SO2 height. Here we present a new technique to improve the retrieval of SO2 plume height for SO2 columns as low as 5 DU. We demonstrate the algorithm using TROPOMI measurements and compare with other height estimates.
Omaira E. García, Esther Sanromá, Frank Hase, Matthias Schneider, Sergio Fabián León-Luis, Thomas Blumenstock, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Carlos Torres, Natalia Prats, Alberto Redondas, and Virgilio Carreño
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4547–4567,Short summary
Retrieving high-precision concentrations of atmospheric trace gases from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometry requires a precise knowledge of the instrumental performance. In this context, this paper examines the impact on the ozone (O3) retrievals of several approaches used to characterise the instrumental line shape (ILS) function of ground-based FTIR spectrometers within NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change).
Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Qiansi Tu, Christopher J. Diekmann, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Amelie N. Röhling, Frank Hase, Darko Dubravica, Omaira E. García, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Tobias Borsdorff, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, André Butz, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Thomas Laemmel, Michel Ramonet, Cyril Crevoisier, Jérome Pernin, Martin Steinbacher, Frank Meinhardt, Kimberly Strong, Debra Wunch, Thorsten Warneke, Coleen Roehl, Paul O. Wennberg, Isamu Morino, Laura T. Iraci, Kei Shiomi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4339–4371,Short summary
We present a computationally very efficient method for the synergetic use of level 2 remote-sensing data products. We apply the method to IASI vertical profile and TROPOMI total column space-borne methane observations and thus gain sensitivity for the tropospheric methane partial columns, which is not achievable by the individual use of TROPOMI and IASI. These synergetic effects are evaluated theoretically and empirically by inter-comparisons to independent references of TCCON, AirCore, and GAW.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4407–4410,Short summary
The equivalence between the data fusion performed using the Kalman filter and the Complete Data Fusion has been proved, and a generalization of the Complete Data Fusion formula, that is valid also in the case that the noise error covariance matrices of the fused products are singular, is derived. The two methods are also equivalent to the measurement–space–solution data fusion method, and for moderately nonlinear problems, the three methods are all equivalent to the simultaneous retrieval.
Kang Sun, Mahdi Yousefi, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Gonzalo González Abad, Iouli E. Gordon, Xiong Liu, Ewan O'Sullivan, Christopher E. Sioris, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3721–3745,Short summary
This study of upper atmospheric airglow from oxygen is motivated by the need to measure oxygen simultaneously with methane and CO2 in satellite remote sensing. We provide an accurate understanding of the spatial, temporal, and spectral distribution of airglow emissions, which will help in the satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases and constraining the chemical and physical processes in the upper atmosphere.
Quintus Kleipool, Nico Rozemeijer, Mirna van Hoek, Jonatan Leloux, Erwin Loots, Antje Ludewig, Emiel van der Plas, Daley Adrichem, Raoul Harel, Simon Spronk, Mark ter Linden, Glen Jaross, David Haffner, Pepijn Veefkind, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3527–3553,Short summary
A new collection-4 dataset for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) mission has been established to supersede the current collection-3 level-1b (L1b) data, produced with a newly developed L01b data processor based on the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) L01b processor. The collection-4 L1b data have a similar output format to the TROPOMI L1b data for easy connection of the data series. Many insights from the TROPOMI algorithms, as well as from OMI collection-3 usage, were included.
Arve Kylling, Claudia Emde, Huan Yu, Michel van Roozendael, Kerstin Stebel, Ben Veihelmann, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3481–3495,Short summary
Atmospheric trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) may be measured by satellite instruments sensitive to solar ultraviolet–visible radiation reflected from Earth and its atmosphere. For a single pixel, clouds in neighbouring pixels may affect the radiation and hence the retrieved trace gas amount. We found that for a solar zenith angle less than about 40° this cloud-related NO2 bias is typically below 10 %, while for larger solar zenith angles the NO2 bias is on the order of tens of percent.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Oliver Schneising, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Robert J. Parker, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Coleen Roehl, Constantina Rousogenous, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3401–3437,Short summary
We present a new version (v3) of the GOSAT and GOSAT-2 FOCAL products. In addition to an increased number of XCO2 data, v3 also includes products for XCH4 (full-physics and proxy), XH2O and the relative ratio of HDO to H2O (δD). For GOSAT-2, we also present first XCO and XN2O results. All FOCAL data products show reasonable spatial distribution and temporal variations and agree well with TCCON. Global XN2O maps show a gradient from the tropics to higher latitudes on the order of 15 ppb.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Risto Hänninen, Mikhail Sofiev, Monika Szeląg, Hei Shing Lee, Johanna Tamminen, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3193–3212,Short summary
We present tropospheric ozone column datasets that have been created using combinations of total ozone column from OMI and TROPOMI with stratospheric ozone column datasets from several available limb-viewing instruments (MLS, OSIRIS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, OMPS-LP, GOMOS). The main results are (i) several methodological developments, (ii) new tropospheric ozone column datasets from OMI and TROPOMI, and (iii) a new high-resolution dataset of ozone profiles from limb satellite instruments.
Victor J. H. Trees, Ping Wang, Piet Stammes, Lieuwe G. Tilstra, David P. Donovan, and A. Pier Siebesma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3121–3140,Short summary
Cloud shadows are observed by the TROPOMI satellite instrument as a result of its high spatial resolution. These shadows contaminate TROPOMI's air quality measurements, because shadows are generally not taken into account in the models that are used for aerosol and trace gas retrievals. We present the Detection AlgoRithm for CLOud Shadows (DARCLOS) for TROPOMI, which is the first cloud shadow detection algorithm for a satellite spectrometer.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Thierry Leblanc, Gerard Ancellet, Michael J. Newchurch, Shi Kuang, Rigel Kivi, Matthew B. Tully, Roeland Van Malderen, Ankie Piters, Bogumil Kois, René Stübi, and Pavla Skrivankova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2955–2978,Short summary
Vertical ozone profiles from combined spectral measurements in the UV and IR spectral ranges were retrieved by using data from TROPOMI/S5P and CrIS/Suomi-NPP. The vertical resolution and accuracy of the ozone profiles are improved by combining both wavelength ranges compared to retrievals limited to UV or IR spectral data only. The advancement of our TOPAS algorithm for combined measurements is required because in the UV-only retrieval the vertical resolution in the troposphere is very limited.
Omaira Elena García, Esther Sanromá, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Sergio Fabián León-Luis, Thomas Blumenstock, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Alberto Redondas, Virgilio Carreño, Carlos Torres, and Natalia Prats
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2557–2577,Short summary
Accurate observations of atmospheric ozone (O3) are essential to monitor in detail its key role in atmospheric chemistry. In this context, this paper has assessed the effect of using different retrieval strategies on the quality of O3 products from ground-based NDACC FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometry, with the aim of providing an improved O3 retrieval that could be applied at any NDACC FTIR station.
Edward Malina, Ben Veihelmann, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, and Isamu Morino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2377–2406,Short summary
Methane retrievals from remote sensing instruments are fundamentally based on spectroscopic parameters, which indicate spectral-line positions, and their characteristics. These parameters are stored in several databases that vary in their make-up. Here we assess how concentrations of methane isotopologues measured from the same Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) instruments vary across a range of spectral windows using different spectroscopic databases and comment on the implications.
Merritt Deeter, Gene Francis, John Gille, Debbie Mao, Sara Martínez-Alonso, Helen Worden, Dan Ziskin, James Drummond, Róisín Commane, Glenn Diskin, and Kathryn McKain
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2325–2344,Short summary
The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite instrument uses remote sensing to obtain retrievals (measurements) of carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere. This paper describes the latest MOPITT data product, Version 9. Globally, the number of daytime MOPITT retrievals over land has increased by 30 %–40 % compared to the previous product. The reported improvements in the MOPITT product should benefit a wide variety of applications including studies of pollution sources.
Andreas Schneider, Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Alba Lorente, Franziska Aemisegger, David Noone, Dean Henze, Rigel Kivi, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2251–2275,Short summary
This paper presents an extended H₂O/HDO total column dataset from short-wave infrared measurements by TROPOMI including cloudy and clear-sky scenes. Coverage is tremendously increased compared to previous TROPOMI HDO datasets. The new dataset is validated against recent ground-based FTIR measurements from TCCON and against aircraft measurements over the ocean. The use of the new dataset is demonstrated with a case study of a cold air outbreak in January 2020.
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