Articles | Volume 14, issue 10
26 Oct 2021
Research article | 26 Oct 2021
Retrieving microphysical properties of concurrent pristine ice and snow using polarimetric radar observations
Nicholas J. Kedzuf et al.
No articles found.
Sagar K. Tamang, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Peter Jan van Leeuwen, Gilad Lerman, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 29, 77–92,Short summary
The outputs from Earth system models are optimally combined with satellite observations to produce accurate forecasts through a process called data assimilation. Many existing data assimilation methodologies have some assumptions regarding the shape of the probability distributions of model output and observations, which results in forecast inaccuracies. In this paper, we test the effectiveness of a newly proposed methodology that relaxes such assumptions about high-dimensional models.
Concetta Di Mauro, Renaud Hostache, Patrick Matgen, Ramona Pelich, Marco Chini, Peter Jan van Leeuwen, Nancy K. Nichols, and Günter Blöschl
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4081–4097,Short summary
This study evaluates how the sequential assimilation of flood extent derived from synthetic aperture radar data can help improve flood forecasting. In particular, we carried out twin experiments based on a synthetically generated dataset with controlled uncertainty. Our empirical results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed data assimilation framework, as forecasting errors are substantially reduced as a result of the assimilation.
Sagar K. Tamang, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Peter J. van Leeuwen, Dongmian Zou, and Gilad Lerman
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 28, 295–309,Short summary
Data assimilation aims to improve hydrologic and weather forecasts by combining available information from Earth system models and observations. The classical approaches to data assimilation usually proceed with some preconceived assumptions about the shape of their probability distributions. As a result, when such assumptions are invalid, the forecast accuracy suffers. In the proposed methodology, we relax such assumptions and demonstrate improved performance.
Sebastian O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Louis Gallagher, Waldemar Schledewitz, Keith Bower, Oliver Schlenczek, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Christopher Westbrook, and Zbigniew Ulanowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1917–1939,Short summary
The number, shape, and size of ice crystals in clouds are important properties that influence the Earth's radiation budget, cloud evolution, and precipitation formation. This work suggests that one of the most widely used methods for in situ measurements of these properties has significant uncertainties and biases. We suggest methods that dramatically improve these measurements, which can be applied to past and future datasets from these instruments.
Georgia Sotiropoulou, Étienne Vignon, Gillian Young, Hugh Morrison, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Alexis Berne, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 755–771,Short summary
Summer clouds have a significant impact on the radiation budget of the Antarctic surface and thus on ice-shelf melting. However, these are poorly represented in climate models due to errors in their microphysical structure, including the number of ice crystals that they contain. We show that breakup from ice particle collisions can substantially magnify the ice crystal number concentration with significant implications for surface radiation. This process is currently missing in climate models.
Richard J. Bantges, Helen E. Brindley, Jonathan E. Murray, Alan E. Last, Jacqueline E. Russell, Cathryn Fox, Stuart Fox, Chawn Harlow, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Keith N. Bower, Bryan A. Baum, Ping Yang, Hilke Oetjen, and Juliet C. Pickering
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12889–12903,Short summary
Understanding how ice clouds influence the Earth's energy balance remains a key challenge for predicting the future climate. These clouds are ubiquitous and are composed of ice crystals that have complex shapes that are incredibly difficult to model. This work exploits new measurements of the Earth's emitted thermal energy made from instruments flown on board an aircraft to test how well the latest ice cloud models can represent these clouds. Results indicate further developments are required.
Yu Ma, Guangheng Ni, Chandrasekar V. Chandra, Fuqiang Tian, and Haonan Chen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4153–4170,Short summary
Raindrop size distribution (DSD) information is fundamental in understanding the precipitation microphysics and quantitative precipitation estimation. This study extensively investigates the DSD characteristics during rainy seasons in the Beijing urban area using 5-year DSD observations from a Parsivel2 disdrometer. The statistical distributions of DSD parameters are examined and the polarimetric radar rainfall algorithms are derived to support the ongoing development of an X-band radar network.
Steven D. Miller, Louie D. Grasso, Qijing Bian, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Jack F. Dostalek, Jeremy E. Solbrig, Jennifer Bukowski, Susan C. van den Heever, Yi Wang, Xiaoguang Xu, Jun Wang, Annette L. Walker, Ting-Chi Wu, Milija Zupanski, Christine Chiu, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5101–5118,Short summary
Satellite–based detection of lofted mineral via infrared–window channels, well established in the literature, faces significant challenges in the presence of atmospheric moisture. Here, we consider a case featuring the juxtaposition of two dust plumes embedded within dry and moist air masses. The case is considered from the vantage points of numerical modeling, multi–sensor observations, and radiative transfer theory arriving at a new method for mitigating the water vapor masking effect.
Jonathan K. P. Shonk, Jui-Yuan Christine Chiu, Alexander Marshak, David M. Giles, Chiung-Huei Huang, Gerald G. Mace, Sally Benson, Ilya Slutsker, and Brent N. Holben
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5087–5099,Short summary
Retrievals of cloud optical depth made using AERONET radiometers in “cloud mode” rely on the assumption that all cloud is liquid. The presence of ice cloud therefore introduces errors in the retrieved optical depth, which can be over 25 in optically thick ice clouds. However, such clouds are not frequent and the long-term mean optical depth error is about 3 for a sample of real clouds. A correction equation could improve the retrieval further, although this would require extra instrumentation.
Shannon L. Mason, Robin J. Hogan, Christopher D. Westbrook, Stefan Kneifel, Dmitri Moisseev, and Leonie von Terzi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4993–5018,Short summary
The mass contents of snowflakes are critical to remotely sensed estimates of snowfall. The signatures of snow measured at three radar frequencies can distinguish fluffy, fractal snowflakes from dense and more homogeneous rimed snow. However, we show that the shape of the particle size spectrum also has a significant impact on triple-frequency radar signatures and must be accounted for when making triple-frequency radar estimates of snow that include variations in particle structure and density.
Emma Hopkin, Anthony J. Illingworth, Cristina Charlton-Perez, Chris D. Westbrook, and Sue Ballard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4131–4147,Short summary
Ceilometers are laser cloud base recorders which retrieve information about atmospheric aerosol and differing cloud types. In order to ensure the information retrieved from the ceilometer is correct and comparable with other ceilometers in an observation network, a calibration is needed. Presented here is a novel automated calibration method, which includes a correction for the effects of water vapour in the atmosphere and shows its application on the UK Met Office's ceilometer network.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Waldemar Schledewitz, Ian Crawford, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, and Aaron Bansemer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3067–3079,Short summary
Optical array probe measurements of clouds are widely used to inform and validate numerical weather and climate models. In this paper, we discuss artefacts which may bias data from these instruments. Using laboratory and synthetic datasets, we demonstrate how greyscale analysis can be used to filter data, constraining the sample volume and improving data quality particularly at small sizes where their measurements are considered unreliable.
Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Dantong Liu, Michael J. Flynn, James R. Dorsey, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Douglas Lowe, Kate Szpek, Franco Marenco, Ben T. Johnson, Stephane Bauguitte, Jim M. Haywood, Joel F. Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5771–5790,Short summary
A novel analysis of aerosol and gas-phase vertical profiles shows a marked regional pollution contrast: composition is driven by the fire regime and vertical distribution is driven by thermodynamics. These drivers ought to be well represented in simulations to ensure realistic prediction of climate and air quality impacts. The BC : CO ratio in haze and plumes increases with altitude – long-range transport or fire stage coupled to plume dynamics may be responsible. Further enquiry is advocated.
Andrew I. Barrett, Christopher D. Westbrook, John C. Nicol, and Thorwald H. M. Stein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5753–5769,Short summary
We use radars at three wavelengths to study cloud properties. The full Doppler spectra (rather than calculated averages of the spectra) are compared for the radars. This allows us to estimate the size and number of ice particles within the cloud. By following the evolution of the ice particles, we observe a region where particles rapidly and consistently increase in size. The observations suggest that these large particles form through interlocking of branched arms of smaller ice particles.
Stuart Fox, Jana Mendrok, Patrick Eriksson, Robin Ekelund, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Keith N. Bower, Anthony J. Baran, R. Chawn Harlow, and Juliet C. Pickering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1599–1617,Short summary
Airborne observations of ice clouds are used to validate radiative transfer simulations using a state-of-the-art database of cloud ice optical properties. Simulations at these wavelengths are required to make use of future satellite instruments such as the Ice Cloud Imager. We show that they can generally reproduce observed cloud signals, but for a given total ice mass there is considerable sensitivity to the cloud microphysics, including the particle shape and distribution of ice mass.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Amy K. Hodgson, William T. Morgan, Sebastian O'Shea, Stéphane Bauguitte, James D. Allan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, Dantong Liu, James Lee, Ben Johnson, Jim M. Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5619–5638,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different biomass burning environments in the Amazon Basin in September and October 2012. In this paper, we focus on smoke sampled very close to fresh fires (only 600–900 m above the fires and smoke that was 4–6 min old) to examine the chemical components that make up the smoke and their abundance. We found substantial differences in the emitted smoke that are due to the fuel type and combustion processes driving the fires.
Jake J. Gristey, J. Christine Chiu, Robert J. Gurney, Cyril J. Morcrette, Peter G. Hill, Jacqueline E. Russell, and Helen E. Brindley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5129–5145,
James D. Lee, Stephen D. Mobbs, Axel Wellpott, Grant Allen, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Richard Camilli, Hugh Coe, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Martin Gallagher, James R. Hopkins, Mathias Lanoiselle, Alastair C. Lewis, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Ruth M. Purvis, Sebastian O'Shea, John A. Pyle, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1725–1739,Short summary
This work describes measurements, made from an aircraft platform, of the emission of methane and other organic gases from an uncontrolled leak from an oil platform in the North Sea (Total Elgin). The measurements made helped the platform operators to devise a strategy for repairing the leak and serve as a methodology for assessing future similar incidents.
Hazel M. Jones, Gillian Young, Thomas W. Choularton, Keith N. Bower, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Sebastian O'Shea, James Dorsey, Russell Ladkin, Amelié Kirchgaessner, and Alexandra Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This paper presents new in-situ aerosol and cloud physics measurements from the Arctic during the summertime ACCACIA campaign. Data from eight flights in the vicinity of Svalbard are presented and compared to data from previous Arctic projects. It is hoped this dataset will be of use to modellers who wish to develop polar cloud parameterisations.
Zhao Shi, Fangqiang Wei, and Venkatachalam Chandrasekar
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 765–780,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the debris flow occurrence thresholds of the rainfall intensity–duration in the earthquake-affected areas of Sichuan province over the rainy seasons from 2012 to 2014. it is clear that radar-based rainfall estimate and threshold supplement the monitoring gap of EWS where rain gauge is scarce. A better understanding of relationship between rainfall and debris flow initiation can be enhanced by the radar with highly spatiotemporal resolution.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Thomas W. Choularton, Michael Flynn, Keith N. Bower, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Paul Williams, Ian Crawford, Zoë L. Fleming, Constantino Listowski, Amélie Kirchgaessner, Russell S. Ladkin, and Thomas Lachlan-Cope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13049–13070,Short summary
Few direct measurements have been made of Antarctic cloud and aerosol properties. As part of the 2015 Microphysics of Antarctic Clouds (MAC) field campaign, detailed airborne and ground-based measurements were made over the Weddell Sea and Antarctic coastal continent. This paper presents the first results from this campaign and discusses the cloud properties and processes important in this region.
Shannon L. Mason, J. Christine Chiu, Robin J. Hogan, and Lin Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11567–11589,Short summary
Airborne Doppler radar measurements are used to estimate the properties of tropical stratiform rain. Doppler velocity measurements provide sufficient information to estimate the rain rate over land and also to retrieve the raindrop size distribution over ocean, addressing major uncertainties in current satellite measurements of rain. These results suggest that EarthCARE, with the first space-borne Doppler radar, will facilitate improved global measurements of rain.
Tom Lachlan-Cope, Constantino Listowski, and Sebastian O'Shea
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15605–15617,Short summary
The paper presents observations of clouds over the Antarctic Peninsula (a 2500 m high barrier separating the Weddell and Bellingshausen seas) during summer 2010 and 2011. The observations of ice and liquid particles in the clouds reveal that more particles were seen during 2011 and that this is associated with an air mass that has spent longer close to the sea ice surface. This suggests that sea ice is a source of cloud nuclei.
Mattia Vaccarono, Renzo Bechini, Chandra V. Chandrasekar, Roberto Cremonini, and Claudio Cassardo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5367–5383,Short summary
The data quality of radars must be ensured and continuously monitored. The aim of this paper is to provide an integrated approach able to monitor the calibration of operational dual-polarization radars. The set of methods considered appears suitable to establish an online tool to monitor the stability of the radar calibration with an accuracy of about 2 dB. This is considered adequate to automatically detect any unexpected change in the radar system requiring further investigations.
Roberto Cremonini, Dmitri Moisseev, and Venkatachalam Chandrasekar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5063–5075,Short summary
Although high-spatial-resolution weather radar observations are of primary relevance for urban hydrology, weather radar siting and characterization are challenging in an urban environment. Buildings, masts and trees cause partial beam blockages and clutter that seriously affect the observations. For the first time, this paper investigates the benefits of using airborne laser scanner (ALS) data for quantitative estimations of partial beam blockages in an urban environment.
J. R. Pitt, M. Le Breton, G. Allen, C. J. Percival, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. J. O'Shea, J. B. A. Muller, M. S. Zahniser, J. Pyle, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 63–77,Short summary
We present details of an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) used to make airborne measurements of N2O and CH4, including its configuration for use on board an aircraft. Two different methods to correct for the influence of water vapour on the measurements are evaluated. We diagnose a sensitivity of the instrument to changes in pressure, introduce a new calibration procedure to account for this effect, and assess its performance.
M. D. Fielding, J. C. Chiu, R. J. Hogan, G. Feingold, E. Eloranta, E. J. O'Connor, and M. P. Cadeddu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2663–2683,
M. D. Jolleys, H. Coe, G. McFiggans, J. W. Taylor, S. J. O'Shea, M. Le Breton, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. Moller, P. Di Carlo, E. Aruffo, P. I. Palmer, J. D. Lee, C. J. Percival, and M. W. Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3077–3095,Short summary
Particulate emissions in the form of organic aerosol from boreal forest fires in Canada have been measured during an aircraft measurement campaign. Ratios of the amount of aerosol emitted relative to gas species such as CO were calculated and show high levels of variability throughout the campaign. This variability is affected by both changes in fire conditions, as fires tended to die down later in the measurement period, and by changes to the aerosol due to chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
G. Allen, S. M. Illingworth, S. J. O'Shea, S. Newman, A. Vance, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, F. Marenco, J. Kent, K. Bower, M. W. Gallagher, J. Muller, C. J. Percival, C. Harlow, J. Lee, and J. P. Taylor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4401–4416,Short summary
This paper presents a validated method and data set for new retrievals of trace gas concentrations and temperature from the ARIES infrared spectrometer instrument on the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft (www.faam.ac.uk). This new capability for the aircraft will allow new science to be done because of the way it can sense information about the atmosphere without having to physically pass through it (remote sensing). This will allow us to better understand the make-up of the lower atmosphere.
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, K. Bower, S. M. Illingworth, J. B. A. Muller, B. T. Jones, C. J. Percival, S. J-B. Bauguitte, M. Cain, N. Warwick, A. Quiquet, U. Skiba, J. Drewer, K. Dinsmore, E. G. Nisbet, D. Lowry, R. E. Fisher, J. L. France, M. Aurela, A. Lohila, G. Hayman, C. George, D. B. Clark, A. J. Manning, A. D. Friend, and J. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13159–13174,Short summary
This paper presents airborne measurements of greenhouse gases collected in the European Arctic. Regional scale flux estimates for the northern Scandinavian wetlands are derived. These fluxes are found to be in excellent agreement with coincident surface measurements within the aircraft's sampling domain. This has allowed a significant low bias to be identified in two commonly used process-based land surface models.
J. C. Chiu, J. A. Holmes, R. J. Hogan, and E. J. O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8389–8401,
A. Battaglia, C. D. Westbrook, S. Kneifel, P. Kollias, N. Humpage, U. Löhnert, J. Tyynelä, and G. W. Petty
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1527–1546,
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. M. Illingworth, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, A. T. Archibald, D. E. Oram, M. Parrington, P. I. Palmer, and A. C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12451–12467,
M. Le Breton, A. Bacak, J. B. A. Muller, S. J. O'Shea, P. Xiao, M. N. R. Ashfold, M. C. Cooke, R. Batt, D. E. Shallcross, D. E. Oram, G. Forster, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, A. C. Lewis, J. D. Lee, and C. J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9217–9232,
P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, P. F. Bernath, T. J. Duck, D. L. Waugh, D. W. Tarasick, S. Andrews, E. Aruffo, L. J. Bailey, E. Barrett, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, K. R. Curry, P. Di Carlo, L. Chisholm, L. Dan, G. Forster, J. E. Franklin, M. D. Gibson, D. Griffin, D. Helmig, J. R. Hopkins, J. T. Hopper, M. E. Jenkin, D. Kindred, J. Kliever, M. Le Breton, S. Matthiesen, M. Maurice, S. Moller, D. P. Moore, D. E. Oram, S. J. O'Shea, R. C. Owen, C. M. L. S. Pagniello, S. Pawson, C. J. Percival, J. R. Pierce, S. Punjabi, R. M. Purvis, J. J. Remedios, K. M. Rotermund, K. M. Sakamoto, A. M. da Silva, K. B. Strawbridge, K. Strong, J. Taylor, R. Trigwell, K. A. Tereszchuk, K. A. Walker, D. Weaver, C. Whaley, and J. C. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6239–6261,
S. J. O'Shea, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, M. W. Gallagher, D. Lowry, and C. J. Percival
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1095–1109,
A. Alqudah, V. Chandrasekar, and M. Le
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 535–544,
M. Antón, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C Chiu, and F. J. Olmo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11723–11732,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalAnalytic characterization of random errors in spectral dual-polarized cloud radar observationsAssessing synergistic radar and radiometer capability in retrieving ice cloud microphysics based on hybrid Bayesian algorithmsApplying self-supervised learning for semantic cloud segmentation of all-sky imagesCoincident in situ and triple-frequency radar airborne observations in the ArcticAnalysis of improvements in MOPITT observational coverage over CanadaUsing artificial neural networks to predict riming from Doppler cloud radar observationsEvaluating cloud liquid detection against Cloudnet using cloud radar Doppler spectra in a pre-trained artificial neural networkPARAFOG v2.0: a near-real-time decision tool to support nowcasting fog formation events at local scalesInpainting radar missing data regions with deep learningImproved cloud detection for the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS): training an artificial neural network on colocated MLS and Aqua MODIS dataEmpirical model of multiple scattering effect on single-wavelength lidar data of aerosols and cloudsTowards the use of conservative thermodynamic variables in data assimilation: preliminary results using ground-based microwave radiometer measurementsTriple-frequency radar retrieval of microphysical properties of snowComparison of mid-latitude single- and mixed-phase cloud optical depth from co-located infrared spectrometer and backscatter lidar measurementsPhysical characteristics of frozen hydrometeors inferred with parameter estimationCloud height measurement by a network of all-sky imagersIncreasing the spatial resolution of cloud property retrievals from Meteosat SEVIRI by use of its high-resolution visible channel: implementation and examplesWhy we need radar, lidar, and solar radiance observations to constrain ice cloud microphysicsEstimating the optical extinction of liquid water clouds in the cloud base regionW-band radar observations for fog forecast improvement: an analysis of model and forward operator errorsIdentification of snowfall microphysical processes from Eulerian vertical gradients of polarimetric radar variablesIdentifying insects, clouds, and precipitation using vertically pointing polarimetric radar Doppler velocity spectraMICRU: an effective cloud fraction algorithm designed for UV–vis satellite instruments with large viewing anglesA simplified method for the detection of convection using high-resolution imagery from GOES-16Introducing hydrometeor orientation into all-sky microwave and submillimeter assimilationVersion 4 CALIPSO Imaging Infrared Radiometer ice and liquid water cloud microphysical properties – Part II: Results over oceansVersion 4 CALIPSO Imaging Infrared Radiometer ice and liquid water cloud microphysical properties – Part I: The retrieval algorithmsObservation of cirrus clouds with GLORIA during the WISE campaign: detection methods and cirrus characterizationApplying machine learning methods to detect convection using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-16 (GOES-16) advanced baseline imager (ABI) dataA new method to detect and classify polar stratospheric nitric acid trihydrate clouds derived from radiative transfer simulations and its first application to airborne infrared limb emission observationsA study of polarimetric error induced by satellite motion: application to the 3MI and similar sensorsA robust low-level cloud and clutter discrimination method for ground-based millimeter-wavelength cloud radarTwo-dimensional and multi-channel feature detection algorithm for the CALIPSO lidar measurementsAnalysis of 3D cloud effects in OCO-2 XCO2 retrievalsImproving cloud type classification of ground-based images using region covariance descriptorsGlobal cloud property models for real-time triage on board visible–shortwave infrared spectrometersApplying deep learning to NASA MODIS data to create a community record of marine low-cloud mesoscale morphologyMicrowave single-scattering properties of non-spheroidal raindropsDetermining cloud thermodynamic phase from the polarized Micro Pulse LidarImproved cloud detection over sea ice and snow during Arctic summer using MERIS dataA kernel-driven BRDF model to inform satellite-derived visible anvil cloud detectionCloud-top pressure retrieval with DSCOVR EPIC oxygen A- and B-band observationsEstimating total attenuation using Rayleigh targets at cloud top: applications in multilayer and mixed-phase clouds observed by ground-based multifrequency radarsA new Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 cloud flagging method and rapid retrieval of marine boundary layer cloud propertiesCALIOP V4 cloud thermodynamic phase assignment and the impact of near-nadir viewing anglesDetection of the cloud liquid water path horizontal inhomogeneity in a coastline area by means of ground-based microwave observations: feasibility studySynergistic radar and radiometer retrievals of ice hydrometeorsImprovement in cloud retrievals from VIIRS through the use of infrared absorption channels constructed from VIIRS+CrIS data fusionUsing two-stream theory to capture fluctuations of satellite-perceived TOA SW radiances reflected from clouds over oceanExploration of machine learning methods for the classification of infrared limb spectra of polar stratospheric clouds
Alexander Myagkov and Davide Ori
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1333–1354,Short summary
This study provides equations to characterize random errors of spectral polarimetric observations from cloud radars. The results can be used for a broad spectrum of applications. For instance, accurate error characterization is essential for advanced retrievals of microphysical properties of clouds and precipitation. Moreover, error characterization allows for the use of measurements from polarimetric cloud radars to potentially improve weather forecasts.
Yuli Liu and Gerald G. Mace
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 927–944,Short summary
We propose a suite of Bayesian algorithms for synergistic radar and radiometer retrievals to evaluate the next-generation NASA Cloud, Convection and Precipitation (CCP) observing system. The algorithms address pixel-level retrievals using active-only, passive-only, and synergistic active–passive observations. Novel techniques in developing synergistic algorithms are presented. Quantitative assessments of the CCP observing system's capability in retrieving ice cloud microphysics are provided.
Yann Fabel, Bijan Nouri, Stefan Wilbert, Niklas Blum, Rudolph Triebel, Marcel Hasenbalg, Pascal Kuhn, Luis F. Zarzalejo, and Robert Pitz-Paal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 797–809,Short summary
This work presents a new approach to exploit unlabeled image data from ground-based sky observations to train neural networks. We show that our model can detect cloud classes within images more accurately than models trained with conventional methods using small, labeled datasets only. Novel machine learning techniques as applied in this work enable training with much larger datasets, leading to improved accuracy in cloud detection and less need for manual image labeling.
Cuong M. Nguyen, Mengistu Wolde, Alessandro Battaglia, Leonid Nichman, Natalia Bliankinshtein, Samuel Haimov, Kenny Bala, and Dirk Schuettemeyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 775–795,Short summary
An analysis of airborne triple-frequency radar and almost perfectly co-located coincident in situ data from an Arctic storm confirms the main findings of modeling work with radar dual-frequency ratios (DFRs) at different zones of the DFR plane associated with different ice habits. High-resolution CPI images provide accurate identification of rimed particles within the DFR plane. The relationships between the triple-frequency signals and cloud microphysical properties are also presented.
Heba S. Marey, James R. Drummond, Dylan B. A. Jones, Helen Worden, Merritt N. Deeter, John Gille, and Debbie Mao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 701–719,Short summary
In this study, an analysis has been performed to understand the improvements in observational coverage over Canada in the new MOPITT V9 product. Temporal and spatial analysis of V9 indicates a general coverage gain of 15–20 % relative to V8, which varies regionally and seasonally; e.g., the number of successful MOPITT retrievals in V9 was doubled over Canada in winter. Also, comparison with the corresponding IASI instrument indicated generally good agreement, with about a 5–10 % positive bias.
Teresa Vogl, Maximilian Maahn, Stefan Kneifel, Willi Schimmel, Dmitri Moisseev, and Heike Kalesse-Los
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 365–381,Short summary
We are using machine learning techniques, a type of artificial intelligence, to detect graupel formation in clouds. The measurements used as input to the machine learning framework were performed by cloud radars. Cloud radars are instruments located at the ground, emitting radiation with wavelenghts of a few millimeters vertically into the cloud and measuring the back-scattered signal. Our novel technique can be applied to different radar systems and different weather conditions.
Heike Kalesse-Los, Willi Schimmel, Edward Luke, and Patric Seifert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 279–295,Short summary
It is important to detect the vertical distribution of cloud droplets and ice in mixed-phase clouds. Here, an artificial neural network (ANN) previously developed for Arctic clouds is applied to a mid-latitudinal cloud radar data set. The performance of this technique is contrasted to the Cloudnet target classification. For thick/multi-layer clouds, the machine learning technique is better at detecting liquid than Cloudnet, but if lidar data are available Cloudnet is at least as good as the ANN.
Jean-François Ribaud, Martial Haeffelin, Jean-Charles Dupont, Marc-Antoine Drouin, Felipe Toledo, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7893–7907,Short summary
PARAFOG is a near-real-time decision tool that aims to retrieve pre-fog alert levels minutes to hours prior to fog onset. The second version of PARAFOG allows us to discriminate between radiation and stratus lowering fog situations. It is based upon the combination of visibility observations and automatic lidar and ceilometer measurements. The overall performance of the second version of PARAFOG over more than 300 fog cases at five different locations presents a good perfomance.
Andrew Geiss and Joseph C. Hardin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7729–7747,Short summary
Radars can suffer from missing or poor-quality data regions for several reasons: beam blockage, instrument failure, and near-ground blind zones, etc. Here, we demonstrate how deep convolutional neural networks can be used for filling in radar-missing data regions and that they can significantly outperform conventional approaches in terms of realism and accuracy.
Frank Werner, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Michael J. Schwartz, William G. Read, Michelle L. Santee, and Galina Wind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7749–7773,Short summary
In this study we present an improved cloud detection scheme for the Microwave Limb Sounder, which is based on a feedforward artificial neural network. This new algorithm is shown not only to reliably detect high and mid-level convection containing even small amounts of cloud water but also to distinguish between high-reaching and mid-level to low convection.
Valery Shcherbakov, Frédéric Szczap, Alaa Alkasem, Guillaume Mioche, and Céline Cornet
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We performed extensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of lidar signals and developed an empirical model to account for the multiple scattering in the lidar signals. The simulations have taken into consideration four types of lidar configurations (the ground based, the airborne, the CALIOP, and the ATLID) and four types of particles (coarse aerosol, water cloud, jet-stream cirrus and cirrus). The empirical model has very good quality of MC data fitting for all considered cases.
Pascal Marquet, Pauline Martinet, Jean-François Mahfouf, Alina Lavinia Barbu, and Benjamin Ménétrier
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Two conservative thermodynamic variables (moist-air entropy potential temperature and total water content) are introduced into a one-dimensional variational data assimilation system to demonstrate the benefit for future operational assimilation schemes, with the use of microwave brightness temperatures from a ground-based radiometer installed during the field campaign SOFGO3D. Results show that the brightness temperatures analysed with the new variables are improved, including the liquid water.
Kamil Mroz, Alessandro Battaglia, Cuong Nguyen, Andrew Heymsfield, Alain Protat, and Mengistu Wolde
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7243–7254,Short summary
A method for estimating microphysical properties of ice clouds based on radar measurements is presented. The algorithm exploits the information provided by differences in the radar response at different frequency bands in relation to changes in the snow morphology. The inversion scheme is based on a statistical relation between the radar simulations and the properties of snow calculated from in-cloud sampling.
Gianluca Di Natale, Marco Barucci, Claudio Belotti, Giovanni Bianchini, Francesco D'Amato, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Alessio Montori, Ralf Sussmann, Silvia Viciani, Hannes Vogelmann, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6749–6758,Short summary
The importance of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds in the Earth radiation budget has been proven by many studies. In this paper the properties that characterize these clouds are retrieved from lidar and far-infrared spectral measurements performed in winter 2018/19 on the Zugspitze (Germany). The synergy of lidar and spectrometer measurements allowed us to assess the exponent k of the power-law relationship between the backscattering and the extinction coefficients.
Alan J. Geer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5369–5395,Short summary
Satellite observations sensitive to cloud and precipitation help improve the quality of weather forecasts. However, they are sensitive to things that models do not forecast, such as the shapes and sizes of snow and ice particles. These details can be estimated from the observations themselves and then incorporated in the satellite simulators used in weather forecasting. This approach, known as parameter estimation, will be increasingly useful to build models of poorly known physical processes.
Niklas Benedikt Blum, Bijan Nouri, Stefan Wilbert, Thomas Schmidt, Ontje Lünsdorf, Jonas Stührenberg, Detlev Heinemann, Andreas Kazantzidis, and Robert Pitz-Paal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5199–5224,Short summary
Cloud base height (CBH) is important, e.g., to forecast solar irradiance and, with it, photovoltaic production. All-sky imagers (ASIs), cameras monitoring the sky above their point of installation, can provide such forecasts and also measure CBH. We present a network of ASIs to measure CBH. The network provides numerous readings of CBH simultaneously. We combine these with a statistical procedure. Validation attests to significantly higher accuracy of the combination compared to two ASIs alone.
Hartwig Deneke, Carola Barrientos-Velasco, Sebastian Bley, Anja Hünerbein, Stephan Lenk, Andreas Macke, Jan Fokke Meirink, Marion Schroedter-Homscheidt, Fabian Senf, Ping Wang, Frank Werner, and Jonas Witthuhn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5107–5126,Short summary
The SEVIRI instrument flown on the European geostationary Meteosat satellites acquires multi-spectral images at a relatively coarse pixel resolution of 3 × 3 km2, but it also has a broadband high-resolution visible channel with 1 × 1 km2 spatial resolution. In this study, the modification of an existing cloud property and solar irradiance retrieval to use this channel to improve the spatial resolution of its output products as well as the resulting benefits for applications are described.
Florian Ewald, Silke Groß, Martin Wirth, Julien Delanoë, Stuart Fox, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5029–5047,Short summary
In this study, we show how solar radiance observations can be used to validate and further constrain ice cloud microphysics retrieved from the synergy of radar–lidar measurements. Since most radar–lidar retrievals rely on a global assumption about the ice particle shape, ice water content and particle size biases are to be expected in individual cloud regimes. In this work, we identify and correct these biases by reconciling simulated and measured solar radiation reflected from these clouds.
Karolina Sarna, David P. Donovan, and Herman W. J. Russchenberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4959–4970,Short summary
We show a method for obtaining cloud optical extinction with a lidar system. We use a scheme in which a lidar signal is inverted based on the estimated value of cloud extinction at the far end of the cloud and apply a correction for multiple scattering within the cloud and a range resolution correction. By applying our technique, we show that it is possible to obtain the cloud optical extinction with an error better than 5 % up to 90 m within the cloud.
Alistair Bell, Pauline Martinet, Olivier Caumont, Benoît Vié, Julien Delanoë, Jean-Charles Dupont, and Mary Borderies
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4929–4946,Short summary
This paper presents work towards making retrievals on the liquid water content in fog and low clouds. Future retrievals will rely on a radar simulator and high-resolution forecast. In this work, real observations are used to assess the errors associated with the simulator and forecast. A selection method to reduce errors associated with the forecast is proposed. It is concluded that the distribution of errors matches the requirements for future retrievals.
Noémie Planat, Josué Gehring, Étienne Vignon, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4543–4564,Short summary
We implement a new method to identify microphysical processes during cold precipitation events based on the sign of the vertical gradient of polarimetric radar variables. We analytically asses the meteorological conditions for this vertical analysis to hold, apply it on two study cases and successfully compare it with other methods informing about the microphysics. Finally, we are able to obtain the main vertical structure and characteristics of the different processes during these study cases.
Christopher R. Williams, Karen L. Johnson, Scott E. Giangrande, Joseph C. Hardin, Ruşen Öktem, and David M. Romps
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4425–4444,Short summary
In addition to detecting clouds, vertically pointing cloud radars detect individual insects passing over head. If these insects are not identified and removed from raw observations, then radar-derived cloud properties will be contaminated. This work identifies clouds in radar observations due to their continuous and smooth structure in time, height, and velocity. Cloud masks are produced that identify cloud vertical structure that are free of insect contamination.
Holger Sihler, Steffen Beirle, Steffen Dörner, Marloes Gutenstein-Penning de Vries, Christoph Hörmann, Christian Borger, Simon Warnach, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3989–4031,Short summary
MICRU is an algorithm for the retrieval of effective cloud fractions (CFs) from satellite measurements. CFs describe the amount of clouds, which have a significant impact on the vertical sensitivity profile of trace gases like NO2 and HCHO. MICRU retrieves small CFs with an accuracy of 0.04 over the entire satellite swath. It features an empirical surface reflectivity model accounting for physical anisotropy (BRDF, sun glitter) and instrumental effects. MICRU is also applicable to imager data.
Yoonjin Lee, Christian D. Kummerow, and Milija Zupanski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3755–3771,Short summary
This study suggests two methods to detect convection using 1 min data from GOES-16: one method detects early convective clouds using their vertical growth rate and the other method detects mature convective clouds using their lumpy cloud top surfaces. Applying the two methods to 1-month data showed that the accuracy of the combined methods was 85.8 % and showed their potential to be used in regions where radar data are not available.
Vasileios Barlakas, Alan J. Geer, and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3427–3447,Short summary
Oriented nonspherical ice particles induce polarization that is ignored when cloud-sensitive satellite observations are used in numerical weather prediction systems. We present a simple approach for approximating particle orientation, requiring minor adaption of software and no additional calculation burden. With this approach, the system realistically simulates the observed polarization patterns, increasing the physical consistency between instruments with different polarizations.
Anne Garnier, Jacques Pelon, Nicolas Pascal, Mark A. Vaughan, Philippe Dubuisson, Ping Yang, and David L. Mitchell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3277–3299,Short summary
The IIR Level 2 data products include cloud effective emissivities and cloud microphysical properties such as effective diameter (De) and ice or liquid water path estimates. This paper (Part II) shows retrievals over ocean and describes the improvements made with respect to version 3 as a result of the significant changes implemented in the version 4 algorithms, which are presented in a companion paper (Part I).
Anne Garnier, Jacques Pelon, Nicolas Pascal, Mark A. Vaughan, Philippe Dubuisson, Ping Yang, and David L. Mitchell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3253–3276,Short summary
The IIR Level 2 data products include cloud effective emissivities and cloud microphysical properties such as effective diameter (De) and ice or liquid water path estimates. This paper (Part I) describes the improvements in the V4 algorithms compared to those used in the version 3 (V3) release, while results are presented in a companion paper (Part II).
Irene Bartolome Garcia, Reinhold Spang, Jörn Ungermann, Sabine Griessbach, Martina Krämer, Michael Höpfner, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3153–3168,Short summary
Cirrus clouds contribute to the general radiation budget of the Earth. Measuring optically thin clouds is challenging but the IR limb sounder GLORIA possesses the necessary technical characteristics to make it possible. This study analyses data from the WISE campaign obtained with GLORIA. We developed a cloud detection method and derived characteristics of the observed cirrus-like cloud top, cloud bottom or position with respect to the tropopause.
Yoonjin Lee, Christian D. Kummerow, and Imme Ebert-Uphoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2699–2716,Short summary
Convective clouds are usually associated with intense rain that can cause severe damage, and thus it is important to accurately detect convective clouds. This study develops a machine learning model that can identify convective clouds from five temporal visible and infrared images as humans can point at convective regions by finding bright and bubbling areas. The results look promising when compared to radar-derived products, which are commonly used for detecting convection.
Christoph Kalicinsky, Sabine Griessbach, and Reinhold Spang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1893–1915,Short summary
For an airborne viewing geometry, radiative transfer simulations of infrared limb emission spectra in the presence of polar stratospheric clouds – nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), supercooled ternary solution, ice, and mixtures – were used to develop a size-sensitive NAT detection algorithm. Characteristic size-dependent spectral features in the 810–820 cm−1 region were exploited to subgroup the NAT into three size regimes: small NAT (≤ 1.0 μm), medium NAT (1.5–4.0 μm), and large NAT (≥ 3.5 μm).
Souichiro Hioki, Jérôme Riedi, and Mohamed S. Djellali
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1801–1816,Short summary
This research estimates the magnitude of a motion-induced error in the measurement of polarimetric state of light by a planned instrument on a future satellite. We discovered that the motion-induced error can not be cancelled out by spatiotemporal averaging, but it can be predicted from the along-track change of the intensity of light. With the estimated statistics and the simulation model, this research paves a way to provide pixel-level quality information in the future satellite products.
Xiaoyu Hu, Jinming Ge, Jiajing Du, Qinghao Li, Jianping Huang, and Qiang Fu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1743–1759,Short summary
Cloud radars are powerful instruments that can probe detailed cloud structures. However, radar echoes in the lower atmosphere are always contaminated by clutter. We proposed a multi-dimensional probability distribution function that can effectively discriminate low-level clouds from clutter by considering their different features in several variables. We applied this method to the radar observations at the SACOL site and found the results have good agreement with lidar detection.
Thibault Vaillant de Guélis, Mark A. Vaughan, David M. Winker, and Zhaoyan Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1593–1613,Short summary
We introduce a new lidar feature detection algorithm that dramatically improves the fine details of layers identified in the CALIOP data. By applying our two-dimensional scanning technique to the measurements in all three channels, we minimize false positives while accurately identifying previously undetected features such as subvisible cirrus and the full vertical extent of dense smoke plumes. Multiple comparisons to version 4.2 CALIOP retrievals illustrate the scope of the improvements made.
Steven T. Massie, Heather Cronk, Aronne Merrelli, Christopher O'Dell, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Hong Chen, and David Baker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1475–1499,Short summary
The OCO-2 science team is working to retrieve CO2 measurements that can be used by the carbon cycle community to calculate regional sources and sinks of CO2. The retrieved data, however, are in need of improvements in accuracy. This paper discusses several ways in which 3D cloud metrics (such as the distance of a measurement to the nearest cloud) can be used to account for cloud effects in the OCO-2 CO2 data files.
Yuzhu Tang, Pinglv Yang, Zeming Zhou, Delu Pan, Jianyu Chen, and Xiaofeng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 737–747,Short summary
An automatic cloud classification method on whole-sky images is presented. We first extract multiple pixel-level features to form region covariance descriptors (RCovDs) and then encode RCovDs by the Riemannian bag-of-feature (BoF) method to output the histogram representation. Reults show that a very high prediction accuracy can be obtained with a small number of training samples, which validate the proposed method and exhibit the competitive performance against state-of-the-art methods.
Macey W. Sandford, David R. Thompson, Robert O. Green, Brian H. Kahn, Raffaele Vitulli, Steve Chien, Amruta Yelamanchili, and Winston Olson-Duvall
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7047–7057,Short summary
We demonstrate an onboard cloud-screening approach to significantly reduce the amount of cloud-contaminated data transmitted from orbit. We have produced location-specific models that improve performance by taking into account the unique cloud statistics in different latitudes. We have shown that screening clouds based on their location or surface type will improve the ability for a cloud-screening tool to improve the volume of usable science data.
Tianle Yuan, Hua Song, Robert Wood, Johannes Mohrmann, Kerry Meyer, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and Steven Platnick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6989–6997,Short summary
We use deep transfer learning techniques to classify satellite cloud images into different morphology types. It achieves the state-of-the-art results and can automatically process a large amount of satellite data. The algorithm will help low-cloud researchers to better understand their mesoscale organizations.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6933–6944,Short summary
Raindrops become flattened due to aerodynamic drag as they increase in mass and fall speed. This study calculated the electromagnetic interaction between microwave radiation and non-spheroidal raindrops. The calculations are made publicly available to the scientific community, in order to promote accurate representations of raindrops in measurements. Tests show that the drop shape can have a noticeable effect on microwave observations of heavy rainfall.
Jasper R. Lewis, James R. Campbell, Sebastian A. Stewart, Ivy Tan, Ellsworth J. Welton, and Simone Lolli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6901–6913,Short summary
In this work, the authors describe a process to determine the thermodynamic cloud phase using the Micro Pulse Lidar Network volume depolarization ratio measurements and temperature profiles from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office GEOS-5 model. A multi-year analysis and comparisons to supercooled liquid water fractions derived from CALIPSO satellite measurements are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.
Larysa Istomina, Henrik Marks, Marcus Huntemann, Georg Heygster, and Gunnar Spreen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6459–6472,
Benjamin R. Scarino, Kristopher Bedka, Rajendra Bhatt, Konstantin Khlopenkov, David R. Doelling, and William L. Smith Jr.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5491–5511,Short summary
This paper highlights a technique for facilitating anvil cloud detection based on visible observations that relies on comparative analysis with expected cloud reflectance for a given set of angles. A 1-year database of anvil-identified pixels, as determined from IR observations, from several geostationary satellites was used to construct a bidirectional reflectance distribution function model to quantify typical anvil reflectance across almost all expected viewing, solar, and azimuth angles.
Bangsheng Yin, Qilong Min, Emily Morgan, Yuekui Yang, Alexander Marshak, and Anthony B. Davis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5259–5275,Short summary
Cloud-top pressure (CTP) is an important cloud property for climate and weather studies. Based on differential oxygen absorption, both oxygen A-band and B-band pairs can be used to retrieve CTP. However, it is currently very challenging to perform a CTP retrieval accurately due to the complicated in-cloud penetration effect. To address this issue, we propose an analytic transfer inverse model for DSCOVR EPIC observations to retrieve CTP considering in-cloud photon penetration.
Frédéric Tridon, Alessandro Battaglia, and Stefan Kneifel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5065–5085,Short summary
The droplets and ice crystals composing clouds and precipitation interact with microwaves and can therefore be observed by radars, but they can also attenuate the signal they emit. By combining the observations made by two ground-based radars, this study describes an original approach for estimating such attenuation. As a result, the latter can be not only corrected in the radar observations but also exploited for providing an accurate characterization of droplet and ice crystal properties.
Mark Richardson, Matthew D. Lebsock, James McDuffie, and Graeme L. Stephens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4947–4961,Short summary
We previously combined CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) lidar data and reflected-sunlight measurements from OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2) for information about low clouds over oceans. The satellites are no longer formation-flying, so this work is a step towards getting new information about these clouds using only OCO-2. We can rapidly and accurately identify liquid oceanic clouds and obtain their height better than a widely used passive sensor.
Melody A. Avery, Robert A. Ryan, Brian J. Getzewich, Mark A. Vaughan, David M. Winker, Yongxiang Hu, Anne Garnier, Jacques Pelon, and Carolus A. Verhappen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4539–4563,Short summary
CALIOP data users will find more cloud layers detected in V4, with edges that extend further than in V3, for an increase in total atmospheric cloud volume of 6 %–9 % for high-confidence cloud phases and 1 %–2 % for all cloudy bins, including cloud fringes and unknown cloud phases. In V4 there are many fewer cloud layers identified as horizontally oriented ice, particularly in the 3° off-nadir view. Depolarization at 532 nm is the predominant parameter determining cloud thermodynamic phase.
Vladimir S. Kostsov, Dmitry V. Ionov, and Anke Kniffka
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4565–4587,Short summary
Previously, observations from satellites provided evidence for systematic differences between the values of the cloud liquid water path over land and water areas in northern Europe. An attempt is made to detect such differences by means of ground-based microwave measurements performed near the coastline of the Gulf of Finland. The results demonstrate the existence of the cloud liquid water path gradient, which is positive as in the case of the satellite measurements (larger values over land).
Simon Pfreundschuh, Patrick Eriksson, Stefan A. Buehler, Manfred Brath, David Duncan, Richard Larsson, and Robin Ekelund
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4219–4245,Short summary
The next generation of European operational weather satellites will carry a novel microwave sensor, the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI), which will provide observations of clouds at microwave frequencies that were not available before. We investigate the potential benefits of combining observations from ICI with that of a radar. We find that such combined observations provide additional information on the properties of the cloud and help to reduce uncertainties in retrieved mass and number densities.
Yue Li, Bryan A. Baum, Andrew K. Heidinger, W. Paul Menzel, and Elisabeth Weisz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4035–4049,Short summary
Use of VIIRS+CrIS fusion products, which provide VIIRS with MODIS-like IR sounding channels, improves cloud mask, cloud phase, and cloud top height retrievals when compared to those using VIIRS data only. NOAA CLAVR-x cloud retrievals for both S-NPP and NOAA-20 data are evaluated through comparisons to the CALIPSO v4 and MODIS Collection 6.1 cloud products. Cloud height retrievals show significant improvement for semitransparent ice clouds, with a reduction in retrieval uncertainties.
Florian Tornow, Carlos Domenech, Howard W. Barker, René Preusker, and Jürgen Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3909–3922,Short summary
Clouds reflect sunlight unevenly, which makes it difficult to quantify the portion reflected back to space via satellite observation. To improve quantification, we propose a new statistical model that incorporates more satellite-inferred cloud and atmospheric properties than state-of-the-art models. We use concepts from radiative transfer theory that we statistically optimize to fit observations. The new model often explains past satellite observations better and predicts reflection plausibly.
Rocco Sedona, Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Gabriele Cavallaro, Sabine Griessbach, Michael Höpfner, Matthias Book, and Morris Riedel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3661–3682,Short summary
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in polar ozone depletion in the stratosphere. In this paper, we explore the potential of applying machine learning (ML) methods to classify PSC observations of infrared spectra to classify PSC types. ML methods have proved to reach results in line with those obtained using well-established approaches. Among the considered ML methods, random forest (RF) seems to be the most promising one, being able to produce explainable classification results.
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Ice clouds play a key role in our climate system due to their strong controls on precipitation and the radiation budget. However, it is difficult to characterize co-existing ice species using radar observations. We present a new method that separates the radar signals of pristine ice embedded in snow aggregates and retrieves their respective abundances and sizes for the first time. The ability to provide their quantitative microphysical properties will open up many research opportunities.
Ice clouds play a key role in our climate system due to their strong controls on precipitation...