Articles | Volume 6, issue 2
Research article 20 Feb 2013
Research article | 20 Feb 2013
Position error in profiles retrieved from MIPAS observations with a 1-D algorithm
M. Carlotti et al.
No articles found.
Katja Weigel, Lisa Bock, Bettina K. Gier, Axel Lauer, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Kemisola Adeniyi, Bouwe Andela, Enrico Arnone, Peter Berg, Louis-Philippe Caron, Irene Cionni, Susanna Corti, Niels Drost, Alasdair Hunter, Llorenç Lledó, Christian Wilhelm Mohr, Aytaç Paçal, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Valeriu Predoi, Marit Sandstad, Jana Sillmann, Andreas Sterl, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Jost von Hardenberg, and Veronika Eyring
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
This work presents new diagnostics for the Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0 on the hydrological cycle, extreme events, impact assessment, regional evaluations, and ensemble member selection. The ESMValTool v2.0 diagnostics are developed by a large community of scientists aiming to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of Earth System Models (ESMs) with focus on the ESMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP).
Veronika Eyring, Lisa Bock, Axel Lauer, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Bouwe Andela, Enrico Arnone, Omar Bellprat, Björn Brötz, Louis-Philippe Caron, Nuno Carvalhais, Irene Cionni, Nicola Cortesi, Bas Crezee, Edouard L. Davin, Paolo Davini, Kevin Debeire, Lee de Mora, Clara Deser, David Docquier, Paul Earnshaw, Carsten Ehbrecht, Bettina K. Gier, Nube Gonzalez-Reviriego, Paul Goodman, Stefan Hagemann, Steven Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Alasdair Hunter, Christopher Kadow, Stephan Kindermann, Sujan Koirala, Nikolay Koldunov, Quentin Lejeune, Valerio Lembo, Tomas Lovato, Valerio Lucarini, François Massonnet, Benjamin Müller, Amarjiit Pandde, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Adam Phillips, Valeriu Predoi, Joellen Russell, Alistair Sellar, Federico Serva, Tobias Stacke, Ranjini Swaminathan, Verónica Torralba, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Jost von Hardenberg, Katja Weigel, and Klaus Zimmermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3383–3438,Short summary
The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community diagnostics and performance metrics tool designed to improve comprehensive and routine evaluation of earth system models (ESMs) participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). It has undergone rapid development since the first release in 2016 and is now a well-tested tool that provides end-to-end provenance tracking to ensure reproducibility.
Enzo Papandrea, Stefano Casadio, Elisa Castelli, Bianca Maria Dinelli, and Mario Marcello Miglietta
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6683–6693,Short summary
Lee waves have been detected in clear-sky conditions over the Mediterranean Sea using the total column water vapour (TCWV) fields. The products were generated applying the Advanced Infra-Red WAter Vapour Estimator (AIRWAVE) retrieval algorithm to the thermal infrared measurements of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) instrument series. A subset of the occurrences has been compared with both independent observations and model simulations.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Laurent Blanot, James M. Russell, Ellis E. Remsberg, John C. Gille, Takafumi Sugita, Christopher E. Sioris, Bianca M. Dinelli, Enzo Papandrea, Piera Raspollini, Maya García-Comas, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Anu Dudhia, William G. Read, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, John P. Burrows, Hideo Sagawa, Yasuko Kasai, Joachim Urban, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Mark E. Hervig, Charlotta Högberg, Dale F. Hurst, and Karen H. Rosenlof
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2693–2732,
Elisa Castelli, Enzo Papandrea, Alessio Di Roma, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Stefano Casadio, and Bojan Bojkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 371–388,Short summary
The total column water vapour (TCWV) is a key atmospheric variable. The AIRWAVE (Advanced Infra-Red WAter Vapour Estimator) v1 algorithm was developed to retrieve TCWV from satellite measurements. Comparisons with independent TCWV show good agreement with an overall bias of 0.72 kg m−2 due to the polar and coastal regions. Here, we describe the AIRWAVEv2 dataset, which shows significant improvements with a global bias of 0.02 kg m−2. This dataset was used to produce a climatology from 1991 to 2012.
Norbert Glatthor, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele P. Stiller, Michael Kiefer, Alexandra Laeng, Bianca M. Dinelli, Gerald Wetzel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4707–4723,Short summary
We report differences in ozone retrievals in channels A and AB of the space-borne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), which amount to up to 8 %. We provide strong evidence that the bias is caused by inconsistencies in different spectroscopic databases (MIPAS, HITRAN, GEISA). We show that a major part of the differences can be attributed to inconsistent air-broadening coefficients of the ozone lines contained in the databases.
Marc Schröder, Maarit Lockhoff, Frank Fell, John Forsythe, Tim Trent, Ralf Bennartz, Eva Borbas, Michael G. Bosilovich, Elisa Castelli, Hans Hersbach, Misako Kachi, Shinya Kobayashi, E. Robert Kursinski, Diego Loyola, Carl Mears, Rene Preusker, William B. Rossow, and Suranjana Saha
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1093–1117,Short summary
This publication presents results achieved within the GEWEX Water Vapor Assessment (G-VAP). An overview of available water vapour data records based on satellite observations and reanalysis is given. If a minimum temporal coverage of 10 years is applied, 22 data records remain. These form the G-VAP data archive, which contains total column water vapour, specific humidity profiles and temperature profiles. The G-VAP data archive is designed to ease intercomparison and climate model evaluation.
Gerald E. Nedoluha, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Lossow, R. Michael Gomez, Niklaus Kämpfer, Martin Lainer, Peter Forkman, Ole Martin Christensen, Jung Jin Oh, Paul Hartogh, John Anderson, Klaus Bramstedt, Bianca M. Dinelli, Maya Garcia-Comas, Mark Hervig, Donal Murtagh, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14543–14558,Short summary
As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. In the lower mesosphere, we quantify instrumental differences in the observed trends and annual variations at six sites. We then present a range of observed trends in water vapor over the past 20 years.
Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Anu Dudhia, Piera Raspollini, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Viktoria Sofieva, Lucien Froidevaux, Kaley A. Walker, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1511–1518,Short summary
A MIPAS instrument was flown in 2002–2012 on the Envisat satellite and measured atmospheric composition. There exist four processors retrieving atmospheric profiles from MIPAS spectra. We performed a mathematically clean merging of 2007–2008 datasets of ozone from these four processors. The merged product was compared with ozone datasets from ACE-FTS and MLS instruments. The advantages and the shortcomings of this merged product are discussed.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, John. P. Burrows, Bianca M. Dinelli, Patrick Eriksson, Patrick J. Espy, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen H. Rosenlof, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Gabriele P. Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1111–1137,
Massimo Carlotti, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Giada Innocenti, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5853–5867,Short summary
We introduce a strategy for the measurement of CO2 in the stratosphere. We use an orbiting limb sounder to measure both the thermal infrared (TIR) and far-infrared (FIR) atmospheric emissions. The rotational transitions of O2 in the FIR are exploited to derive the temperature and pressure fields that are needed to retrieve the CO2 from its spectrum in the TIR. The proposed experiment can determine two-dimensional distributions of the CO2 with precision of 1 ppm at altitudes between 10 and 50 km.
Elisa Castelli, Marco Ridolfi, Massimo Carlotti, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Oliver Kirner, Michael Kiefer, and Bianca Maria Dinelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5499–5508,Short summary
MIPAS is a satellite-borne limb emission sounder. The algorithm used to infer atmospheric composition from its measurements exploits the assumption that the atmosphere is horizontally homogeneous. This assumption can cause significant errors. We use synthetic observations to quantify these errors. Furthermore we show that the inclusion of any kind of horizontal variability model improves all the retrieval targets and that the two-dimensional approach implies the smallest errors.
Massimo Valeri, Massimo Carlotti, Jean-Marie Flaud, Piera Raspollini, Marco Ridolfi, and Bianca Maria Dinelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4655–4663,Short summary
Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) measurements have been analysed to measure the vertical distribution of phosgene (COCl2) in the UTLS using new spectroscopic data. To highlight its seasonal and latitudinal variability, MIPAS measurements of 2 days/month during 2008 have been analysed. The results show a strong latitudinal variability of COCl2 with the largest VMR values observed in the tropical regions. The seasonality is fairly low, apart from the polar regions.
Ugo Cortesi, Samuele Del Bianco, Simone Ceccherini, Marco Gai, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Elisa Castelli, Hermann Oelhaf, Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, and Daniel Gerber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2267–2289,
L. Di Liberto, R. Lehmann, I. Tritscher, F. Fierli, J. L. Mercer, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. P. Luo, J-U. Grooß, E. Arnone, B. M. Dinelli, and F. Cairo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6651–6665,Short summary
We investigated chemical and microphysical processes in the late winter Antarctic stratosphere, for the first time (to our knowledge) coupling a detailed microphysical box model to a chemistry model. Model results have been compared with in situ and remote sensing measurements of particles along trajectories. Our goal is to contribute to the most recent discussion of the relative role of PSC and liquid (background) aerosol in the ozone depletion.
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
E. Castelli, B. M. Dinelli, S. Del Bianco, D. Gerber, B. P. Moyna, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, and U. Cortesi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2683–2701,
P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2419–2439,
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David Garcia-Nieto, Nuria Benavent, Rafael Borge, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2941–2955,Short summary
Trace gases play a key role in the chemistry of urban atmospheres. Therefore, knowledge about their spatial distribution is needed to fully characterize the air quality in urban areas. Using a new Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy two-dimensional (MAXDOAS-2D) instrument, along with inversion algorithms, we report for the first time two-dimensional maps of NO2 concentrations in the city of Madrid, Spain.
Mohammad El Aabaribaoune, Emanuele Emili, and Vincent Guidard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2841–2856,Short summary
This work aims to use correlated IASI errors in the ozone band within a chemical transport model assimilation. The validation of the results against ozone observations from ozonesondes, MLS, and OMI instruments has shown an improvement of the ozone distribution. The computational time was also highly reduced. The surface sea temperature was also improved. The work aims to improve the quality of the ozone prediction, which is important for air quality, climate, and meteorological applications.
David R. Thompson, Brian H. Kahn, Philip G. Brodrick, Matthew D. Lebsock, Mark Richardson, and Robert O. Green
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2827–2840,Short summary
Concentrations of water vapor in the atmosphere vary dramatically over space and time. Mapping this variability can provide insights into atmospheric processes that help us understand atmospheric processes in the Earth system. Here we use a new measurement strategy based on imaging spectroscopy to map atmospheric water vapor concentrations at very small spatial scales. Experiments demonstrate the accuracy of this technique and some initial results from an airborne remote sensing experiment.
Daniel J. Varon, Dylan Jervis, Jason McKeever, Ian Spence, David Gains, and Daniel J. Jacob
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2771–2785,Short summary
Satellites can detect methane emissions by measuring sunlight reflected from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Here we show that the European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 twin satellites can be used to monitor anomalously large methane point sources around the world, with global coverage every 2–5 days and 20 m spatial resolution. We demonstrate this previously unreported capability through high-frequency Sentinel-2 monitoring of two strong methane point sources in Algeria and Turkmenistan.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Robert Spurr, Kai Yang, Caroline R. Nowlan, Christopher Chan Miller, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2659–2672,Short summary
We apply a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach combined with lookup tables (LUTs) of corrections to accelerate the VLIDORT radiative transfer (RT) model used in the retrieval of ozone profiles from backscattered ultraviolet (UV) measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI).
Eloise A. Marais, John F. Roberts, Robert G. Ryan, Henk Eskes, K. Folkert Boersma, Sungyeon Choi, Joanna Joiner, Nader Abuhassan, Alberto Redondas, Michel Grutter, Alexander Cede, Laura Gomez, and Monica Navarro-Comas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2389–2408,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides in the upper troposphere have a profound influence on the global troposphere, but routine reliable observations there are exceedingly rare. We apply cloud-slicing to TROPOMI total columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at high spatial resolution to derive near-global observations of NO2 in the upper troposphere and show consistency with existing datasets. These data offer tremendous potential to address knowledge gaps in this oft underappreciated portion of the atmosphere.
Ellis Remsberg, V. Lynn Harvey, Arlin Krueger, and Murali Natarajan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2185–2199,Short summary
The LIMS satellite instrument operated in 1978/1979 and provided profiles of temperature (T) and four key species. LIMS viewed the atmosphere in opposite directions on its ascending (A) vs. descending (D) orbital segments. We find that (A-D) diagnostic plots of the species contain residual T biases that are a problem for assimilation of profiles in re-analyses. Even so, the combined data yield fields of O3 and H2O that agree well with that of the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity.
Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Oliver Schneising, Michael Hilker, Blanca Fuentes Andrade, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hartmut Boesch, Lianghai Wu, Jochen Landgraf, Ilse Aben, Christian Retscher, Christopher W. O'Dell, and David Crisp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2141–2166,Short summary
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during 2020 in large parts of the world. We have used a small ensemble of satellite retrievals of column-averaged CO2 (XCO2) to find out if a regional-scale reduction of atmospheric CO2 can be detected from space. We focus on East China and show that it is challenging to reliably detect and to accurately quantify the emission reduction, which only results in regional XCO2 reductions of about 0.1–0.2 ppm.
Nicola Zoppetti, Simone Ceccherini, Bruno Carli, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Cecilia Tirelli, Flavio Barbara, Rossana Dragani, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald van der A, and Ugo Cortesi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2041–2053,Short summary
The new platforms for Earth observation from space will provide an enormous amount of data that can be hard to exploit as a whole. The Complete Data Fusion algorithm can reduce the data volume while retaining the information of the full dataset. In this work, we applied the Complete Data Fusion algorithm to simulated ozone profiles, and the results show that the fused products are characterized by higher information content compared to individual L2 products.
Jakob Borchardt, Konstantin Gerilowski, Sven Krautwurst, Heinrich Bovensmann, Andrew K. Thorpe, David R. Thompson, Christian Frankenberg, Charles E. Miller, Riley M. Duren, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1267–1291,Short summary
The AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral imager has been used successfully to identify and quantify anthropogenic methane sources utilizing different retrieval and inversion methods. Here, we examine the adaption and application of the WFM-DOAS algorithm to AVIRIS-NG measurements to retrieve local methane column enhancements, compare the results with other retrievals, and quantify the uncertainties resulting from the retrieval method. Additionally, we estimate emissions from five detected methane plumes.
Stephanie P. Rusli, Otto Hasekamp, Joost aan de Brugh, Guangliang Fu, Yasjka Meijer, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1167–1190,Short summary
This study investigates the added value of multi-angle polarimeter (MAP) measurements for XCO2 retrievals, particularly in the context of the Copernicus Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Monitoring (CO2M) mission. In this paper, we derive the required MAP instrument specification, and we demonstrate that MAP observations significantly improve the retrieval performance and are needed to meet the XCO2 precision and accuracy requirements of the CO2M mission.
Bianca Lauster, Steffen Dörner, Steffen Beirle, Sebastian Donner, Sergey Gromov, Katharina Uhlmannsiek, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 769–783,Short summary
In urban areas, road traffic is a dominant source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, two multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments on opposite sides of a motorway were used to measure the nitrogen dioxide absorption near Mainz, Germany. Total nitrogen oxide emissions are estimated for the occurring traffic flux. We show that the measured emissions systematically exceed the maximum expected emissions calculated from the European emission standards.
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Andre Butz, Otto Hasekamp, Joost aan de Brugh, Andreas Schneider, Lianghai Wu, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Debra Wunch, David F. Pollard, Kei Shiomi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Coleen M. Roehl, Paul O. Wennberg, Thorsten Warneke, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 665–684,Short summary
TROPOMI aboard Sentinel-5P satellite provides methane (CH4) measurements with exceptional temporal and spatial resolution. The study describes a series of improvements developed to retrieve CH4 from TROPOMI. The updated CH4 product features (among others) a more accurate a posteriori correction derived independently of any reference data. The validation of the improved data product shows good agreement with ground-based and satellite measurements, which highlights the quality of the TROPOMI CH4.
Kimberlee Dubé, Adam Bourassa, Daniel Zawada, Douglas Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, David Flittner, and William Randel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 557–566,Short summary
SAGE III/ISS measures profiles of NO2; however the algorithm to convert raw measurements to NO2 concentration neglects variations caused by changes in chemistry over the course of a day. We devised a procedure to account for these diurnal variations and assess their impact on NO2 measurements from SAGE III/ISS. We find that the new NO2 concentration is more than 10 % lower than NO2 from the standard algorithm below 30 km, showing that this effect is important to consider at lower altitudes.
Lok N. Lamsal, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Alexander Vasilkov, Sergey Marchenko, Wenhan Qin, Eun-Su Yang, Zachary Fasnacht, Joanna Joiner, Sungyeon Choi, David Haffner, William H. Swartz, Bradford Fisher, and Eric Bucsela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 455–479,Short summary
The NASA standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) version 4.0 product for OMI Aura incorporates the most salient improvements. It represents the first global satellite trace gas retrieval with OMI–MODIS synergy accounting for surface reflectance anisotropy in cloud and NO2 retrievals. Improved spectral fitting procedures for NO2 and oxygen dimer (for cloud) retrievals and reliance on high-resolution field-of-view-specific input information for NO2 and cloud retrievals help enhance the NO2 data quality.
Diego Santaren, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Frédéric Chevallier, Denis Siméoni, Bo Zheng, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 403–433,Short summary
Atmospheric transport inversions with synthetic data are used to assess the potential of new satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 to monitor anthropogenic emissions from regions, cities and large industrial plants. The analysis, applied to a large ensemble of sources in western Europe, shows a strong dependence of the results on different characteristics of the spaceborne instrument, on the source emission budgets and spreads, and on the wind conditions.
Leslie David, François-Marie Bréon, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 117–132,Short summary
This paper shows that a neural network (NN) approach can be used to process spaceborne observations from the OCO-2 satellite and retrieve both surface pressure and atmospheric CO2 content. The accuracy evaluation indicates that the retrievals have an accuracy that is at least as good as those of the operational approach, which relies on complex algorithms and is computer intensive. The NN approach is therefore a promising alternative for the processing of CO2-monitoring missions.
Xiaoli Sun, James B. Abshire, Anand Ramanathan, S. Randy Kawa, and Jianping Mao
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The manuscript gives a detailed and complete description of the retrieval algorithm used in the multi-wavelength lidar for average column carbon dioxide mixing ratio measurements. The algorithm is similar to that used in passive trace-gas sounding and simultaneously solves for several parameters and provides the associate averaging kernel. The algorithm has been successfully used with the airborne lidar measurements. It can also be used with similar lidar for other trace-gas measurements.
Yunxia Huang, Vijay Natraj, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Pushkar Kopparla, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6755–6769,Short summary
As a greenhouse gas with strong global warming potential, atmospheric methane emissions have attracted a great deal of attention. However, accurate assessment of these emissions is challenging in the presence of atmospheric particulates called aerosols. We quantify the aerosol impact on methane quantification from airborne measurements using two techniques, one that has traditionally been used by the imaging spectroscopy community and the other commonly employed in trace gas remote sensing.
Gerrit Kuhlmann, Dominik Brunner, Grégoire Broquet, and Yasjka Meijer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6733–6754,Short summary
The European CO2M mission is a proposed constellation of CO2 imaging satellites expected to monitor CO2 emissions of large cities. Using synthetic observations, we show that a constellation of two or more satellites should be able to quantify Berlin's annual emissions with 10–20 % accuracy, even when considering atmospheric transport model errors. We therefore expect that CO2M will make an important contribution to the monitoring and verification of CO2 emissions from cities worldwide.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, James R. Podolske, David F. Pollard, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We present first GOSAT and GOSAT-2 XCO2 data derived with the FOCAL retrieval algorithm. Comparisons of the GOSAT FOCAL product with other data reveal a long-term agreement within about 1 ppm over one decade, differences in seasonal variations of about 0.5 ppm and a mean regional bias to ground based TCCON data of 0.56 ppm with a mean scatter of 1.89 ppm. GOSAT-2 FOCAL data are considered to be preliminary only, but first comparisons show that they compare well with the GOSAT FOCAL results.
Wenjing Su, Cheng Liu, Ka Lok Chan, Qihou Hu, Haoran Liu, Xiangguang Ji, Yizhi Zhu, Ting Liu, Chengxin Zhang, Yujia Chen, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6271–6292,Short summary
The paper presents an improved retrieval of the TROPOMI tropospheric HCHO column over China. The new retrieval optimized both slant column retrieval and air mass factor calculation for TROPOMI observations of HCHO over China. The improved TROPOMI HCHO is subsequently validated by MAX-DOAS observations. Compared to the operational product, the improved HCHO agrees better with the MAX-DOAS data and thus is better suited for the analysis of regional- and city-scale pollution in China.
Anqi Li, Chris Z. Roth, Kristell Pérot, Ole Martin Christensen, Adam Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, and Donal P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6215–6236,Short summary
The OSIRIS IR imager, one of the instruments on the Odin satellite, routinely measures the oxygen airglow at 1.27 μm. In this study, we primarily focus on the steps done for retrieving the calibrated IRA band limb radiance, the volume emission rate of O2(a1∆g) and finally the ozone number density. Specifically, we use a novel approach to address the issue of the measurements that were made close to the local sunrise, where the O2(a1∆g) diverges from the equilibrium state.
Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Peter J. T. Leonard, Simon Carn, Joanna Joiner, Robert J. D. Spurr, and Alexander Vasilkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6175–6191,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important pollutant that causes haze and acid rain. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global observation of SO2 from space for over 15 years. In this paper, we introduce a new OMI SO2 dataset for global pollution monitoring. The dataset better accounts for the influences of different factors such as location and sun and satellite angles, leading to improved data quality. The new OMI SO2 dataset is publicly available through NASA's data center.
Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Debra Wunch, Joseph Mendonca, Colm Sweeney, Bianca Baier, Sébastien C. Biraud, Joshua L. Laughner, Geoffrey C. Toon, and Brian J. Connor
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We evaluate CO2 profile retrievals from ground-based near-infrared solar absorption spectra after implementing several improvements to the GFIT2 retrieval algorithm. Realistic errors in the a priori temperature profile (~2 °C in the lower troposphere) are found to be the leading source of differences between the retrieved and true CO2 profiles, differences that are larger than typical CO2 variability. A temperature retrieval or correction is critical to improve CO2 profile retrieval results.
Yeyuan Huang, Ang Li, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhaokun Hu, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Hongmei Ren, Julia Remmers, Xiaoyi Fang, and Bing Dang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6025–6051,Short summary
Mobile DOAS has become an important tool for the quantification of emission sources. In this study, we focused on the error budget of mobile DOAS measurements from NOx and SO2 point sources based on the model simulations, and we also offered recommendations for the optimum settings of such measurements.
Matthieu Dogniaux, Cyril Crevoisier, Raymond Armante, Virginie Capelle, Thibault Delahaye, Vincent Cassé, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, David F. Pollard, Coleen M. Roehl, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
In this work we present the Adaptable 4A Inversion (5AI), an implementation of the Optimal Estimation (OE) algorithm, relying on the 4A/OP radiative transfer model, that enables to retrieve greenhouse gas atmospheric weighted columns from infrared measurements. It is tested on a sample of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) observations and its results satisfactorily compare to several reference products, thus showing the reliability of 5AI OE implementation.
David M. Hyman and Michael J. Pavolonis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5891–5921,Short summary
Understanding the lateral extent, altitude, and amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important for studying volcanic clouds in support of aviation safety and for analyzing the effects of volcanoes on global climate. In this study, we detail an enhanced satellite measurement that provides probability distributions for the altitude and concentration of SO2 instead of single estimates using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Manfred Birk, Georg Wagner, Iouli E. Gordon, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5845–5854,Short summary
This paper evaluates different sets of high-resolution ozone absorption cross-section data for use in atmospheric ozone profile measurements in the Hartley and Huggins bands with a particular focus on BDM 1995 (Daumont et al. 1992; Brion et al., 1993; Malicet et al., 1995) currently used in our retrievals and a new laboratory dataset by Birk and Wagner (BW) (2018).
Cody M. Webber and John P. Kerekes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5359–5367,Short summary
Here we present a study performed to determine the methane detection capabilities of a novel remote thermal instrument, the Multiband Uncooled Radiometer Imager. We utilize a novel methane detection approach, the normalized differential methane index, that when applied to simulated multispectral thermal imagery with a single spectral channel dedicated to methane detection shows similar results to a state-of-the-art method, the matched-filter approach.
Minqiang Zhou, Pucai Wang, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Ting Wang, Yang Yang, Denghui Ji, Liang Ran, Jinqiang Zhang, Yuejian Xuan, Hongbin Chen, Françoise Posny, Valentin Duflot, Jean-Marc Metzger, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5379–5394,Short summary
We study O3 retrievals in the 3040 cm-1 spectral range from FTIR measurements at Xianghe China (39.75° N, 116.96° E; 50 m a.s.l.) between June 2018 and December 2019. It was found that the FTIR O3 (3040 cm-1) retrievals capture the seasonal and synoptic variations of O3 very well. The systematic and random uncertainties of FTIR O3 (3040 cm-1) total column are about 13.6 % and 1.4 %, respectively. The DOFS is 2.4±0.3 (1σ), with two individual pieces of information in surface–20 km and 20–40 km.
Nikita M. Fedkin, Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Pascal Hedelt, Diego G. Loyola, Russell R. Dickerson, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The motivation for conducting this study was to produce a fast and efficient algorithm for retrieving the height of a volcanic sulfur dioxide plume from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We used a machine learning approach that included neural networks, along with a simulated spectral dataset generated from a radiative transfer model. We tested the retrieval on four volcanic eruption cases; the initial results were promising and had good agreement with other studies and datasets.
L. Larrabee Strow and Sergio DeSouza-Machado
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4619–4644,Short summary
The NASA AIRS satellite instrument has measured the infrared emission of the Earth continuously since 2002. If AIRS measurements are stable, these radiances can provide globally consistent multi-decadal trends of important climate variables, including the Earth's surface temperature, and the atmospheric temperature and humidity vs. height. Using the sensitivity of the AIRS radiances to well-known carbon dioxide trends, we show that AIRS is stable to 0.02 K per decade, well below climate trends.
Ka Lok Chan, Matthias Wiegner, Jos van Geffen, Isabelle De Smedt, Carlos Alberti, Zhibin Cheng, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4499–4520,Short summary
The paper presents 2D MAX-DOAS observations of vertical distributions of aerosol extinction, NO2 and HCHO in Munich. The measured surface aerosol extinction coefficients and NO2 mixing ratios are compared to in situ monitoring data. The NO2 and HCHO data are subsequently used to validate satellite measurements. The MAX-DOAS measurements are also used to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristic of NO2 and HCHO in Munich.
Thomas von Clarmann, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Stefan Bender, Amy Braverman, André Butz, Steven Compernolle, Robert Damadeo, Seth Dueck, Patrick Eriksson, Bernd Funke, Margaret C. Johnson, Yasuko Kasai, Arno Keppens, Anne Kleinert, Natalya A. Kramarova, Alexandra Laeng, Bavo Langerock, Vivienne H. Payne, Alexei Rozanov, Tomohiro O. Sato, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Sheese, Viktoria Sofieva, Gabriele P. Stiller, Christian von Savigny, and Daniel Zawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4393–4436,Short summary
Remote sensing of atmospheric state variables typically relies on the inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation. An adequately characterized retrieval provides information on the uncertainties of the estimated state variables as well as on how any constraint or a priori assumption affects the estimate. This paper summarizes related techniques and provides recommendations for unified error reporting.
Nadia Smith and Christopher D. Barnet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4437–4459,Short summary
We diagnose CLIMCAPS observing capability from two different instrument suites and satellite platforms using averaging kernels that quantify information content at every retrieval scene. CLIMCAPS retrieves atmospheric state variables from infrared and microwave measurements and is designed to maintain consistency across time to support climate science and applications. We use averaging kernels to characterize the degree to which we achieved consistency in CLIMCAPS V2 observing capability.
Marc Schwaerzel, Claudia Emde, Dominik Brunner, Randulph Morales, Thomas Wagner, Alexis Berne, Brigitte Buchmann, and Gerrit Kuhlmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4277–4293,Short summary
Horizontal homogeneity is often assumed for trace gases remote sensing, although it is not valid where trace gas concentrations have high spatial variability, e.g., in cities. We show the importance of 3D effects for MAX-DOAS and airborne imaging spectrometers using 3D-box air mass factors implemented in the MYSTIC radiative transfer solver. In both cases, 3D information is invaluable for interpreting the measurements, as not considering 3D effects can lead to misinterpretation of measurements.
Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, Hao Kong, K. Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Yugo Kanaya, Qin He, Xin Tian, Kai Qin, Pinhua Xie, Robert Spurr, Ruijing Ni, Yingying Yan, Hongjian Weng, and Jingxu Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4247–4259,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are important air pollutants in the troposphere and play crucial roles in the formation of ozone and particulate matter. The recently launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) provides an opportunity to retrieve tropospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at an unprecedented high horizontal resolution. This work presents a new NO2 retrieval product over East Asia and further quantifies key factors affecting the retrieval, including aerosol.
Ka Lok Chan, Pieter Valks, Sander Slijkhuis, Claas Köhler, and Diego Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4169–4193,Short summary
The paper presents a new water vapor retrieval algorithm in the blue spectral band for the Global Ozone Monitoring Experience-2 (GOME-2) satellite instruments. The new retrieval features a dynamic a priori optimization module, which makes it less dependent on input from chemistry transport models and better suited for climate studies. As the blue band wavelength is available to various satellites, retrieving water vapor in the blue band potentially extends the water vapor climate record.
Marie-Thérèse El Kattar, Frédérique Auriol, and Hervé Herbin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3769–3786,Short summary
This paper is submitted as part of my thesis project. It highlights the importance of ground-based measurements for future satellite validations. This paper represents the characteristics of a new prototype called CHRIS, which is the MIR version of the EM27/SUN. Our primary concern is the exploitation of the data of the MAGIC campaign, which is a French initiative in collaboration with the CoMet project, to monitor greenhouse gases.
Arve Kylling, Hamidreza Ardeshiri, Massimo Cassiani, Anna Solvejg Dinger, Soon-Young Park, Ignacio Pisso, Norbert Schmidbauer, Kerstin Stebel, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3303–3318,Short summary
Atmospheric turbulence and its effect on tracer dispersion in particular may be measured by cameras sensitive to the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) sunlight by sulfur dioxide (SO2). Using large eddy simulation and 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer modelling of a SO2 plume, we demonstrate that UV camera images of SO2 plumes may be used to derive plume statistics of relevance for the study of atmospheric turbulent dispersion.
Yajun Zhu, Martin Kaufmann, Qiuyu Chen, Jiyao Xu, Qiucheng Gong, Jilin Liu, Daikang Wei, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3033–3042,Short summary
OH airglow emissions can be used to derive rotational temperature and trace constituents in the mesopause region, but systematic differences exist for the follow-up data using OH emission radiance as measured by SCIAMACHY and SABER. This paper makes a comparison of OH emission radiance as measured by them and shows the systematic differences between the two measurements. The radiometric calibration of the two instruments could potentially explain the differences between the two measurements.
Arne Babenhauserheide, Frank Hase, and Isamu Morino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2697–2710,Short summary
This paper demonstrates that the carbon dioxide emissions of Tokyo can be estimated from long-term ground-based measurements of column-averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide abundances recorded at the TCCON site Tsukuba.
Masahiro Momoi, Rei Kudo, Kazuma Aoki, Tatsuhiro Mori, Kazuhiko Miura, Hiroshi Okamoto, Hitoshi Irie, Yoshinori Shoji, Akihiro Uchiyama, Osamu Ijima, Matsumi Takano, and Teruyuki Nakajima
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2635–2658,Short summary
The water vapor channel of sun photometers, such as a sky radiometer, has been calibrated at limited observation sites (e.g., Mauna Loa) in previous studies, but our procedure has made on-site calibration possible by using sky radiances in addition to direct solar irradiance. The retrieved precipitable water vapor values correspond well to those derived from a global-navigation-satellite-system–global-positioning-system receiver, a microwave radiometer, and an AERONET sun–sky radiometer.
Cristina Ruiz Villena, Jasdeep S. Anand, Roland J. Leigh, Paul S. Monks, Claire E. Parfitt, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1735–1756,Short summary
We present a new method to derive NO2 concentrations from satellite observations that uses up to 30 times less spectral information than traditional methods. We tested the method using data from existing instruments OMI and TROPOMI and found our results agree with the reference data to 5 % and 11 %, respectively. Our method could allow for simpler instrument designs that can be used in low-cost constellations of small satellites for air quality monitoring at high spatial and temporal resolution.
Xin Zhang, Yan Yin, Ronald van der A, Jeff L. Lapierre, Qian Chen, Xiang Kuang, Shuqi Yan, Jinghua Chen, Chuan He, and Rulin Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1709–1734,Short summary
Lightning NOx has a strong impact on ozone and the hydroxyl radical production. However, the production efficiency of lightning NOx is still quite uncertain. This work develops the algorithm of estimating lightning NOx for both clean and polluted regions and evaluates the sensitivity of estimates to the model setting of lightning NO. Results reveal that our method reduces the sensitivity to the background NO2 and includes much of the below-cloud LNO2.
Jos van Geffen, K. Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Maarten Sneep, Mark ter Linden, Marina Zara, and J. Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1315–1335,Short summary
The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) provides atmospheric trace gase and cloud and aerosol property measurements at unprecedented spatial resolution. This study focusses on the TROPOMI NO2 slant column density (SCD) retrieval: the retrieval method used, the stability of and uncertainties in the SCDs, and a comparison with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 SCDs. TROPOMI shows a superior performance compared to OMI/QA4ECV and operates as anticipated from instrument specifications.
Diego G. Loyola, Jian Xu, Klaus-Peter Heue, and Walter Zimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 985–999,Short summary
In this paper we present a novel algorithm for the retrieval of geometry-dependent effective Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (GE_LER) from UVN sensors based on the full-physics inverse learning machine (FP_ILM) retrieval. The GE_LER retrieval is optimized for the trace gas retrievals using the DOAS technique and the large amount of data of TROPOMI on board the EU/ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor mission.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Antonio Di Noia, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Lianghai Wu, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Kei Shiomi, Yukio Yoshida, Isamu Morino, David Crisp, Christopher W. O'Dell, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Rigel Kivi, David F. Pollard, Frank Hase, Ralf Sussmann, Yao V. Té, Kimberly Strong, Sébastien Roche, Mahesh K. Sha, Martine De Mazière, Dietrich G. Feist, Laura T. Iraci, Coleen M. Roehl, Christian Retscher, and Dinand Schepers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 789–819,Short summary
We present new satellite-derived data sets of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The data products are column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4. The products cover the years 2003–2018 and are merged Level 2 (satellite footprints) and merged Level 3 (gridded at monthly time and 5° x 5° spatial resolution) products obtained from combining several individual sensor products. We present the merging algorithms and product validation results.
Song Liu, Pieter Valks, Gaia Pinardi, Jian Xu, Athina Argyrouli, Ronny Lutz, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Vincent Huijnen, François Hendrick, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 755–787,Short summary
This paper presents an improved tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrieval algorithm from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument based on air mass factor (AMF) calculations that are performed with a more accurate knowledge of surface albedo, the a priori NO2 profile, and cloud and aerosol corrections.
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