Articles | Volume 10, issue 11
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4209–4234, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 08 Nov 2017
Research article | 08 Nov 2017
The novel HALO mini-DOAS instrument: inferring trace gas concentrations from airborne UV/visible limb spectroscopy under all skies using the scaling method
Tilman Hüneke et al.
Kevin Wolf, André Ehrlich, Tilman Hüneke, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Frank Werner, Martin Wirth, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4283–4303,Short summary
The potential of airborne radiance measurements in the sideward and nadir directions for cirrus remote sensing is investigated. Therefore radiative transfer simulations were used and the sensitivity of upward radiance with respect to optical thickness, effective radius, surface albedo, wavelength and viewing angle was studied. It was shown that sideward observations lead to more accurate retrieval results. Investigating a case study of ML-CIRRUS, these findings are confirmed.
Dina Khordakova, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Paul Konopka, Andreas Wieser, Martina Krämer, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Extreme storms transport humidity from the troposphere to the stratophere. Here it has a strong impact on the climate. With ongoing global worming we expect more storms and hence an enhancement of this effect. A case study was performed in order to measure the impact of the direct injection of water vapor into the lower stratosphere. The measurements displayed a significant transport of water vapor into the lower stratosohere and this was supported by satellite and reanalysis data.
Thorsten Kaluza, Daniel Kunkel, and Peter Hoor
Weather Clim. Dynam., 2, 631–651,Short summary
We present a 10-year analysis on the occurrence of strong wind shear in the Northern Hemisphere, focusing on the region around the transport barrier that separates the first two layers of the atmosphere. The major result of our analysis is that strong wind shear above a certain threshold occurs frequently and nearly exclusively in this region, which, as an indicator for turbulent mixing, might have major implications concerning the separation efficiency of the transport barrier.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Uwe Parchatka, Ivan Tadic, Birger Bohn, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Hartwig Harder, Flora Kluge, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Florian Obersteiner, Martin Zöger, Raphael Doerich, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
NO2 plays a central role in the atmospheric photochemical processes and requires accurate measurements. This research presents NO2 data obtained via chemiluminescence using a photolytic converter from airborne studies around Cabo Verde and laboratory investigations. We show the limits and error-proneness of a conventional blue light converter in aircraft measurements affected by humidity and NO levels and suggest the use of a new quartz converter for more reliable results.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Klausner, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, Jose L. Gomez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John Phillip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in-situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Lukas Krasauskas, Jörn Ungermann, Peter Preusse, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Andreas Zahn, Helmut Ziereis, Christian Rolf, Felix Plöger, Paul Konopka, Bärbel Vogel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10249–10272,Short summary
A Rossby wave (RW) breaking event was observed over the North Atlantic during the WISE measurement campaign in October 2017. Infrared limb sounding measurements of trace gases in the lower stratosphere, including high-resolution 3-D tomographic reconstruction, revealed complex spatial structures in stratospheric tracers near the polar jet related to previous RW breaking events. Backward-trajectory analysis and tracer correlations were used to study mixing and stratosphere–troposphere exchange.
Christine Frömming, Volker Grewe, Sabine Brinkop, Patrick Jöckel, Amund S. Haslerud, Simon Rosanka, Jesper van Manen, and Sigrun Matthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9151–9172,Short summary
The influence of weather situations on non-CO2 aviation climate impact is investigated to identify systematic weather-related sensitivities. If aircraft avoid the most sensitive areas, climate impact might be reduced. Enhanced significance is found for emission in relation to high-pressure systems, jet stream, polar night, and tropopause altitude. The results represent a comprehensive data set for studies aiming at weather-dependent flight trajectory optimization to reduce total climate impact.
Felix Ploeger, Mohamadou Diallo, Edward Charlesworth, Paul Konopka, Bernard Legras, Johannes C. Laube, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Gebhard Günther, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8393–8412,Short summary
We investigate the global stratospheric circulation (Brewer–Dobson circulation) in the new ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis based on age of air simulations, and we compare it to results from the preceding ERA-Interim reanalysis. Our results show a slower stratospheric circulation and higher age for ERA5. The age of air trend in ERA5 over the 1989–2018 period is negative throughout the stratosphere, related to multi-annual variability and a potential contribution from changes in the reanalysis system.
Markus Jesswein, Heiko Bozem, Hans-Christoph Lachnitt, Peter Hoor, Thomas Wagenhäuser, Timo Keber, Tanja Schuck, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
This study presents and compares inorganic chlorine (Cly) derived from observations with the HALO research aircraft in the Antarctic late winter/early fall 2019 and the Arctic winter 2015–2016. Trend-corrected correlations from the Northern Hemisphere show excellent agreement with those from the Southern Hemisphere. After observation allocation inside and outside the vortex based on N2O measurements, results of the two campaigns reveal significant differences of Cly within the respective vortex.
Romain Blot, Philippe Nedelec, Damien Boulanger, Pawel Wolff, Bastien Sauvage, Jean-Marc Cousin, Gilles Athier, Andreas Zahn, Florian Obersteiner, Dieter Scharffe, Hervé Petetin, Yasmine Bennouna, Hannah Clark, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3935–3951,Short summary
A lack of information about temporal changes in measurement uncertainties is an area of concern for long-term trend studies of the key compounds which have a direct or indirect impact on climate change. The IAGOS program has measured O3 and CO within the troposphere and lower stratosphere for more than 25 years. In this study, we demonstrated that the IAGOS database can be treated as one continuous program and is therefore appropriate for studies of long-term trends.
Gerald Wetzel, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Thomas Gulde, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Erik Kretschmer, Guido Maucher, Hans Nordmeyer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Christof Piesch, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Jörn Ungermann, and Bärbel Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8213–8232,Short summary
Measurements of the pollutants C2H6, C2H2, HCOOH, and PAN were performed in the North Atlantic UTLS region with the airborne limb imager GLORIA in 2017. Enhanced amounts of these species were detected in the upper troposphere and even in the lowermost stratosphere (PAN). Main sources of these gases are forest fires in North America and anthropogenic pollution in South Asia. Simulations of EMAC and CAMS are qualitatively able to reproduce the measured data but underestimate the absolute amounts.
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Hannes Schulz, Daniel Kunkel, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6509–6539,Short summary
We present in situ observations of vertically resolved particle chemical composition in the summertime Arctic lower troposphere. Our analysis demonstrates the strong vertical contrast between particle properties within the boundary layer and aloft. Emissions from vegetation fires and anthropogenic sources in northern Canada, Europe, and East Asia influenced particle composition in the free troposphere. Organics detected in Arctic aerosol particles can partly be identified as dicarboxylic acids.
Manuel Baumgartner, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Julia Schneider, Tobias Schorr, Ottmar Möhler, Peter Spichtinger, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
An important mechanism for the appearance of ice particles in the upper troposphere at low temperatures is homogeneous nucleation. This process is commonly described by the “Koop-line”, predicting the humidity at the freezing. However, laboratory measurements suggest that the freezing humidities are above the Koop-line, motivating the present study to investigate the influence of different physical parameterizations on the homogeneous freezing with the help of a detailed numerical model.
Meike K. Rotermund, Vera Bense, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Andreas Engel, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Peter Hoor, Tilman Hüneke, Timo Keber, Flora Kluge, Benjamin Schreiner, Tanja Schuck, Bärbel Vogel, Andreas Zahn, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Airborne total bromine (Brtot) and tracer measurements suggest that Brtot-rich air masses persistently protruded into the lower stratosphere (LS) creating a high Brtot region over the North Atlantic in fall 2017. The main sources are former tropical upper tropospheric air transported by the Asian monsoon and hurricanes from Central America, and to a lesser extent transport across the extratropical tropopause as quantified by a Lagrange model. Consequences of Brtot on LS ozone are also assessed.
Chaim I. Garfinkel, Ohad Harari, Shlomi Ziskin Ziv, Jian Rao, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Simone Tilmes, Douglas Kinnison, Fiona M. O'Connor, Neal Butchart, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Andrea Pozzer, and Sean Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3725–3740,Short summary
Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, and El Niño is the dominant mode of variability in the ocean–atmosphere system. The connection between El Niño and water vapor above ~ 17 km is unclear, with single-model studies reaching a range of conclusions. This study examines this connection in 12 different models. While there are substantial differences among the models, all models appear to capture the fundamental physical processes correctly.
Mareike Heckl, Andreas Fix, Matthias Jirousek, Franz Schreier, Jian Xu, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1689–1713,
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Doug A. Degenstein, Felicia Kolonjari, David Plummer, Douglas E. Kinnison, Patrick Jöckel, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1425–1438,Short summary
Output from climate chemistry models (CMAM, EMAC, and WACCM) is used to estimate the expected geophysical variability of ozone concentrations between coincident satellite instrument measurement times and geolocations. We use the Canadian ACE-FTS and OSIRIS instruments as a case study. Ensemble mean estimates are used to optimize coincidence criteria between the two instruments, allowing for the use of more coincident profiles while providing an estimate of the geophysical variation.
Franziska Winterstein and Patrick Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 661–674,Short summary
Atmospheric methane is currently a hot topic in climate research. This is partly due to its chemically active nature. We introduce a simplified approach to simulate methane in climate models to enable large sensitivity studies by reducing computational cost but including the crucial feedback of methane on stratospheric water vapour. We further provide options to simulate the isotopic content of methane and to generate output for an inverse optimization technique for emission estimation.
Johannes Schneider, Ralf Weigel, Thomas Klimach, Antonis Dragoneas, Oliver Appel, Andreas Hünig, Sergej Molleker, Franziska Köllner, Hans-Christian Clemen, Oliver Eppers, Peter Hoppe, Peter Hoor, Christoph Mahnke, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Andreas Zahn, Florian Obersteiner, Fabrizio Ravegnani, Alexey Ulanovsky, Hans Schlager, Monika Scheibe, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Martin Zöger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 989–1013,Short summary
During five aircraft missions, we detected aerosol particles containing meteoric material in the lower stratosphere. The stratospheric measurements span a latitude range from 15 to 68° N, and we find that at potential temperature levels of more than 40 K above the tropopause; particles containing meteoric material occur at similar abundance fractions across latitudes and seasons. We conclude that meteoric material is efficiently distributed between high and low latitudes by isentropic mixing.
Laura Stecher, Franziska Winterstein, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Michael Ponater, and Markus Kunze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 731–754,Short summary
This study investigates the impact of strongly increased atmospheric methane mixing ratios on the Earth's climate. An interactive model system including atmospheric dynamics, chemistry, and a mixed-layer ocean model is used to analyse the effect of doubled and quintupled methane mixing ratios. We assess feedbacks on atmospheric chemistry and changes in the stratospheric circulation, focusing on the impact of tropospheric warming, and their relevance for the model's climate sensitivity.
Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Eugene Rozanov, Ales Kuchar, William Ball, Pavle Arsenovic, Ellis Remsberg, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kunze, David A. Plummer, Andrea Stenke, Daniel Marsh, Doug Kinnison, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 201–216,Short summary
The solar signal in the mesospheric H2O and CO was extracted from the CCMI-1 model simulations and satellite observations using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. MLR analysis shows a pronounced and statistically robust solar signal in both H2O and CO. The model results show a general agreement with observations reproducing a negative/positive solar signal in H2O/CO. The pattern of the solar signal varies among the considered models, reflecting some differences in the model setup.
Edward J. Charlesworth, Ann-Kristin Dugstad, Frauke Fritsch, Patrick Jöckel, and Felix Plöger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15227–15245,Short summary
Modeling the stratosphere requires models with good representations of chemical transport. To do this, nearly all models divide the atmosphere into boxes. This creates some unwanted problems. However, the only other option is to divide the atmosphere into balloons, and this method is very complicated. Here, we use a model which uses this balloon-like method to estimate the impacts of this method on chemical transport. We find significant differences in sensitive regions of the stratosphere.
Joram J. D. Hooghiem, Maria Elena Popa, Thomas Röckmann, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Ines Tritscher, Rolf Müller, Rigel Kivi, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13985–14003,Short summary
Wildfires release a large quantity of pollutants that can reach the stratosphere through pyro-convection events. In September 2017, a stratospheric plume was accidentally sampled during balloon soundings in northern Finland. The source of the plume was identified to be wildfire smoke based on in situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and stable isotope analysis of CO. Furthermore, the age of the plume was estimated using backwards transport modelling to be ~24 d, with its origin in Canada.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13011–13022,Short summary
Decadal trends and variations in OH are critical for understanding atmospheric CH4 evolution. We quantify the impacts of OH trends and variations on the CH4 budget by conducting CH4 inversions on a decadal scale with an ensemble of OH fields. We find the negative OH anomalies due to enhanced fires can reduce the optimized CH4 emissions by up to 10 Tg yr−1 during El Niño years and the positive OH trend from 1986 to 2010 results in a ∼ 23 Tg yr−1 additional increase in optimized CH4 emissions.
Bettina Hottmann, Sascha Hafermann, Laura Tomsche, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Hartwig Harder, Andrea Pozzer, Marco Neumaier, Andreas Zahn, Birger Bohn, Greta Stratmann, Helmut Ziereis, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12655–12673,Short summary
During OMO we observed enhanced mixing ratios of hydroperoxides (ROOH) in the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA) relative to the background. The observed mixing ratios are higher than steady-state calculations and EMAC simulations, especially in the AMA, indicating atmospheric transport of ROOH. Uncertainties in the scavenging efficiencies likely cause deviations from EMAC. Longitudinal gradients indicate a pool of ROOH towards the center of the AMA associated with upwind convection over India.
Alina Fiehn, Julian Kostinek, Maximilian Eckl, Theresa Klausner, Michał Gałkowski, Jinxuan Chen, Christoph Gerbig, Thomas Röckmann, Hossein Maazallahi, Martina Schmidt, Piotr Korbeń, Jarosław Neçki, Pawel Jagoda, Norman Wildmann, Christian Mallaun, Rostyslav Bun, Anna-Leah Nickl, Patrick Jöckel, Andreas Fix, and Anke Roiger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12675–12695,Short summary
A severe reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is necessary to fulfill the Paris Agreement. We use aircraft- and ground-based in situ observations of trace gases and wind speed from two flights over the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, for independent emission estimation. The derived methane emission estimates are within the range of emission inventories, carbon dioxide estimates are in the lower range and carbon monoxide emission estimates are slightly higher than emission inventory values.
Flora Kluge, Tilman Hüneke, Matthias Knecht, Michael Lichtenstern, Meike Rotermund, Hans Schlager, Benjamin Schreiner, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12363–12389,Short summary
The presented study reports on airborne measurements of formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and CO over the Amazon basin and lays a special focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on the atmospheric profiles of these carbonyl compounds within the planetary boundary layer as well as in the free and upper troposphere.
Markus Kilian, Sabine Brinkop, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11697–11715,Short summary
After the volcanic eruption of Mt Pinatubo in 1991, ozone decreased in the tropics and increased in the midlatitudes and polar regions for 1 year. The change in the ozone column is solely a result of the volcanic heating, followed by an ozone decrease in the higher latitudes. This is caused by the volcanic aerosol, which changes the heterogeneous chemistry and thus the catalytic ozone loss cycles. Vertical transport of water vapour is enhanced by volcanic heating and increases methane.
Hiroshi Yamashita, Feijia Yin, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, Sigrun Matthes, Bastian Kern, Katrin Dahlmann, and Christine Frömming
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4869–4890,Short summary
This paper describes the updated submodel AirTraf 2.0 which simulates global air traffic in the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. Nine aircraft routing options have been integrated, including contrail avoidance, minimum economic costs, and minimum climate impact. Example simulations reveal characteristics of different routing options on air traffic performances. The consistency of the AirTraf simulations is verified with literature data.
Benjamin Fersch, Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Jannis Jakobi, Gabriele Baroni, Theresa Blume, Heye Bogena, Christian Budach, Tobias Gränzig, Michael Förster, Andreas Güntner, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Mandy Kasner, Markus Köhli, Birgit Kleinschmit, Harald Kunstmann, Amol Patil, Daniel Rasche, Lena Scheiffele, Ulrich Schmidt, Sandra Szulc-Seyfried, Jannis Weimar, Steffen Zacharias, Marek Zreda, Bernd Heber, Ralf Kiese, Vladimir Mares, Hannes Mollenhauer, Ingo Völksch, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309,
Rui Cheng, Troy S. Magney, Debsunder Dutta, David R. Bowling, Barry A. Logan, Sean P. Burns, Peter D. Blanken, Katja Grossmann, Sophia Lopez, Andrew D. Richardson, Jochen Stutz, and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4523–4544,Short summary
We measured reflected sunlight from an evergreen canopy for a year to detect changes in pigments that play an important role in regulating the seasonality of photosynthesis. Results show a strong mechanistic link between spectral reflectance features and pigment content, which is validated using a biophysical model. Our results show spectrally where, why, and when spectral features change over the course of the season and show promise for estimating photosynthesis remotely.
W. Richard Leaitch, John K. Kodros, Megan D. Willis, Sarah Hanna, Hannes Schulz, Elisabeth Andrews, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Peter Hoor, Felicia Kolonjari, John A. Ogren, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Knut von Salzen, Allan K. Bertram, Andreas Herber, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10545–10563,Short summary
Black carbon is a factor in the warming of the Arctic atmosphere due to its ability to absorb light, but the uncertainty is high and few observations have been made in the high Arctic above 80° N. We combine airborne and ground-based observations in the springtime Arctic, at and above 80° N, with simulations from a global model to show that light absorption by black carbon may be much larger than modelled. However, the uncertainty remains high.
Paul D. Hamer, Virginie Marécal, Ryan Hossaini, Michel Pirre, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Franziska Ziska, Andreas Engel, Stephan Sala, Timo Keber, Harald Bönisch, Elliot Atlas, Kirstin Krüger, Martyn Chipperfield, Valery Catoire, Azizan A. Samah, Marcel Dorf, Phang Siew Moi, Hans Schlager, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Bromoform is a stratospheric ozone depleting gas released by seaweed and plankton that is transported to the stratosphere via convection in the tropics. We study the chemical interactions of bromoform and its derivatives within convective clouds using a cloud scale model and observations. Our findings are that soluble bromine gases are efficiently washed out and removed within the convective clouds and that most bromine is transported vertically to the upper troposphere in the form of bromoform.
Matt Amos, Paul J. Young, J. Scott Hosking, Jean-François Lamarque, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Markus Kunze, Marion Marchand, David A. Plummer, David Saint-Martin, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, and Yousuke Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9961–9977,Short summary
We present an updated projection of Antarctic ozone hole recovery using an ensemble of chemistry–climate models. To do so, we employ a method, more advanced and skilful than the current multi-model mean standard, which is applicable to other ensemble analyses. It calculates the performance and similarity of the models, which we then use to weight the model. Calculating model similarity allows us to account for models which are constructed from similar components.
Johannes C. Laube, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Karina E. Adcock, Bianca Baier, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Huilin Chen, Elise S. Droste, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Pauli Heikkinen, Andrew J. Hind, Rigel Kivi, Alexander Lojko, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Steve Randall, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Colm Sweeney, Max Thomas, Elinor Tuffnell, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9771–9782,Short summary
We demonstrate that AirCore technology, which is based on small low-cost balloons, can provide access to trace gas measurements such as CFCs at ultra-low abundances. This is a new way to quantify ozone-depleting, and related, substances in the stratosphere, which is largely inaccessible to aircraft. We show two potential uses: (a) tracking the stratospheric circulation, which is predicted to change, and (b) assessing three common meteorological reanalyses driving a global stratospheric model.
Marius Hauck, Harald Bönisch, Peter Hoor, Timo Keber, Felix Ploeger, Tanja J. Schuck, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8763–8785,Short summary
This study features an extended inversion method that includes transport across the extratropical tropopause to derive age spectra in the lowermost stratosphere from in situ trace gas measurements. The refined method is validated in a model setup and applied to data gained with the HALO research aircraft. Results are congruent with the findings of previous studies so that the method provides a promising toolset for the analysis of stratospheric dynamics based on observations in the future.
James Barry, Dirk Böttcher, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Anna Herman-Czezuch, Nicola Kimiaie, Stefanie Meilinger, Christopher Schirrmeister, Hartwig Deneke, Jonas Witthuhn, and Felix Gödde
Adv. Sci. Res., 17, 165–173,Short summary
The power output of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules depends largely upon incident solar radiation as well as PV module temperature. Although irradiance can fluctuate rapidly under broken cloud conditions, module temperature is subject to latency due to the solar panel's heat capacity. In order to reconcile this difference a simple four-parameter model is successfully employed to describe the dynamics of PV module temperature as a function of atmospheric conditions.
Nicholas C. Parazoo, Troy Magney, Alex Norton, Brett Raczka, Cédric Bacour, Fabienne Maignan, Ian Baker, Yongguang Zhang, Bo Qiu, Mingjie Shi, Natasha MacBean, Dave R. Bowling, Sean P. Burns, Peter D. Blanken, Jochen Stutz, Katja Grossmann, and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 3733–3755,Short summary
Satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provide a global measure of photosynthetic change. This enables scientists to better track carbon cycle responses to environmental change and tune biochemical processes in vegetation models for an improved simulation of future change. We use tower-instrumented SIF measurements and controlled model experiments to assess the state of the art in terrestrial biosphere SIF modeling and find a wide range of sensitivities to light.
Mariano Mertens, Astrid Kerkweg, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, and Robert Sausen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7843–7873,Short summary
We investigate the contribution of land transport emissions to ozone and ozone precursors in Europe and Germany. Our results show that land transport emissions are one of the most important contributors to reactive nitrogen in Europe. The contribution to ozone is in the range of 8 % to 16 % and varies strongly for different seasons. The hots-pots with the largest ozone concentrations are the Po Valley, while the largest concentration to reactive nitrogen is located mainly in western Europe.
Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, Vincenzo Rizi, Marco Iarlori, Irene Cionni, Ilaria Quaglia, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martin Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando Garcia, Patrick Joeckel, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Marion Marchand, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Tatsuya Nagashima, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, David Plummer, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, John Scinocca, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Holger Tost, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this work we analyse the trend in ozone profiles taken at L'Aquila (Italy, 42.4° N) for seventeen years, between 2000 and 2016 and compare them against already available measured ozone trends. We try to understand and explain the observed trends at various heights in light of the simulations from seventeen different model, highlighting the contribution of changes in circulation and chemical ozone loss during this time period.
Marta Abalos, Clara Orbe, Douglas E. Kinnison, David Plummer, Luke D. Oman, Patrick Jöckel, Olaf Morgenstern, Rolando R. Garcia, Guang Zeng, Kane A. Stone, and Martin Dameris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6883–6901,Short summary
A set of state-of-the art chemistry–climate models is used to examine future changes in downward transport from the stratosphere, a key contributor to tropospheric ozone. The acceleration of the stratospheric circulation results in increased stratosphere-to-troposphere transport. In the subtropics, downward advection into the troposphere is enhanced due to climate change. At higher latitudes, the ozone reservoir above the tropopause is enlarged due to the stronger circulation and ozone recovery.
Peter H. Zimmermann, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andrea Pozzer, Patrick Jöckel, Franziska Winterstein, Andreas Zahn, Sander Houweling, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5787–5809,Short summary
The atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gas methane is determined by interacting emission sources and sinks in a dynamic global environment. In this study, its global budget from 1997 to 2016 is simulated with a general circulation model using emission estimates of 11 source categories. The model results are evaluated against 17 ground station and 320 intercontinental flight observation series. Deviations are used to re-scale the emission quantities with the aim of matching observations.
Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Jeannine Ditas, Florian Ditas, Christiane Schulz, Marco Aurélio Franco, Qiaoqiao Wang, Tobias Donth, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Joel Brito, Yafang Cheng, Maximilian Dollner, Johannes W. Kaiser, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Ovid O. Krüger, Daniel Fütterer, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jing Ming, Fernando G. Morais, Hauke Paulsen, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Johannes Schneider, Hang Su, Bernadett Weinzierl, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4757–4785,Short summary
Biomass burning smoke from African savanna and grassland is transported across the South Atlantic Ocean in defined layers within the free troposphere. The combination of in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements aided by satellite observations showed that these layers are transported into the Amazon Basin during the early dry season. The influx of aged smoke, enriched in black carbon and cloud condensation nuclei, has important implications for the Amazonian aerosol and cloud cycling.
Anna-Leah Nickl, Mariano Mertens, Anke Roiger, Andreas Fix, Axel Amediek, Alina Fiehn, Christoph Gerbig, Michal Galkowski, Astrid Kerkweg, Theresa Klausner, Maximilian Eckl, and Patrick Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1925–1943,Short summary
Based on the global and regional chemistry–climate model system MECO(n), we implemented a forecast system to support the planning of measurement campaign research flights with chemical weather forecasts. We applied this system for the first time to provide 6 d forecasts in support of the CoMet 1.0 campaign targeting methane emitted from coal mining ventilation shafts in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland. We describe the new forecast system and evaluate its forecast skill.
Timo Keber, Harald Bönisch, Carl Hartick, Marius Hauck, Fides Lefrancois, Florian Obersteiner, Akima Ringsdorf, Nils Schohl, Tanja Schuck, Ryan Hossaini, Phoebe Graf, Patrick Jöckel, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4105–4132,Short summary
In this paper we summarize observations of short-lived halocarbons in the tropopause region. We show that, especially during winter, the levels of short-lived bromine gases at the extratropical tropopause are higher than at the tropical tropopause. We discuss the impact of the distributions on stratospheric bromine levels and compare our observations to two models with four different emission scenarios.
Clara Orbe, David A. Plummer, Darryn W. Waugh, Huang Yang, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas E. Kinnison, Beatrice Josse, Virginie Marecal, Makoto Deushi, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Slimane Bekki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3809–3840,Short summary
Atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by global-scale winds that are not always properly simulated in computer models. A common approach to correct for this bias is to relax or
nudgeto the observed winds. Here we systematically evaluate how well this technique performs across a large suite of chemistry–climate models in terms of its ability to reproduce key aspects of both the tropospheric and stratospheric circulations.
Julie M. Nicely, Bryan N. Duncan, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ross J. Salawitch, Makoto Deushi, Amund S. Haslerud, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas E. Kinnison, Andrew Klekociuk, Michael E. Manyin, Virginie Marécal, Olaf Morgenstern, Lee T. Murray, Gunnar Myhre, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, Andrea Pozzer, Ilaria Quaglia, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Susan Strahan, Simone Tilmes, Holger Tost, Daniel M. Westervelt, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1341–1361,Short summary
Differences in methane lifetime among global models are large and poorly understood. We use a neural network method and simulations from the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative to quantify the factors influencing methane lifetime spread among models and variations over time. UV photolysis, tropospheric ozone, and nitrogen oxides drive large model differences, while the same factors plus specific humidity contribute to a decreasing trend in methane lifetime between 1980 and 2015.
Mariano Mertens, Astrid Kerkweg, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, and Robert Sausen
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 363–383,Short summary
This study investigates if ozone source apportionment results using a tagged tracer approach depend on the resolutions of the applied model and/or emission inventory. For this we apply a global to regional atmospheric chemistry model, which allows us to compare the results on global and regional scales. Our results show that differences on the continental scale (e.g. Europe) are rather small (10 %); on the regional scale, however, differences of up to 30 % were found.
Tanja J. Schuck, Ann-Katrin Blank, Elisa Rittmeier, Jonathan Williams, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andreas Engel, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 73–84,Short summary
Air sample collection aboard aircraft is a tool to measure atmospheric trace gas mixing ratios at altitude. We present results on the stability of 28 halocarbons during storage of air samples collected in stainless-steel flasks inside an automated air sampling unit which is part of the CARIBIC instrument package. Selected fluorinated compounds grew during the experiments while short-lived compounds were depleted. Individual substances were additionally influenced by high mixing ratios of ozone.
Le Kuai, Kevin W. Bowman, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Makoto Deushi, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Fabien Paulot, Sarah Strode, Andrew Conley, Jean-François Lamarque, Patrick Jöckel, David A. Plummer, Luke D. Oman, Helen Worden, Susan Kulawik, David Paynter, Andrea Stenke, and Markus Kunze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 281–301,Short summary
The tropospheric ozone increase from pre-industrial to the present day leads to a radiative forcing. The top-of-atmosphere outgoing fluxes at the ozone band are controlled by ozone, water vapor, and temperature. We demonstrate a method to attribute the models’ flux biases to these key players using satellite-constrained instantaneous radiative kernels. The largest spread between models is found in the tropics, mainly driven by ozone and then water vapor.
Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Daniel Kunkel, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Andreas Herber, Hannes Schulz, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Megan D. Willis, Julia Burkart, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15049–15071,Short summary
We present airborne trace gas measurements in the European and Canadian Arctic for July 2014 and April 2015. Based on CO and CO2 in situ data as well as 10 d kinematic back trajectories, we characterize the prevailing transport regimes and derive a tracer-based diagnostic for the determination of the polar dome boundary. Using the tracer-derived boundary, an analysis of the recent transport history of air masses within the polar dome reveals significant differences between spring and summer.
Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, and Matthias Nützel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13759–13771,Short summary
A chemistry–climate model (CCM) study is performed, investigating the consequences of a constant CFC-11 surface mixing ratio for stratospheric ozone in the future. The total column ozone is particularly affected in both polar regions in winter and spring. It turns out that the calculated ozone changes, especially in the upper stratosphere, are smaller than expected. In this attitudinal region the additional ozone depletion due to the catalysis by reactive chlorine is partly compensated for.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Sophie Szopa, Ann R. Stavert, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alex T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Virginie Marécal, Fiona M. O'Connor, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13701–13723,Short summary
The role of hydroxyl radical changes in methane trends is debated, hindering our understanding of the methane cycle. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical may influence methane abundance in the atmosphere based on the inter-model comparison of hydroxyl radical fields and model simulations of CH4 abundance with different hydroxyl radical scenarios during 2000–2016. We show that hydroxyl radical changes could contribute up to 54 % of model-simulated methane biases.
Marleen Braun, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Wolfgang Woiwode, Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Hermann Oelhaf, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Helmut Ziereis, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13681–13699,Short summary
We analyse nitrification of the LMS in the Arctic winter 2015–2016 based on GLORIA measurements. Vertical cross sections of HNO3 for several flights show complex fine–scale structures and enhanced values down to 9 km. The extent of overall nitrification is quantified based on HNO3–O3 correlations and reaches between 5 ppbv and 7 ppbv at potential temperature levels between 350 and 380 K. Further, we compare our result with the atmospheric model CLaMS.
Daniel Kunkel, Peter Hoor, Thorsten Kaluza, Jörn Ungermann, Björn Kluschat, Andreas Giez, Hans-Christoph Lachnitt, Martin Kaufmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12607–12630,Short summary
In this study we present a mixing process around the tropopause in extratropical baroclinic waves. We analyze airborne data from a flight during the WISE campaign in autumn 2017 over the North Atlantic. We use idealized experiments to study the mixing process. Although the process occurs on a small geographical scale, it might be of importance due to its relation to a frequent feature of the extratropical UTLS. The process is relevant for STE but is not fully included in climatologies.
Andreas Luther, Ralph Kleinschek, Leon Scheidweiler, Sara Defratyka, Mila Stanisavljevic, Andreas Forstmaier, Alexandru Dandocsi, Sebastian Wolff, Darko Dubravica, Norman Wildmann, Julian Kostinek, Patrick Jöckel, Anna-Leah Nickl, Theresa Klausner, Frank Hase, Matthias Frey, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Jarosław Nȩcki, Justyna Swolkień, Andreas Fix, Anke Roiger, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5217–5230,Short summary
Methane ventilated from hard coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland is measured with a mobile Fourier transform spectrometer EM27/SUN. The instrument was mounted on a truck driving in stop-and-go patterns downwind of the methane sources. The emissions are estimated with the cross-sectional flux method. Calculated emissions are in broad agreement with the E-PRTR database. Wind-related errors on the methane estimates dominate the error budget and typically amount to 20 %.
Andreas Chrysanthou, Amanda C. Maycock, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Hella Garny, Douglas Kinnison, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Makoto Deushi, Rolando R. Garcia, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Daniele Visioni, and Yousuke Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11559–11586,Short summary
We perform the first multi-model comparison of the impact of nudged meteorology on the stratospheric residual circulation (RC) in chemistry–climate models. Nudging meteorology does not constrain the mean strength of RC compared to free-running simulations, and despite the lack of agreement in the mean circulation, nudging tightly constrains the inter-annual variability in the tropical upward mass flux in the lower stratosphere. In summary, nudging strongly affects the representation of RC.
Andreas Marsing, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Stefan Kaufmann, Romy Heller, Andreas Engel, Peter Hoor, Jens Krause, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10757–10772,Short summary
We study the partitioning of inorganic chlorine into active (ozone-depleting) and reservoir species in the lowermost stratosphere of the Arctic polar vortex, using novel in situ aircraft measurements in winter 2015/2016. We observe a change in recovery pathways of the reservoirs HCl and ClONO2 with increasing potential temperature. A comparison with the CLaMS model relates the observations to the vortex-wide evolution and confirms unresolved discrepancies in the mid-winter HCl distribution.
Kévin Lamy, Thierry Portafaix, Béatrice Josse, Colette Brogniez, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Hassan Bencherif, Laura Revell, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Michaela I. Hegglin, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Ben Liley, Virginie Marecal, Olaf Morgenstern, Andrea Stenke, Guang Zeng, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Neil Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Glauco Di Genova, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rong-Ming Hu, Douglas Kinnison, Michael Kotkamp, Richard McKenzie, Martine Michou, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Daniele Visioni, and Kohei Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10087–10110,Short summary
In this study, we simulate the ultraviolet radiation evolution during the 21st century on Earth's surface using the output from several numerical models which participated in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative. We present four possible futures which depend on greenhouse gases emissions. The role of ozone-depleting substances, greenhouse gases and aerosols are investigated. Our results emphasize the important role of aerosols for future ultraviolet radiation in the Northern Hemisphere.
Ohad Harari, Chaim I. Garfinkel, Shlomi Ziskin Ziv, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Simone Tilmes, Douglas Kinnison, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Andrea Pozzer, Fiona M. O'Connor, and Sean Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9253–9268,Short summary
Ozone depletion in the Antarctic has been shown to influence surface conditions, but the effects of ozone depletion in the Arctic on surface climate are unclear. We show that Arctic ozone does influence surface climate in both polar regions and tropical regions, though the proximate cause of these surface impacts is not yet clear.
Sören Johansson, Michelle L. Santee, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Michael Höpfner, Marleen Braun, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Erik Kretschmer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Ines Tritscher, Jörn Ungermann, Kaley A. Walker, and Wolfgang Woiwode
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8311–8338,Short summary
We present a study based on GLORIA aircraft and MLS/ACE-FTS/CALIOP satellite measurements during the Arctic winter 2015/16, which demonstrate (for the Arctic) unusual chlorine deactivation into HCl instead of ClONO2 due to low ozone abundances in the lowermost stratosphere, with a focus at 380 K potential temperature. The atmospheric models CLaMS and EMAC are evaluated, and measured ClONO2 is linked with transport and in situ deactivation in the lowermost stratosphere.
Petr Šácha, Roland Eichinger, Hella Garny, Petr Pišoft, Simone Dietmüller, Laura de la Torre, David A. Plummer, Patrick Jöckel, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Neal Butchart, and Juan A. Añel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7627–7647,Short summary
Climate models robustly project a Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) acceleration in the course of climate change. Analyzing mean age of stratospheric air (AoA) from a subset of climate projection simulations, we find a remarkable agreement in simulating the largest AoA trends in the extratropical stratosphere. This is shown to be related with the upward shift of the circulation, resulting in a so-called stratospheric shrinkage, which could be one of the so-far-omitted BDC acceleration drivers.
Franziska Winterstein, Fabian Tanalski, Patrick Jöckel, Martin Dameris, and Michael Ponater
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7151–7163,Short summary
The atmospheric concentrations of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas methane are predicted to rise in the future. In this paper we investigate how very strong methane concentrations will impact the atmosphere. We analyse two experiments, one with doubled and one with quintupled methane concentrations and focus on the rapid atmospheric changes before the ocean adjusts to the induced forcing. In particular these are changes in temperature, ozone, the hydroxyl radical and stratospheric water vapour.
Sabine Brinkop and Patrick Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1991–2008,Short summary
We have extended ATTILA (Atmospheric Tracer Transport in a LAgrangian model), a Lagrangian tracer transport scheme which is online coupled to the global ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, with a combination of newly developed and modified physical routines and new diagnostic and infrastructure submodels. The results show an improvement of the tracer transport into and within the stratosphere due to the newly implemented diabatic vertical velocity.
Thorsten Kaluza, Daniel Kunkel, and Peter Hoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6621–6636,Short summary
We present a comprehensive mean evolution of the tropopause inversion layer in mid-latitudes, an atmospheric feature that is located in the region that separates the well-mixed troposphere and the stably stratified stratosphere. We counter-intuitively find this region, which is expected to stabilise atmospheric flow, to exhibit favourable conditions for turbulent exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. This is an important result concerning the overall assessment of exchange processes.
Sabine Robrecht, Bärbel Vogel, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Karen Rosenlof, Troy Thornberry, Andrew Rollins, Martina Krämer, Lance Christensen, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5805–5833,Short summary
The potential destruction of stratospheric ozone in the mid-latitudes has been discussed recently. We analysed this ozone loss mechanism and its sensitivities. In a certain temperature range, we found a threshold in water vapour, which has to be exceeded for ozone loss to occur. We show the dependence of this water vapour threshold on temperature, sulfate content and air composition. This study provides a basis to estimate the impact of potential sulphate geoengineering on stratospheric ozone.
Huang Yang, Darryn W. Waugh, Clara Orbe, Guang Zeng, Olaf Morgenstern, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, David A. Plummer, Patrick Jöckel, Susan E. Strahan, Kane A. Stone, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5511–5528,Short summary
We evaluate the performance of a suite of models in simulating the large-scale transport from the northern midlatitudes to the Arctic using a CO-like idealized tracer. We find a large multi-model spread of the Arctic concentration of this CO-like tracer that is well correlated with the differences in the location of the midlatitude jet as well as the northern Hadley Cell edge. Our results suggest the Hadley Cell is key and zonal-mean transport by surface meridional flow needs better constraint.
Rolf Sander, Andreas Baumgaertner, David Cabrera-Perez, Franziska Frank, Sergey Gromov, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Hartwig Harder, Vincent Huijnen, Patrick Jöckel, Vlassis A. Karydis, Kyle E. Niemeyer, Andrea Pozzer, Hella Riede, Martin G. Schultz, Domenico Taraborrelli, and Sebastian Tauer
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1365–1385,Short summary
We present the atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA/MECCA which now includes a number of new features: skeletal mechanism reduction, the MOM chemical mechanism for volatile organic compounds, an option to include reactions from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and other chemical mechanisms, updated isotope tagging, improved and new photolysis modules, and the new feature of coexisting multiple chemistry mechanisms. CAABA/MECCA is a community model published under the GPL.
Ryan S. Williams, Michaela I. Hegglin, Brian J. Kerridge, Patrick Jöckel, Barry G. Latter, and David A. Plummer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3589–3620,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone has important implications for air quality and climate change but is poorly understood at a regional and seasonal level. Analysis of model simulations indicates that downward transport of ozone from the stratosphere has a larger influence than previously thought (as much as ~50 % even near the surface). Recent estimated changes in tropospheric ozone (1980–89 to 2001–10) are generally positive, with substantial attribution from the stratosphere identified over some regions.
Meng Si, Erin Evoy, Jingwei Yun, Yu Xi, Sarah J. Hanna, Alina Chivulescu, Kevin Rawlings, Daniel Veber, Andrew Platt, Daniel Kunkel, Peter Hoor, Sangeeta Sharma, W. Richard Leaitch, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3007–3024,Short summary
We investigated the importance of mineral dust, sea spray aerosol, and anthropogenic aerosol to the ice-nucleating particle (INP) population in the Canadian Arctic during spring 2016. The results suggest that mineral dust transported from the Gobi Desert was a major source of the INP population studied, and that sea spray aerosol decreased the ice-nucleating ability of mineral dust. The results should be useful for testing and improving models used to predict INPs and climate in the Arctic.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Allan K. Bertram, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Aude Boivin-Rioux, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Rachel Y. W. Chang, Joannie Charette, Jai P. Chaubey, Robert J. Christensen, Ana Cirisan, Douglas B. Collins, Betty Croft, Joelle Dionne, Greg J. Evans, Christopher G. Fletcher, Martí Galí, Roghayeh Ghahremaninezhad, Eric Girard, Wanmin Gong, Michel Gosselin, Margaux Gourdal, Sarah J. Hanna, Hakase Hayashida, Andreas B. Herber, Sareh Hesaraki, Peter Hoor, Lin Huang, Rachel Hussherr, Victoria E. Irish, Setigui A. Keita, John K. Kodros, Franziska Köllner, Felicia Kolonjari, Daniel Kunkel, Luis A. Ladino, Kathy Law, Maurice Levasseur, Quentin Libois, John Liggio, Martine Lizotte, Katrina M. Macdonald, Rashed Mahmood, Randall V. Martin, Ryan H. Mason, Lisa A. Miller, Alexander Moravek, Eric Mortenson, Emma L. Mungall, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maryam Namazi, Ann-Lise Norman, Norman T. O'Neill, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Lynn M. Russell, Johannes Schneider, Hannes Schulz, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Ralf M. Staebler, Nadja S. Steiner, Jennie L. Thomas, Knut von Salzen, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Megan D. Willis, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jun-Wei Xu, and Jacqueline D. Yakobi-Hancock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2527–2560,Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing considerable environmental change with climate warming, illustrated by the dramatic decrease in sea-ice extent. It is important to understand both the natural and perturbed Arctic systems to gain a better understanding of how they will change in the future. This paper summarizes new insights into the relationships between Arctic aerosol particles and climate, as learned over the past five or so years by a large Canadian research consortium, NETCARE.
Hannes Schulz, Marco Zanatta, Heiko Bozem, W. Richard Leaitch, Andreas B. Herber, Julia Burkart, Megan D. Willis, Daniel Kunkel, Peter M. Hoor, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Rüdiger Gerdes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2361–2384,Short summary
Aircraft vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) aerosol from the High Canadian Arctic have shown systematic variability in different levels of the cold, stably stratified polar dome. During spring and summer, efficiencies of BC supply by transport (often from gas flaring and wildfire-affected regions) were different in the lower dome than at higher levels, as apparent from changes in mean particle size and mixing ratios with CO. Summer BC concentrations were a factor of 10 lower than in spring.
J. Christopher Kaiser, Johannes Hendricks, Mattia Righi, Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, Konrad Kandler, Bernadett Weinzierl, Daniel Sauer, Katharina Heimerl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, and Thomas Popp
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 541–579,Short summary
The implementation of the aerosol microphysics submodel MADE3 into the global atmospheric chemistry model EMAC is described and evaluated against an extensive pool of observational data, focusing on aerosol mass and number concentrations, size distributions, composition, and optical properties. EMAC (MADE3) is able to reproduce main aerosol properties reasonably well, in line with the performance of other global aerosol models.
Roland Eichinger, Simone Dietmüller, Hella Garny, Petr Šácha, Thomas Birner, Harald Bönisch, Giovanni Pitari, Daniele Visioni, Andrea Stenke, Eugene Rozanov, Laura Revell, David A. Plummer, Patrick Jöckel, Luke Oman, Makoto Deushi, Douglas E. Kinnison, Rolando Garcia, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Kane Adam Stone, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 921–940,Short summary
To shed more light upon the changes in stratospheric circulation in the 21st century, climate projection simulations of 10 state-of-the-art global climate models, spanning from 1960 to 2100, are analyzed. The study shows that in addition to changes in transport, mixing also plays an important role in stratospheric circulation and that the properties of mixing vary over time. Furthermore, the influence of mixing is quantified and a dynamical framework is provided to understand the changes.
Ines Tritscher, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Reinhold Spang, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Rolf Müller, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 543–563,Short summary
We present Lagrangian simulations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) for the Arctic winter 2009/2010 and the Antarctic winter 2011 using the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). The paper comprises a detailed model description with ice PSCs and related dehydration being the focus of this study. Comparisons between our simulations and observations from different satellites on season-long and vortex-wide scales as well as for single PSC events show an overall good agreement.
Johannes Eckstein, Roland Ruhnke, Stephan Pfahl, Emanuel Christner, Christopher Diekmann, Christoph Dyroff, Daniel Reinert, Daniel Rieger, Matthias Schneider, Jennifer Schröter, Andreas Zahn, and Peter Braesicke
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5113–5133,Short summary
We present ICON-ART-Iso, an extension to the global circulation model ICON, which allows for the simulation of the stable isotopologues of water. The main advantage over other isotope-enabled models is its flexible design with respect to the number of tracers simulated. We compare the results of several simulations to measurements of different scale. ICON-ART-Iso is able to reasonably reproduce the measurements. It is a promising tool to aid in the investigation of the atmospheric water cycle.
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Fiona Tummon, Aryeh Feinberg, Eugene Rozanov, Thomas Peter, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Neal Butchart, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Robyn Schofield, Kane Stone, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16155–16172,Short summary
Global models such as those participating in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) consistently simulate biases in tropospheric ozone compared with observations. We performed an advanced statistical analysis with one of the CCMI models to understand the cause of the bias. We found that emissions of ozone precursor gases are the dominant driver of the bias, implying either that the emissions are too large, or that the way in which the model handles emissions needs to be improved.
Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Oliver Appel, Anja Costa, Suzane S. de Sá, Volker Dreiling, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Scot T. Martin, Stephan Mertes, Mira L. Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Bernadett Weinzierl, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Luiz A. T. Machado, Ulrich Pöschl, Manfred Wendisch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14979–15001,Short summary
Aerosol chemical composition measurements in the tropical upper troposphere over the Amazon region show that 78 % of the aerosol in the upper troposphere consists of organic matter. Up to 20 % of the organic aerosol can be attributed to isoprene epoxydiol secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA). Furthermore, organic nitrates were identified, suggesting a connection to the IEPOX-SOA formation.
Franz Slemr, Andreas Weigelt, Ralf Ebinghaus, Johannes Bieser, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Armin Rauthe-Schöch, Markus Hermann, Bengt G. Martinsson, Peter van Velthoven, Harald Bönisch, Marco Neumaier, Andreas Zahn, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12329–12343,Short summary
Total and elemental mercury were measured in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere onboard a passenger aircraft. Their concentrations in the upper troposphere were comparable implying low concentrations of oxidized mercury in this region. Large scale seasonally dependent influence of emissions from biomass burning was also observed. Their distributions in the lower stratosphere implies a long stratospheric lifetime, which precludes significant mercury oxidation by ozone.
Sören Johansson, Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Anne Kleinert, Erik Kretschmer, Thomas Latzko, Johannes Orphal, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Michelle L. Santee, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Giez, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Andreas Zahn, Andreas Engel, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4737–4756,Short summary
We present two-dimensional cross sections of temperature, HNO3, O3, ClONO2, H2O and CFC-12 from measurements of the GLORIA infrared limb imager during the POLSTRACC/GW-LCYCLE/SALSA aircraft campaigns in the Arctic winter 2015/2016. GLORIA sounded the atmosphere between 5 and 14 km with vertical resolutions of 0.4–1 km. Estimated errors are in the range of 1–2 K (temperature) and 10 %–20 % (trace gases). Comparisons to in situ instruments onboard the aircraft and to Aura/MLS are shown.
Amanda C. Maycock, Katja Matthes, Susann Tegtmeier, Hauke Schmidt, Rémi Thiéblemont, Lon Hood, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Markus Kunze, Marion Marchand, Daniel R. Marsh, Martine Michou, David Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Yousuke Yamashita, and Kohei Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11323–11343,Short summary
The 11-year solar cycle is an important driver of climate variability. Changes in incoming solar ultraviolet radiation affect atmospheric ozone, which in turn influences atmospheric temperatures. Constraining the impact of the solar cycle on ozone is therefore important for understanding climate variability. This study examines the representation of the solar influence on ozone in numerical models used to simulate past and future climate. We highlight important differences among model datasets.
Blanca Ayarzagüena, Lorenzo M. Polvani, Ulrike Langematz, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Steven C. Hardiman, Patrick Jöckel, Andrew Klekociuk, Marion Marchand, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, David A. Plummer, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, John Scinocca, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Yousuke Yamashita, Kohei Yoshida, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11277–11287,Short summary
Stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) are natural major disruptions of the polar stratospheric circulation that also affect surface weather. In the literature there are conflicting claims as to whether SSWs will change in the future. The confusion comes from studies using different models and methods. Here we settle the question by analysing 12 models with a consistent methodology, to show that no robust changes in frequency and other features are expected over the 21st century.
Franziska Frank, Patrick Jöckel, Sergey Gromov, and Martin Dameris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9955–9973,Short summary
It is frequently assumed that one methane molecule produces two water molecules. Applying various modeling concepts, we find that the yield of water from methane is vertically not constantly 2. In the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere, transport of intermediate H2 molecules even led to a yield greater than 2. We conclude that for a realistic chemical source of stratospheric water vapor, one must also take other sources (H2), intermediates and the chemical removal of water into account.
Sergey Gromov, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9831–9843,Short summary
Using the observational data on 13C (CO) and 13C (CH4) from the extra-tropical Southern Hemisphere (ETSH) and EMAC model we (1) provide an independent, observation-based evaluation of Cl atom concentration variations in the ETSH throughout 1994–2000, (2) show that the role of tropospheric Cl as a sink of CH4 is seriously overestimated in the literature, (3) demonstrate that the 13C/12C ratio of CO is a sensitive indicator for the isotopic composition of reacted CH4 and therefore for its sources.
Jens-Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Reinhold Spang, Ines Tritscher, Tobias Wegner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Douglas E. Kinnison, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8647–8666,Short summary
We investigate a discrepancy between model simulations and observations of HCl in the dark polar stratosphere. In early winter, the less-well-studied period of the onset of chlorine activation, observations show a much faster depletion of HCl than simulations of three models. This points to some unknown process that is currently not represented in the models. Various hypotheses for potential causes are investigated that partly reduce the discrepancy. The impact on polar ozone depletion is low.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Stefan Lossow, Dale F. Hurst, Karen H. Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Doug E. Kinnison, Johannes Plieninger, David A. Plummer, Felix Ploeger, William G. Read, Ellis E. Remsberg, James M. Russell, and Mengchu Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8331–8351,Short summary
Trend estimates of lower stratospheric H2O derived from the FPH observations at Boulder and a merged zonal mean satellite data set clearly differ for the time period from the late 1980s to 2010. We investigate if a sampling bias between Boulder and the zonal mean around the Boulder latitude can explain these trend discrepancies. Typically they are small and not sufficient to explain the trend discrepancies in the observational database.
Stefanie Meul, Ulrike Langematz, Philipp Kröger, Sophie Oberländer-Hayn, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7721–7738,Short summary
Using a chemistry--climate model future changes in the stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone mass flux, their drivers, and the future distribution of stratospheric ozone in the troposphere are investigated. In an extreme greenhouse gas (GHG) scenario, the global influx of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere is projected to grow between 2000 and 2100 by 53%. The increase is due to the recovery of stratospheric ozone owing to declining halogens and GHG induced circulation and temperature changes.
Clara Orbe, Huang Yang, Darryn W. Waugh, Guang Zeng, Olaf Morgenstern, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, David A. Plummer, John F. Scinocca, Beatrice Josse, Virginie Marecal, Patrick Jöckel, Luke D. Oman, Susan E. Strahan, Makoto Deushi, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Kohei Yoshida, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Yousuke Yamashita, Andreas Stenke, Laura Revell, Timofei Sukhodolov, Eugene Rozanov, Giovanni Pitari, Daniele Visioni, Kane A. Stone, Robyn Schofield, and Antara Banerjee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7217–7235,Short summary
In this study we compare a few atmospheric transport properties among several numerical models that are used to study the influence of atmospheric chemistry on climate. We show that there are large differences among models in terms of the timescales that connect the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, where greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances are emitted, to the Southern Hemisphere. Our results may have important implications for how models represent atmospheric composition.
Simone Dietmüller, Roland Eichinger, Hella Garny, Thomas Birner, Harald Boenisch, Giovanni Pitari, Eva Mancini, Daniele Visioni, Andrea Stenke, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, David A. Plummer, John Scinocca, Patrick Jöckel, Luke Oman, Makoto Deushi, Shibata Kiyotaka, Douglas E. Kinnison, Rolando Garcia, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Kane Adam Stone, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6699–6720,
Jens Krause, Peter Hoor, Andreas Engel, Felix Plöger, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Harald Bönisch, Timo Keber, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Wolfgang Woiwode, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6057–6073,Short summary
We present tracer measurements of CO and N2O measured during the POLSTRACC aircraft campaign in winter 2015–2016. We found enhanced CO values relative to N2O in the polar lower stratosphere in addition to the ageing of this region during winter. By using model simulations it was possible to link this enhancement to an increased mixing of the tropical tropopause. We thus conclude that the polar lower stratosphere in late winter is strongly influenced by quasi-isentropic mixing from the tropics.
Klaus-Dirk Gottschaldt, Hans Schlager, Robert Baumann, Duy Sinh Cai, Veronika Eyring, Phoebe Graf, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5655–5675,Short summary
This study places aircraft trace gas measurements from within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone into the context of regional, intra- and interannual variability. We find that the processes reflected in the measurements are present throughout multiple simulated monsoon seasons. Dynamical instabilities, photochemical ozone production, lightning and entrainments from the lower troposphere and from the tropopause region determine the distinct composition of the anticyclone and its outflow.
Mariano Mertens, Volker Grewe, Vanessa S. Rieger, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5567–5588,Short summary
We quantified the contribution of land transport and shipping emissions to tropospheric ozone using a global chemistry–climate model. Our results indicate a contribution to ground-level ozone from land transport emissions of up to 18 % in North America and Southern Europe as well as a contribution from shipping emissions of up to 30 % in the Pacific. Our estimates of the radiative ozone forcing due to land transport and shipping emissions are 92 mW m−2 and 62 mW m−2, respectively.
Reinhold Spang, Lars Hoffmann, Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Ines Tritscher, Michael Höpfner, Michael Pitts, Andrew Orr, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5089–5113,Short summary
This paper represents an unprecedented pole-covering day- and nighttime climatology of the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) based on satellite measurements, their spatial distribution, and composition of different particle types. The climatology has a high potential for the validation and improvement of PSC schemes in chemical transport and chemistry–climate models, which is important for a better prediction of future polar ozone loss in a changing climate.
Astrid Kerkweg, Christiane Hofmann, Patrick Jöckel, Mariano Mertens, and Gregor Pante
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1059–1076,Short summary
As part of the model documentation of the MECO(n) system, this article documents the basics of the Multi-Model-Driver expansion (MMD v2.0) to two-way coupling and the newly developed generic MESSy submodel GRID (v1.0), which is used by MMD v2.0 for the generalised definition of arbitrary grids and for the transformation of data between them.
Christian Rolf, Bärbel Vogel, Peter Hoor, Armin Afchine, Gebhard Günther, Martina Krämer, Rolf Müller, Stefan Müller, Nicole Spelten, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2973–2983,Short summary
The Asian monsoon is a pronounced circulation system linked to rapid vertical transport of surface air from India and east Asia in the summer months. We found, based on aircraft measurements, higher concentration of water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere caused by the Asian monsoon. Enrichment of water vapor concentrations in the lowermost stratosphere impacts the radiation budget and thus climate. Understanding those variations in water vapor is important for climate projections.
Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Abdul Mannan Zafar, Sabine Robrecht, and Ralph Lehmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2985–2997,Short summary
This paper revisits the chemistry leading to strong ozone depletion in the Antarctic. We focus on the heart of the ozone layer in the lowermost stratosphere in the core of the vortex. We argue that chemical cycles (referred to as HCl null cycles) that have hitherto been largely neglected counteract the deactivation of chlorine and are therefore key to ozone depletion in the core of the Antarctic vortex. The key process to full activation of chlorine is the photolysis of formaldehyde.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel Albrecht, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Micael A. Cecchini, Anja Costa, Maximilian Dollner, Daniel Fütterer, Emma Järvinen, Tina Jurkat, Thomas Klimach, Tobias Konemann, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Trismono Krisna, Luiz A. T. Machado, Stephan Mertes, Andreas Minikin, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Antonio Spanu, Vinicius B. Sperling, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Jian Wang, Bernadett Weinzierl, Manfred Wendisch, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 921–961,Short summary
We made airborne measurements of aerosol particle concentrations and properties over the Amazon Basin. We found extremely high concentrations of very small particles in the region between 8 and 14 km altitude all across the basin, which had been recently formed by gas-to-particle conversion at these altitudes. This makes the upper troposphere a very important source region of atmospheric particles with significant implications for the Earth's climate system.
Andreas Engel, Harald Bönisch, Jennifer Ostermöller, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 601–619,Short summary
We present a new method to derive equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), which is based on an improved formulation of the propagation of trends of species with chemical loss from the troposphere to the stratosphere. EESC calculated with the new method shows much better agreement with model-derived ESC. Based on this new formulation, we expect the halogen impact on midlatitude stratospheric ozone to return to 1980 values about 10 years later, then using the current formulation.
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Heiko Bozem, Daniel Kunkel, Peter Hoor, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13747–13766,Short summary
We conducted aircraft-based single particle chemical composition measurements in the Canadian high Arctic during summer. Our results provide evidence for a marine-biogenic influence on secondary formation of particulate trimethylamine in the Arctic boundary layer. Understanding emission sources and further processes controlling aerosol number concentration and chemical composition in the pristine Arctic summer is crucial for modeling future climate in the area.
Martin Schrön, Markus Köhli, Lena Scheiffele, Joost Iwema, Heye R. Bogena, Ling Lv, Edoardo Martini, Gabriele Baroni, Rafael Rosolem, Jannis Weimar, Juliane Mai, Matthias Cuntz, Corinna Rebmann, Sascha E. Oswald, Peter Dietrich, Ulrich Schmidt, and Steffen Zacharias
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5009–5030,Short summary
A field-scale average of near-surface water content can be sensed by cosmic-ray neutron detectors. To interpret, calibrate, and validate the integral signal, it is important to account for its sensitivity to heterogeneous patterns like dry or wet spots. We show how point samples contribute to the neutron signal based on their depth and distance from the detector. This approach robustly improves the sensor performance and data consistency, and even reveals otherwise hidden hydrological features.
Stefan Lossow, Hella Garny, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11521–11539,
Stefanie Falk, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Patrick Jöckel, Phoebe Graf, and Sinikka T. Lennartz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11313–11329,Short summary
Brominated very short-lived source gases (VSLS) contribute significantly to the tropospheric and stratospheric bromine loading. We find an increase of future ocean–atmosphere flux of brominated VSLS of 8–10 % compared to present day. A decrease in the tropospheric mixing ratios of VSLS and an increase in the lower stratosphere are attributed to changes in atmospheric chemistry and transport. Bromine impact on stratospheric ozone at the end of the 21st century is reduced compared to present day.
Marcus Klingebiel, André Ehrlich, Fanny Finger, Timo Röschenthaler, Suad Jakirlić, Matthias Voigt, Stefan Müller, Rolf Maser, Manfred Wendisch, Peter Hoor, Peter Spichtinger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3485–3498,Short summary
Microphysical and radiation measurements were collected with the unique AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle (AIRTOSS) – Learjet tandem platform. It is a combination of a Learjet 35A research aircraft and an instrumented aerodynamic bird, which can be detached from and retracted back to the aircraft during flight. AIRTOSS and Learjet are equipped with radiative, cloud microphysical, trace gas, and meteorological instruments to study cirrus clouds.
Bengt G. Martinsson, Johan Friberg, Oscar S. Sandvik, Markus Hermann, Peter F. J. van Velthoven, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10937–10953,Short summary
We find that the aerosol of the lowermost stratosphere has a considerable climate forcing. The upper tropospheric (UT) particulate sulfur is strongly influenced by stratospheric sources the first half of the year, whereas tropospheric sources dominate in fall; 50 % of the UT particulate sulfur (S) was found to be stratospheric at background condition, and 70 % under moderate influence from volcanism. The Asian monsoon is found to be an important tropospheric source of S in the NH extratropical UT.
Sergey Gromov, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8525–8552,Short summary
We revisit the proxies/uncertainties for the 13C/12C ratios of emissions of reactive C into the atmosphere. Our main findings are (i) a factor of 2 less uncertain estimate of tropospheric CO surface sources δ13C, (ii) a confirmed disagreement between the bottom-up and top-down 13CO-inclusive emission estimates, and (iii) a novel estimate of the δ13C signatures of a range of NMHCs/VOCs to be used in modelling studies. Results are based on the EMAC model emission set-up evaluated for 2000.
Volker Grewe, Eleni Tsati, Mariano Mertens, Christine Frömming, and Patrick Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2615–2633,Short summary
We present a diagnostics, implemented in an Earth system model, which keeps track of the contribution of source categories (mainly emission sectors) to various concentrations (O3 and HOx). For the first time, it takes into account chemically competing effects, e.g., the competition between ozone precursors in the production of ozone. We show that the results are in-line with results from other tagging schemes and provide plausibility checks for OH and HO2, which have not previously been tagged.
Andrea Mues, Maheswar Rupakheti, Christoph Münkel, Axel Lauer, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Tim Butler, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8157–8176,Short summary
Ceilometer measurements taken in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, were used to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the mixing layer height in the valley. This provides important information on the vertical structure of the atmosphere and can thus also help to understand the mixing of air pollutants (e.g. black carbon) in the valley. The seasonal and diurnal cycles of the mixing layer were found to be highly dependent on meteorology and mainly anticorrelated to black carbon concentrations.
Simone Dietmüller, Hella Garny, Felix Plöger, Patrick Jöckel, and Duy Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7703–7719,
Johannes Bieser, Franz Slemr, Jesse Ambrose, Carl Brenninkmeijer, Steve Brooks, Ashu Dastoor, Francesco DeSimone, Ralf Ebinghaus, Christian N. Gencarelli, Beate Geyer, Lynne E. Gratz, Ian M. Hedgecock, Daniel Jaffe, Paul Kelley, Che-Jen Lin, Lyatt Jaegle, Volker Matthias, Andrei Ryjkov, Noelle E. Selin, Shaojie Song, Oleg Travnikov, Andreas Weigelt, Winston Luke, Xinrong Ren, Andreas Zahn, Xin Yang, Yun Zhu, and Nicola Pirrone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6925–6955,Short summary
We conducted a multi model study to investigate our ability to reproduce the vertical distribution of mercury in the atmosphere. For this, we used observational data from over 40 aircraft flights in EU and US. We compared observations to the results of seven chemistry transport models and found that the models are able to reproduce vertical gradients of total and elemental Hg. Finally, we found that different chemical reactions seem responsible for the oxidation of Hg depending on altitude.
Klaus-D. Gottschaldt, Hans Schlager, Robert Baumann, Heiko Bozem, Veronika Eyring, Peter Hoor, Patrick Jöckel, Tina Jurkat, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6091–6111,Short summary
We present upper-tropospheric trace gas measurements in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone, obtained with the HALO research aircraft in September 2012. The anticyclone is one of the largest atmospheric features on Earth, but many aspects of it are not well understood. With the help of model simulations we find that entrainments from the tropopause region and the lower troposphere, combined with photochemistry and dynamical instabilities, can explain the observations.
Julia Burkart, Megan D. Willis, Heiko Bozem, Jennie L. Thomas, Kathy Law, Peter Hoor, Amir A. Aliabadi, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Andreas Herber, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and W. Richard Leaitch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5515–5535,Short summary
Our aircraft study for the first time systematically investigates aerosol size distributions, including ultrafine particles (5–20 nm in diameter), in the Arctic summertime atmosphere. We find that ultrafine particles occur very frequently in the boundary layer and not aloft, suggesting a surface source of these particles. Understanding aerosol properties and sources is crucial to predict climate and especially important in the Arctic as this region responds extremely fast to climate change.
Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Hartmut Bösch, Robert J. Parker, Alex J. Webb, Caio S. C. Correia, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Lucas G. Domingues, Dietrich G. Feist, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Yi Liu, John B. Miller, Isamu Morino, Ralf Sussmann, Kimberly Strong, Osamu Uchino, Jing Wang, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4781–4797,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry and transport and an ensemble Kalman filter to simultaneously infer regional fluxes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) directly from GOSAT retrievals of XCH4:XCO2, using sparse ground-based CH4 and CO2 mole fraction data to anchor the ratio. Our results show that assimilation of GOSAT data significantly reduced the posterior uncertainty and changed the a priori spatial distribution of CH4 emissions.
Kevin Wolf, André Ehrlich, Tilman Hüneke, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Frank Werner, Martin Wirth, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4283–4303,Short summary
The potential of airborne radiance measurements in the sideward and nadir directions for cirrus remote sensing is investigated. Therefore radiative transfer simulations were used and the sensitivity of upward radiance with respect to optical thickness, effective radius, surface albedo, wavelength and viewing angle was studied. It was shown that sideward observations lead to more accurate retrieval results. Investigating a case study of ML-CIRRUS, these findings are confirmed.
Johannes Wagner, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Martina Bramberger, Benjamin Witschas, Fernando Chouza, Stephan Rahm, Christian Mallaun, Gerd Baumgarten, and Peter Hoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4031–4052,
Christopher E. Sioris, Landon A. Rieger, Nicholas D. Lloyd, Adam E. Bourassa, Chris Z. Roth, Douglas A. Degenstein, Claude Camy-Peyret, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Gwenaël Berthet, Valéry Catoire, Florence Goutail, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, and Chris A. McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1155–1168,Short summary
A new OSIRIS NO2 retrieval algorithm is described and validated using > 40 balloon-based profile measurements. The validation results indicate a slight improvement relative to the existing operational algorithm in terms of the bias versus the balloon data, particularly in the lower stratosphere. The implication is that this new algorithm should replace the operational one. The motivation was to combine spectral fitting and the SaskTRAN radiative transfer model to achieve an improved product.
Jennifer Ostermöller, Harald Bönisch, Patrick Jöckel, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3785–3797,Short summary
We analysed the temporal evolution of fractional release factors (FRFs) from EMAC model simulations for several halocarbons and nitrous oxide. The current formulation of FRFs yields values that depend on the tropospheric trend of the species. This is a problematic issue for the application of FRF in the calculation of steady-state quantities (e.g. ODP). Including a loss term in the calculation, we develop a new formulation of FRF and find that the time dependence can almost be compensated.
Jochen Stutz, Bodo Werner, Max Spolaor, Lisa Scalone, James Festa, Catalina Tsai, Ross Cheung, Santo F. Colosimo, Ugo Tricoli, Rasmus Raecke, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Ru-Shan Gao, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Fred L. Moore, Bruce Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steven Wofsy, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1017–1042,Short summary
A new limb-scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument was developed for NASA’s Global Hawk unmanned aerial system during the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment to study trace gases in the tropical tropopause layer. A new technique that uses in situ and DOAS O3 observations together with radiative transfer calculations allows the retrieval of mixing ratios from the slant column densities of BrO and NO2 at high accuracies of 0.5 ppt and 15 ppt, respectively.
Johannes Eckstein, Roland Ruhnke, Andreas Zahn, Marco Neumaier, Ole Kirner, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2775–2794,Short summary
Data on atmospheric trace gases have been collected with instruments on-board a commercial airliner for more than 10 years in the CARIBIC project. We investigate which species in the dataset can be used for a representative climatology, by comparing data from the chemistry–climate model EMAC along the flight paths to a larger set of model data. We find that long-lived species are captured quite well by the CARIBIC sample while this is not the case for more variable, shorter-lived species.
Gwenaël Berthet, Fabrice Jégou, Valéry Catoire, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Jean-Baptiste Renard, Adam E. Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, Colette Brogniez, Marcel Dorf, Sebastian Kreycy, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Bodo Werner, Franck Lefèvre, Tjarda J. Roberts, Thibaut Lurton, Damien Vignelles, Nelson Bègue, Quentin Bourgeois, Daniel Daugeron, Michel Chartier, Claude Robert, Bertrand Gaubicher, and Christophe Guimbaud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2229–2253,Short summary
Since the last major volcanic event, i.e. the Pinatubo eruption in 1991, only
moderateeruptions have regularly injected sulfur into the stratosphere, typically enhancing the aerosol loading for several months. We investigate here for the first time the chemical perturbation associated with the Sarychev eruption in June 2009, using balloon-borne instruments and model calculations. Some chemical compounds are significantly affected by the aerosols, but the impact on stratospheric ozone is weak.
Olaf Morgenstern, Michaela I. Hegglin, Eugene Rozanov, Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando R. Garcia, Steven C. Hardiman, Larry W. Horowitz, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Michael E. Manyin, Marion Marchand, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Yousuke Yamashita, Kohei Yoshida, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639–671,Short summary
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). In comparison to earlier such activities, most of these models comprise a whole-atmosphere chemistry, and several of them include an interactive ocean module. This makes them suitable for studying the interactions of tropospheric air quality, stratospheric ozone, and climate. The paper lays the foundation for other studies using the CCMI simulations for scientific analysis.
Garlich Fischbeck, Harald Bönisch, Marco Neumaier, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Johannes Orphal, Joel Brito, Julia Becker, Detlev Sprung, Peter F. J. van Velthoven, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1985–2008,
Bodo Werner, Jochen Stutz, Max Spolaor, Lisa Scalone, Rasmus Raecke, James Festa, Santo Fedele Colosimo, Ross Cheung, Catalina Tsai, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Giorgio S. Taverna, Wuhu Feng, James W. Elkins, David W. Fahey, Ru-Shan Gao, Erik J. Hintsa, Troy D. Thornberry, Free Lee Moore, Maria A. Navarro, Elliot Atlas, Bruce C. Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steve Wofsy, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1161–1186,Short summary
The paper reports on inorganic and organic bromine measured in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the eastern Pacific in early 2013. Bryinorg is found to increase from a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ppt for θ in the range of 350–360 K to 5.11 ± 1.57 ppt for θ=390 ± 400 K, whereas in the subtropical lower stratosphere, it reaches 7.66 ± 2.95 ppt for θ in the range of 390–400 K. Within the TTL, total bromine is found to range from 20.3 ppt to 22.3 ppt.
Bärbel Vogel, Gebhard Günther, Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Armin Afchine, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Martina Krämer, Stefan Müller, Martin Riese, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Gabriele P. Stiller, Jörn Ungermann, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15301–15325,Short summary
The identification of transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphere is unclear. Global simulations with the CLaMS model demonstrate that source regions in Asia and in the Pacific Ocean have a significant impact on the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere by flooding the extratropical lower stratosphere with young moist air masses. Two main horizontal transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone are identified.
Duy Cai, Martin Dameris, Hella Garny, Felix Bunzel, Patrick Jöckel, and Phoebe Graf
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Reliable information on weather and climate are of increasing interest for economy, politics and society. In particular decadal timescales become more and more important. This study focuses on stratospheric processes relevant for the dynamical variability on intra decadal timescale. We apply a so called power spectra analysis. With this method and further analyses we could determine a minimum vertical resolution for numerical models, which is required to capture these processes.
Bastian Kern and Patrick Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3639–3654,Short summary
Input and output of large data limit the performance of numerical models on supercomputers. We present an interface for the calculation of online diagnostics in a weather and climate model. These diagnostics are calculated online during the simulation instead of as subsequent post-processing. Depending on the diagnostic, we can reduce the amount of model output.
Mariano Mertens, Astrid Kerkweg, Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, and Christiane Hofmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3545–3567,Short summary
This fourth part in a series of publications describing the newly developed regional chemistry–climate system MECO(n) is dedicated to the evaluation of MECO(n) with respect to tropospheric gas-phase chemistry. For this, a simulation incorporating two regional instances, one over Europe with 50 km resolution and one over Germany with 12 km resolution, is conducted. The model results are compared with satellite, ground-based and aircraft in situ observations.
Tomás Sherwen, Johan A. Schmidt, Mat J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Katja Großmann, Sebastian D. Eastham, Daniel J. Jacob, Barbara Dix, Theodore K. Koenig, Roman Sinreich, Ivan Ortega, Rainer Volkamer, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Cristina Prados-Roman, Anoop S. Mahajan, and Carlos Ordóñez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12239–12271,Short summary
We present a simulation of tropospheric Cl, Br, I chemistry within the GEOS-Chem CTM. We find a decrease in tropospheric ozone burden of 18.6 % and a 8.2 % decrease in global mean OH concentrations. Cl oxidation of some VOCs range from 15 to 27 % of the total loss. Bromine plays a small role in oxidising oVOCs. Surface ozone, ozone sondes, and methane lifetime are in general improved by the inclusion of halogens. We argue that simulated bromine and chlorine represent a lower limit.
Hiroshi Yamashita, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, Florian Linke, Martin Schaefer, and Daisuke Sasaki
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3363–3392,Short summary
This study introduces AirTraf v1.0 for climate impact evaluations, which performs global air traffic simulations in the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry model. AirTraf simulations were demonstrated with great circle and flight time routing options for a specific winter day, assuming an Airbus A330 aircraft. The results confirmed that AirTraf simulates the air traffic properly for the two options. Calculated flight time, fuel consumption and NOx emission index are comparable to reference data.
W. Richard Leaitch, Alexei Korolev, Amir A. Aliabadi, Julia Burkart, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Andreas Herber, Christian Konrad, and Ralf Brauner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11107–11124,Short summary
Thought to be mostly unimportant for summertime Arctic liquid-water clouds, airborne observations show that atmospheric aerosol particles 50 nm in diameter or smaller and most likely from natural sources are often involved in cloud formation in the pristine Arctic summer. The result expands the reference for aerosol forcing of climate. Further, for extremely low droplet concentrations, no evidence is found for a connection between cloud liquid water and aerosol particle concentrations.
Stefan Müller, Peter Hoor, Heiko Bozem, Ellen Gute, Bärbel Vogel, Andreas Zahn, Harald Bönisch, Timo Keber, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Martin Riese, Hans Schlager, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10573–10589,Short summary
In situ airborne measurements performed during TACTS/ESMVal 2012 were analysed to investigate the chemical compostion of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. N2O, CO and O3 data show an increase in tropospherically affected air masses within the extratropical stratosphere from August to September 2012, which originate from the Asian monsoon region. Thus, the Asian monsoon anticyclone significantly affected the chemical composition of the extratropical stratosphere during summer 2012.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, Lei Bi, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Hermann Oelhaf, Sergej Molleker, Stephan Borrmann, Marcus Klingebiel, Gennady Belyaev, Andreas Ebersoldt, Sabine Griessbach, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Thomas Gulde, Martina Krämer, Guido Maucher, Christof Piesch, Christian Rolf, Christian Sartorius, Reinhold Spang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9505–9532,Short summary
The analysis of spectral signatures of a polar stratospheric cloud in airborne infrared remote sensing observations in the Arctic in combination with further collocated measurements supports the view that the observed cloud consisted of highly aspherical nitric acid trihydrate particles. A characteristic "shoulder-like" spectral signature may be exploited for identification of large, highly aspherical nitric acid trihydrate particles involved in denitrification of the polar winter stratosphere.
R. Hossaini, P. K. Patra, A. A. Leeson, G. Krysztofiak, N. L. Abraham, S. J. Andrews, A. T. Archibald, J. Aschmann, E. L. Atlas, D. A. Belikov, H. Bönisch, L. J. Carpenter, S. Dhomse, M. Dorf, A. Engel, W. Feng, S. Fuhlbrügge, P. T. Griffiths, N. R. P. Harris, R. Hommel, T. Keber, K. Krüger, S. T. Lennartz, S. Maksyutov, H. Mantle, G. P. Mills, B. Miller, S. A. Montzka, F. Moore, M. A. Navarro, D. E. Oram, K. Pfeilsticker, J. A. Pyle, B. Quack, A. D. Robinson, E. Saikawa, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Sala, B.-M. Sinnhuber, S. Taguchi, S. Tegtmeier, R. T. Lidster, C. Wilson, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9163–9187,
Martin Ebert, Ralf Weigel, Konrad Kandler, Gebhard Günther, Sergej Molleker, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Bärbel Vogel, Stephan Weinbruch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8405–8421,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol particles were collected within the arctic vortex in late winter. The chemical composition of refractory particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. More than 750 refractory particles with diameters above 500 nm were found consisting of silicates, Fe- and Ca-rich particles and metal mixtures. The detection of refractory particles in the late winter polar stratosphere has strong implications for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion.
Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Hella Garny, Stefan Lossow, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8125–8140,Short summary
This study investigates the water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in the year 2000 and other similarly strong stratospheric water vapour reductions. The driving forces are tropical sea surface temperature (SST) changes due to coincidence with a preceding ENSO event and supported by the west to east change of the QBO. There are indications that both SSTs and the specific dynamical state of the atmosphere contribute to the long period of low water vapour values from 2001 to 2006.
Steffen Beirle, Christoph Hörmann, Patrick Jöckel, Song Liu, Marloes Penning de Vries, Andrea Pozzer, Holger Sihler, Pieter Valks, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2753–2779,
Amir A. Aliabadi, Jennie L. Thomas, Andreas B. Herber, Ralf M. Staebler, W. Richard Leaitch, Hannes Schulz, Kathy S. Law, Louis Marelle, Julia Burkart, Megan D. Willis, Heiko Bozem, Peter M. Hoor, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Maurice Levasseur, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7899–7916,Short summary
For the first time, ship emissions of an ice-breaker, the Amundsen, is characterized while breaking ice in the Canadian Arctic using the plume intercepts by the Polar 6 aircraft. The study is novel, estimating lower plume expansion rates over the stable Arctic marine boundary layer and different emissions factors for oxides of nitrogen, black carbon, and carbon monoxide, compared to plume intercept studies in mid latitudes. These results can inform policy making and emission inventory datasets.
Megan D. Willis, Julia Burkart, Jennie L. Thomas, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Heiko Bozem, Peter M. Hoor, Amir A. Aliabadi, Hannes Schulz, Andreas B. Herber, W. Richard Leaitch, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7663–7679,Short summary
We present a case study focused on an aerosol growth event observed in the Canadian High Arctic during summer. Using measurements of aerosol chemical and physical properties we find evidence for aerosol growth into cloud condensation nuclei-active sizes, through marine-influenced secondary organic aerosol formation. Understanding the mechanisms that control the formation and growth of aerosol is crucial for our ability to predict cloud properties, and therefore radiative balance and climate.
Simone Dietmüller, Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, Markus Kunze, Catrin Gellhorn, Sabine Brinkop, Christine Frömming, Michael Ponater, Benedikt Steil, Axel Lauer, and Johannes Hendricks
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2209–2222,Short summary
Four new radiation related submodels (RAD, AEROPT, CLOUDOPT, and ORBIT) are available within the MESSy framework now. They are largely based on the original radiation scheme of ECHAM5. RAD simulates radiative transfer, AEROPT calculates aerosol optical properties, CLOUDOPT calculates cloud optical properties, and ORBIT is responsible for Earth orbit calculations. Multiple diagnostic calls of the radiation routine are possible, so radiative forcing can be calculated during the model simulation.
Michael Löffler, Sabine Brinkop, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6547–6562,Short summary
After the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991, stratospheric water vapour is significantly increased. This results from increased stratospheric heating rates due to volcanic aerosol and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as important sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere.
Franz Slemr, Andreas Weigelt, Ralf Ebinghaus, Hans H. Kock, Jan Bödewadt, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Armin Rauthe-Schöch, Stefan Weber, Markus Hermann, Julia Becker, Andreas Zahn, and Bengt Martinsson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2291–2302,Short summary
The goal of CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) is to carry out regular and detailed observations of atmospheric chemistry at 9–12 km altitude. Mercury has been measured since May 2005 during intercontinental flights between Europe and South and North America, Africa, and Asia. Here we describe the instrument modifications, the post-flight processing of the raw instrument signal, and the fractionation experiments.
Florian Berkes, Peter Hoor, Heiko Bozem, Daniel Kunkel, Michael Sprenger, and Stephan Henne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6011–6025,Short summary
We presented airborne measurements of CO2 and O3 across the entrainment zone over a semi-remote environment in southwestern Germany in late summer 2011 . For the first time CO2 and O3 were used as tracer to identify mixing through this transport barrier. We demonstrated that the tracer--tracer correlation of CO2 and O3 is a powerful tool to identify entrainment and mixing.
Markus Hermann, Andreas Weigelt, Denise Assmann, Sascha Pfeifer, Thomas Müller, Thomas Conrath, Jens Voigtländer, Jost Heintzenberg, Alfred Wiedensohler, Bengt G. Martinsson, Terry Deshler, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2179–2194,Short summary
Aerosol particles are an important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Here we describe the composition and characterization of a new optical particle size spectrometer (OPSS) for aircraft-borne measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution (how many particles there are with a certain size) in the 140–1050 nm size range. The OPSS was characterized throughout concerning its measurement capabilities (response, pressure dependence, coincidence) and validated versus balloon measurement.
Anna E. Luebke, Armin Afchine, Anja Costa, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Jessica Meyer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Linnea M. Avallone, Darrel Baumgardner, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5793–5809,Short summary
In this study, we present observational evidence to show that two distinct types of cirrus clouds exist – in situ origin and liquid origin cirrus. These two types differ by their formation mechanism and other properties. Airborne, in-cloud measurements of cloud ice water content (IWC), ice crystal concentration (Nice), and ice crystal size from the 2014 ML-CIRRUS campaign provide cloud samples that have been divided and analyzed according to their origin type.
Tina Jurkat, Stefan Kaufmann, Christiane Voigt, Dominik Schäuble, Philipp Jeßberger, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1907–1923,Short summary
The paper details novel mass spectrometric measurements with AIMS-TG aboard the new German research aircraft HALO. The measurements comprise a wide range of tracers with characteristic source regions. Using these tracers, stratospheric and tropospheric air in the UTLS is tagged. The instrument is equipped with a new discharge ionization source, an in-flight calibration and improved transmission of adhesive gases like HNO3 and HCl. AIMS was built to characterize transport and mixing in the UTLS.
N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pöhler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4867–4883,Short summary
The nitrate radical (NO3) is an important nocturnal oxidant. By measuring NO3, its precursors (nitrogen dioxide and ozone) and several trace gases with which it reacts, we examined the chemical and meteorological factors influencing the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site. Unexpectedly long lifetimes, approaching 1 h, were observed on several nights and were associated with a low-lying residual layer. We discuss the role of other reactions that convert NO2 to NO3.
Tobias Wegner, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Ines Tritscher, Jens-Uwe Grooß, and Hideaki Nakajima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4569–4577,Short summary
Satellite observations are used to constrain areas with large backscatter values areas inside the polar vortex. Surface area is derived from these observations and used in heterogeneous modeling. Satellite gas species observations show a decrease in HCl downwind of areas with large surface area density indicating heterogeneous processing inside these areas. This decrease can only be simulated if a realistic surface area is assumed demonstrating the importance of polar stratospheric cloud.
Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, Andrea Pozzer, Markus Kunze, Oliver Kirner, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Sabine Brinkop, Duy S. Cai, Christoph Dyroff, Johannes Eckstein, Franziska Frank, Hella Garny, Klaus-Dirk Gottschaldt, Phoebe Graf, Volker Grewe, Astrid Kerkweg, Bastian Kern, Sigrun Matthes, Mariano Mertens, Stefanie Meul, Marco Neumaier, Matthias Nützel, Sophie Oberländer-Hayn, Roland Ruhnke, Theresa Runde, Rolf Sander, Dieter Scharffe, and Andreas Zahn
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1153–1200,Short summary
With an advanced numerical global chemistry climate model (CCM) we performed several detailed combined hind-cast and projection simulations of the period 1950 to 2100 to assess the past, present, and potential future dynamical and chemical state of the Earth atmosphere. The manuscript documents the model and the various applied model set-ups and provides a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective as a quality check of the data.
Andreas Weigelt, Ralf Ebinghaus, Nicola Pirrone, Johannes Bieser, Jan Bödewadt, Giulio Esposito, Franz Slemr, Peter F. J. van Velthoven, Andreas Zahn, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4135–4146,Short summary
We show the first mercury profile measurements over Europe since 1996. Besides gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and total gaseous mercury (TGM), the gases CO, SO2, NOx, and O3 were measured from aboard a research aircraft over four European locations. Compared to the boundary layer, the concentration of GEM and TGM in the free troposphere was 10–30% lower. Inside the individual layers no vertical gradient was apparent. Combined with CARIBIC data, a unique profile from 0.4 to 10.5 km is provided.
Armin Rauthe-Schöch, Angela K. Baker, Tanja J. Schuck, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andreas Zahn, Markus Hermann, Greta Stratmann, Helmut Ziereis, Peter F. J. van Velthoven, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3609–3629,Short summary
The flying laboratory CARIBIC onboard a passenger aircraft measured trace gases and aerosol particles in the upper tropospheric Indian summer monsoon anticyclone in summer 2008. We used the measurements together with meteorological analyses to investigate the chemical signature of the northern and southern part of the monsoon, the source regions from where the air was entrained into the monsoon and which parts of the world received polluted air that had been chemically processed in the monsoon.
D. Kunkel, P. Hoor, and V. Wirth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 541–560,Short summary
By conducting various simulations of dry and moist baroclinic life cycles, we aimed to improve the understanding of whether dynamical or diabatic processes are more relevant to form a tropopause inversion layer at midlatitudes. Most importantly, our experiments highlighted the role of different moisture related processes for the formation and evolution of the tropopause inversion layer with varying relevance and strength in different phases of the baroclinic life cycles.
A. J. G. Baumgaertner, P. Jöckel, A. Kerkweg, R. Sander, and H. Tost
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 125–135,Short summary
The Community Earth System Model (CESM1) is connected to the the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) as a new base model. This allows MESSy users the option to utilize either the state-of-the art spectral element atmosphere dynamical core or the finite volume core of CESM1. Additionally, this makes several other component models available to MESSy users.
Christiane Hofmann, Astrid Kerkweg, Peter Hoor, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Ozone enhancements at the surface, caused by descending stratospheric air masses along deep tropopause folds, can be reproduced using the model system MECO(n). It is shown that stratosphere-troposphere-exchange (STE) in the vicinity of a tropopause fold occurs in regions of turbulence and diabatic processes. The efﬁciency of mixing is quantiﬁed, showing that almost all of the air masses originating in the tropopause fold are transported into the troposphere during the following two days.
B. Vogel, G. Günther, R. Müller, J.-U. Grooß, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13699–13716,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon circulation is an important global circulation system associated with strong upward transport of tropospheric source gases. We show that the contribution of different boundary source regions to the Asian monsoon anticyclone strongly depends on its intra-seasonal variability and that emissions from Asia have a significant impact on the chemical compositions of the lowermost stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere at the end of the monsoon season in Sep./Oct. 2012.
F. Ploeger, C. Gottschling, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, G. Guenther, P. Konopka, R. Müller, M. Riese, F. Stroh, M. Tao, J. Ungermann, B. Vogel, and M. von Hobe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13145–13159,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon provides an important pathway of tropospheric source gases and pollution into the lower stratosphere. This transport is characterized by deep convection and steady upwelling, combined with confinement inside a large-scale anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In this paper, we show that a barrier to horizontal transport in the monsoon can be determined from a local maximum in the gradient of potential vorticity.
A. Kerkweg and P. Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
C. Rolf, A. Afchine, H. Bozem, B. Buchholz, V. Ebert, T. Guggenmoser, P. Hoor, P. Konopka, E. Kretschmer, S. Müller, H. Schlager, N. Spelten, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, J. Ungermann, A. Zahn, and M. Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9143–9158,
M. Tao, P. Konopka, F. Ploeger, J.-U. Grooß, R. Müller, C. M. Volk, K. A. Walker, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8695–8715,Short summary
A remarkable major stratospheric sudden warming during the boreal winter 2008/09 is studied with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). We investigate how mixing triggered by this event correlates the wave forcing and how transport and mixing affect the composition of the whole stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere, by using the tracer-tracer correlation technique.
H. Fischer, A. Pozzer, T. Schmitt, P. Jöckel, T. Klippel, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6971–6980,
R. Eichinger, P. Jöckel, and S. Lossow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7003–7015,
W. Woiwode, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, H. Oelhaf, M. Höpfner, G. V. Belyaev, A. Ebersoldt, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, M. Kaufmann, A. Kleinert, M. Krämer, E. Kretschmer, T. Kulessa, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, C. Piesch, P. Preusse, M. Riese, H. Rongen, C. Sartorius, G. Schardt, A. Schönfeld, D. Schuettemeyer, M. K. Sha, F. Stroh, J. Ungermann, C. M. Volk, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2509–2520,
J. Ungermann, J. Blank, M. Dick, A. Ebersoldt, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Giez, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, T. Jurkat, M. Kaufmann, S. Kaufmann, A. Kleinert, M. Krämer, T. Latzko, H. Oelhaf, F. Olchewski, P. Preusse, C. Rolf, J. Schillings, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, V. Tan, N. Thomas, C. Voigt, A. Zahn, M. Zöger, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2473–2489,Short summary
The GLORIA sounder is an airborne infrared limb-imager combining a two-dimensional infrared detector with a Fourier transform spectrometer. It was operated aboard the new German Gulfstream G550 research aircraft HALO during the TACTS and ESMVAL campaigns in summer 2012. This paper describes the retrieval of temperature, as well as H2O, HNO3, and O3 cross sections from GLORIA dynamics mode spectra. A high correlation is achieved between the remote sensing and the in situ trace gas measurements.
W. Frey, R. Schofield, P. Hoor, D. Kunkel, F. Ravegnani, A. Ulanovsky, S. Viciani, F. D'Amato, and T. P. Lane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6467–6486,Short summary
This study examines the simulated downward transport and mixing of stratospheric air into the upper tropical troposphere as observed on a research flight during the SCOUT-O3 campaign in connection with a deep convective system, using the WRF model. Passive tracers are initialised to study the impact of the deep convection on the tracers and water vapour. We use the model to explain the processes causing the transport and also expose areas of inconsistencies between the model and observations.
R. Eichinger, P. Jöckel, S. Brinkop, M. Werner, and S. Lossow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5537–5555,
C. Dyroff, S. Sanati, E. Christner, A. Zahn, M. Balzer, H. Bouquet, J. B. McManus, Y. González-Ramos, and M. Schneider
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2037–2049,
M. Righi, V. Eyring, K.-D. Gottschaldt, C. Klinger, F. Frank, P. Jöckel, and I. Cionni
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 733–768,
C. Prados-Roman, C. A. Cuevas, T. Hay, R. P. Fernandez, A. S. Mahajan, S.-J. Royer, M. Galí, R. Simó, J. Dachs, K. Großmann, D. E. Kinnison, J.-F. Lamarque, and A. Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 583–593,
M. Kaufmann, J. Blank, T. Guggenmoser, J. Ungermann, A. Engel, M. Ern, F. Friedl-Vallon, D. Gerber, J. U. Grooß, G. Guenther, M. Höpfner, A. Kleinert, E. Kretschmer, Th. Latzko, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, H. Nordmeyer, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, J. Orphal, P. Preusse, H. Schlager, H. Schneider, D. Schuettemeyer, F. Stroh, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, B. Vogel, C. M. Volk, W. Woiwode, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 81–95,
R. Pommrich, R. Müller, J.-U. Grooß, P. Konopka, F. Ploeger, B. Vogel, M. Tao, C. M. Hoppe, G. Günther, N. Spelten, L. Hoffmann, H.-C. Pumphrey, S. Viciani, F. D'Amato, C. M. Volk, P. Hoor, H. Schlager, and M. Riese
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2895–2916,Short summary
A version of the chemical transport model CLaMS is presented, which features a simplified (numerically inexpensive) chemistry scheme. The model results using this version of CLaMS show a good representation of anomaly fields of CO, CH4, N2O, and CFC-11 in the lower stratosphere. CO measurements of three instruments (COLD, HAGAR, and Falcon-CO) in the lower tropical stratosphere (during the campaign TROCCINOX in 2005) have been compared and show a good agreement within the error bars.
B. Vogel, G. Günther, R. Müller, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, M. Krämer, S. Müller, A. Zahn, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12745–12762,Short summary
Enhanced tropospheric trace gases (e.g. pollutants) were measured in situ in the lowermost stratosphere over Northern Europe on 26 September 2012 during the TACTS aircraft campaign. We found that the combination of rapid uplift by a typhoon and eastward eddy shedding from the Asian monsoon anticyclone is a novel fast transport pathway that may carry boundary emissions from Southeast Asia/western Pacific within approximately 5 weeks to the lowermost stratosphere in Northern Europe.
R. Weigel, C. M. Volk, K. Kandler, E. Hösen, G. Günther, B. Vogel, J.-U. Grooß, S. Khaykin, G. V. Belyaev, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12319–12342,
R. Sander, P. Jöckel, O. Kirner, A. T. Kunert, J. Landgraf, and A. Pozzer
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2653–2662,
C. M. Hoppe, L. Hoffmann, P. Konopka, J.-U. Grooß, F. Ploeger, G. Günther, P. Jöckel, and R. Müller
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2639–2651,
W. Woiwode, J.-U. Grooß, H. Oelhaf, S. Molleker, S. Borrmann, A. Ebersoldt, W. Frey, T. Gulde, S. Khaykin, G. Maucher, C. Piesch, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11525–11544,
C. Warneke, F. Geiger, P. M. Edwards, W. Dube, G. Pétron, J. Kofler, A. Zahn, S. S. Brown, M. Graus, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. A. de Gouw, and J. M. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10977–10988,
S. Molleker, S. Borrmann, H. Schlager, B. Luo, W. Frey, M. Klingebiel, R. Weigel, M. Ebert, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, W. Woiwode, H. Oelhaf, A. Dörnbrack, G. Stratmann, J.-U. Grooß, G. Günther, B. Vogel, R. Müller, M. Krämer, J. Meyer, and F. Cairo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10785–10801,
L. Kritten, A. Butz, M. P. Chipperfield, M. Dorf, S. Dhomse, R. Hossaini, H. Oelhaf, C. Prados-Roman, G. Wetzel, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9555–9566,
B. G. Martinsson, J. Friberg, S. M. Andersson, A. Weigelt, M. Hermann, D. Assmann, J. Voigtländer, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, P. J. F. van Velthoven, and A. Zahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2581–2596,
P. Valks, N. Hao, S. Gimeno Garcia, D. Loyola, M. Dameris, P. Jöckel, and A. Delcloo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2513–2530,
R. Eichinger and P. Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1573–1582,
M. Riese, H. Oelhaf, P. Preusse, J. Blank, M. Ern, F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, P. Hoor, M. Kaufmann, J. Orphal, F. Plöger, R. Spang, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, J. Ungermann, B. Vogel, and W. Woiwode
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1915–1928,
K.-P. Heue, H. Riede, D. Walter, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Wagner, U. Frieß, U. Platt, A. Zahn, G. Stratmann, and H. Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6621–6642,
Q. Liang, E. Atlas, D. Blake, M. Dorf, K. Pfeilsticker, and S. Schauffler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5781–5792,
A. Wisher, D. E. Oram, J. C. Laube, G. P. Mills, P. van Velthoven, A. Zahn, and C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3557–3570,
I. Engel, B. P. Luo, S. M. Khaykin, F. G. Wienhold, H. Vömel, R. Kivi, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooß, M. C. Pitts, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3231–3246,
S. Meul, U. Langematz, S. Oberländer, H. Garny, and P. Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2959–2971,
C. Dyroff, A. Zahn, S. Sanati, E. Christner, A. Rauthe-Schöch, and T. J. Schuck
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 743–755,
J. E. Williams, G. Le Bras, A. Kukui, H. Ziereis, and C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2363–2382,
C. Liu, S. Beirle, T. Butler, P. Hoor, C. Frankenberg, P. Jöckel, M. Penning de Vries, U. Platt, A. Pozzer, M. G. Lawrence, J. Lelieveld, H. Tost, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1717–1732,
J.-U. Grooß, I. Engel, S. Borrmann, W. Frey, G. Günther, C. R. Hoyle, R. Kivi, B. P. Luo, S. Molleker, T. Peter, M. C. Pitts, H. Schlager, G. Stiller, H. Vömel, K. A. Walker, and R. Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1055–1073,
V. Grewe, C. Frömming, S. Matthes, S. Brinkop, M. Ponater, S. Dietmüller, P. Jöckel, H. Garny, E. Tsati, K. Dahlmann, O. A. Søvde, J. Fuglestvedt, T. K. Berntsen, K. P. Shine, E. A. Irvine, T. Champougny, and P. Hullah
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 175–201,
R. Hossaini, H. Mantle, M. P. Chipperfield, S. A. Montzka, P. Hamer, F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Krüger, S. Tegtmeier, E. Atlas, S. Sala, A. Engel, H. Bönisch, T. Keber, D. Oram, G. Mills, C. Ordóñez, A. Saiz-Lopez, N. Warwick, Q. Liang, W. Feng, F. Moore, B. R. Miller, V. Marécal, N. A. D. Richards, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11819–11838,
J. Yoon, A. Pozzer, P. Hoor, D. Y. Chang, S. Beirle, T. Wagner, S. Schloegl, J. Lelieveld, and H. M. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11307–11316,
C. Kalicinsky, J.-U. Grooß, G. Günther, J. Ungermann, J. Blank, S. Höfer, L. Hoffmann, P. Knieling, F. Olschewski, R. Spang, F. Stroh, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10859–10871,
I. Engel, B. P. Luo, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooß, A. Dörnbrack, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10769–10785,
E. Regelin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, D. Kubistin, C. Tatum Ernest, H. Bozem, T. Klippel, Z. Hosaynali-Beygi, H. Fischer, R. Sander, P. Jöckel, R. Königstedt, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10703–10720,
J. P. Parrella, K. Chance, R. J. Salawitch, T. Canty, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2549–2561,
C. R. Hoyle, I. Engel, B. P. Luo, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, J.-U. Grooß, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9577–9595,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9233–9268,
P. D. Hamer, V. Marécal, R. Hossaini, M. Pirre, N. Warwick, M. Chipperfield, A. A. Samah, N. Harris, A. Robinson, B. Quack, A. Engel, K. Krüger, E. Atlas, K. Subramaniam, D. Oram, E. Leedham, G. Mills, K. Pfeilsticker, S. Sala, T. Keber, H. Bönisch, L. K. Peng, M. S. M. Nadzir, P. T. Lim, A. Mujahid, A. Anton, H. Schlager, V. Catoire, G. Krysztofiak, S. Fühlbrügge, M. Dorf, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
S. Kreycy, C. Camy-Peyret, M. P. Chipperfield, M. Dorf, W. Feng, R. Hossaini, L. Kritten, B. Werner, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6263–6274,
K. Großmann, U. Frieß, E. Peters, F. Wittrock, J. Lampel, S. Yilmaz, J. Tschritter, R. Sommariva, R. von Glasow, B. Quack, K. Krüger, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3363–3378,
R. A. Stachnik, L. Millán, R. Jarnot, R. Monroe, C. McLinden, S. Kühl, J. Puķīte, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, Y. Kasai, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3307–3319,
K. Gottschaldt, C. Voigt, P. Jöckel, M. Righi, R. Deckert, and S. Dietmüller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3003–3025,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalOzone profile retrieval from nadir TROPOMI measurements in the UV rangeFirst ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer observations of HFC-23 at Rikubetsu, Japan, and Syowa Station, AntarcticaImprovement of Odin/SMR water vapour and temperature measurements and validation of the obtained data setsEstimation of ship emission rates at a major shipping lane by long-path DOAS measurementsTotal ozone column from Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Nadir Mapper (OMPS-NM) measurements using the broadband weighting function fitting approach (WFFA)A simulation-experiment-based assessment of retrievals of above-cloud temperature and water vapor using a hyperspectral infrared sounderReduced-cost construction of Jacobian matrices for high-resolution inversions of satellite observations of atmospheric compositionMeasurements of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 total columns in the atmosphere at the St. Petersburg site in 2009–2019The Adaptable 4A Inversion (5AI): description and first XCO2 retrievals from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) observationsAssessing sub-grid variability within satellite pixels over urban regions using airborne mapping spectrometer measurementsA Global Ozone Profile Climatology for Satellite Retrieval Algorithms Based on Aura MLS Measurements and the MERRA-2 GMI SimulationDirectionally dependent Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (DLER) of the Earth's surface measured by the GOME-2 satellite instrumentsRetrieval algorithm for the column CO2 mixing ratio from pulsed multi-wavelength lidar measurementsXCO2 retrieval for GOSAT and GOSAT-2 based on the FOCAL algorithmVolcanic SO2 effective layer height retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using a machine-learning approachTropospheric and stratospheric NO retrieved from ground-based FTIR measurementsRetrieval of atmospheric CO2 vertical profiles from ground-based near-infrared spectraTwo-dimensional monitoring of air pollution in Madrid using a Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy two-dimensional (MAXDOAS-2D) instrumentEstimation of the error covariance matrix for IASI radiances and its impact on the assimilation of ozone in a chemistry transport modelSpectroscopic imaging of sub-kilometer spatial structure in lower-tropospheric water vaporHigh-frequency monitoring of anomalous methane point sources with multispectral Sentinel-2 satellite observationsRadiative transfer acceleration based on the principal component analysis and lookup table of corrections: optimization and application to UV ozone profile retrievalsNew observations of NO2 in the upper troposphere from TROPOMIResidual temperature bias effects in stratospheric species distributions from LIMSGFIT3: A full physics retrieval algorithm for remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the presence of aerosolsCan a regional-scale reduction of atmospheric CO2 during the COVID-19 pandemic be detected from space? A case study for East China using satellite XCO2 retrievalsApplication of the Complete Data Fusion algorithm to the ozone profiles measured by geostationary and low-Earth-orbit satellites: a feasibility studyDetection and quantification of CH4 plumes using the WFM-DOAS retrieval on AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral dataAnthropogenic CO2 monitoring satellite mission: the need for multi-angle polarimetric observationsEstimating real driving emissions from multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements at the A60 motorway near Mainz, GermanyMethane retrieved from TROPOMI: improvement of the data product and validation of the first 2 years of measurementsAccounting for the photochemical variation in stratospheric NO2 in the SAGE III/ISS solar occultation retrievalOzone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Aura nitrogen dioxide standard product version 4.0 with improved surface and cloud treatmentsA local- to national-scale inverse modeling system to assess the potential of spaceborne CO2 measurements for the monitoring of anthropogenic emissionsXCO2 estimates from the OCO-2 measurements using a neural network approachQuantifying the impact of aerosol scattering on the retrieval of methane from airborne remote sensing measurementsQuantifying CO2 emissions of a city with the Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring satellite missionAn improved TROPOMI tropospheric HCHO retrieval over ChinaRetrieval of daytime mesospheric ozone using OSIRIS observations of O2 (a1Δg) emissionVersion 2 Ozone Monitoring Instrument SO2 product (OMSO2 V2): new anthropogenic SO2 vertical column density datasetThe quantification of NOx and SO2 point source emission flux errors of mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy on the basis of the Gaussian dispersion model: a simulation studyProbabilistic retrieval of volcanic SO2 layer height and partial column density using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)Impact of using a new ultraviolet ozone absorption cross-section dataset on OMI ozone profile retrievalsAn examination of enhanced atmospheric methane detection methods for predicting performance of a novel multiband uncooled radiometer imagerGround-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) O3 retrievals from the 3040 cm−1 spectral range at Xianghe, ChinaEstablishment of AIRS climate-level radiometric stability using radiance anomaly retrievals of minor gases and sea surface temperatureMAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO in Munich and the comparison to OMI and TROPOMI satellite observationsOverview: Estimating and reporting uncertainties in remotely sensed atmospheric composition and temperatureCLIMCAPS observing capability for temperature, moisture, and trace gases from AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMSThree-dimensional radiative transfer effects on airborne and ground-based trace gas remote sensing
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Richard Querel, Thierry Leblanc, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Rigel Kivi, and Matthew B. Tully
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6057–6082,Short summary
TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing satellite that has observed global atmospheric trace gases at unprecedented spatial resolution since 2017. The retrieval of ozone profiles with high accuracy has been demonstrated using the TOPAS (Tikhonov regularised Ozone Profile retrievAl with SCIATRAN) algorithm and applying appropriate spectral corrections to TROPOMI UV data. Ozone profiles from TROPOMI were compared to ozonesonde and lidar profiles, showing an agreement to within 5 % in the stratosphere.
Masanori Takeda, Hideaki Nakajima, Isao Murata, Tomoo Nagahama, Isamu Morino, Geoffrey C. Toon, Ray F. Weiss, Jens Mühle, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, and Hsiang-Jui Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5955–5976,Short summary
This paper presents the first observations of atmospheric HFC-23 abundances with a ground-based remote sensing technique. The increasing trend of the HFC-23 abundances analyzed by this study agrees with that derived from other existing in situ measurements. This study indicates that ground-based FTIR observation has the capability to monitor the trend of atmospheric HFC-23 and could allow for monitoring the distribution of global atmospheric HFC-23 abundances in more detail.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Michael Kiefer, Maya Garcia-Comas, Alyn Lambert, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5823–5857,Short summary
We present improved Odin/SMR mesospheric H2O concentration and temperature data sets, reprocessed assuming a bigger sideband leakage of the instrument. The validation study shows how the improved SMR data sets agree better with other instruments' observations than the old SMR version did. Given their unique time extension and geographical coverage, and H2O being a good tracer of mesospheric circulation, the new data sets are valuable for the study of dynamical processes and multi-year trends.
Kai Krause, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Andreas Weigelt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5791–5807,Short summary
Ships are an important source of key pollutants. Usually, these are measured aboard the ship or on the coast using in situ instruments. This study shows how active optical remote sensing can be used to measure ship emissions and how to determine emission rates of individual ships out of those measurements. These emission rates are valuable input for the assessment of the influence of shipping emissions in regions close to the shipping lanes.
Andrea Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Annette Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5771–5789,Short summary
OMPS/NPP (2012–present) allows obtaining the tropospheric ozone column by combining ozone data from limb and nadir observations from the same instrument platform. In a first step, the retrieval of the total ozone column from the OMPS Nadir Mapper using the weighting function fitting approach (WFFA) is described here. The OMPS total ozone was compared with ground-based and other satellite measurements, showing agreement within 2.5 %.
Jing Feng, Yi Huang, and Zhipeng Qu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5717–5734,Short summary
It is challenging to measure the atmospheric conditions above convective storms. In this study, a method of retrieving thermodynamic variables above convective storms using a combination of satellite-based observations from a hyperspectral infrared sounder and active sensors is developed. We find that this method captures the spatial distributions of thermodynamic anomalies above convective clouds well. This method is potentially applicable to observations from current and future satellites.
Hannah Nesser, Daniel J. Jacob, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Tia R. Scarpelli, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Yuzhong Zhang, and Chris H. Rycroft
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5521–5534,Short summary
Analytical inversions of satellite observations of atmospheric composition can improve emissions estimates and quantify errors but are computationally expensive at high resolutions. We propose two methods to decrease this cost. The methods reproduce a high-resolution inversion at a quarter of the cost. The reduced-dimension method creates a multiscale grid. The reduced-rank method solves the inversion where information content is highest.
Alexander Polyakov, Anatoly Poberovsky, Maria Makarova, Yana Virolainen, Yuri Timofeyev, and Anastasiia Nikulina
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5349–5368,Short summary
The photolysis of CFCs, and to a lesser extent of HCFCs, in the stratosphere leads to the appearance of so-called ozone holes. We improve the retrieval strategies for deriving CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 from ground–based IR solar radiation spectra measured by a Bruker FS125HR spectrometer, analyze the time series at the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) site in St. Petersburg, Russia, and compare them to the independent data.
Matthieu Dogniaux, Cyril Crevoisier, Raymond Armante, Virginie Capelle, Thibault Delahaye, Vincent Cassé, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, David F. Pollard, Coleen M. Roehl, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4689–4706,Short summary
We present the Adaptable 4A Inversion (5AI), an implementation of the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm, relying on the Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A/OP) radiative transfer model, that enables the retrieval of greenhouse gas atmospheric weighted columns from infrared measurements. It is tested on a sample of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 observations, and its results satisfactorily compare to several reference products, thus showing the reliability of 5AI OE implementation.
Wenfu Tang, David P. Edwards, Louisa K. Emmons, Helen M. Worden, Laura M. Judd, Lok N. Lamsal, Jassim A. Al-Saadi, Scott J. Janz, James H. Crawford, Merritt N. Deeter, Gabriele Pfister, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Benjamin Gaubert, and Caroline R. Nowlan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4639–4655,Short summary
We use high-resolution airborne mapping spectrometer measurements to assess sub-grid variability within satellite pixels over urban regions. The sub-grid variability within satellite pixels increases with increasing satellite pixel sizes. Temporal variability within satellite pixels decreases with increasing satellite pixel sizes. This work is particularly relevant and useful for future satellite design, satellite data interpretation, and point-grid data comparisons.
Jerald R. Ziemke, Gordon J. Labow, Natalya A. Kramarova, Richard D. McPeters, Pawan K. Bhartia, Luke D. Oman, Stacey M. Frith, and David P. Haffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Seasonal and inter-annual ozone profile climatologies are produced from combined MLS and MERRA2 GMI ozone for the general public. Both climatologies extend from pole-to-pole at altitudes 0–80 km (1 km spacing) for time record 1970–2018. These climatologies are important for use as a priori in satellite ozone retrieval algorithms, as validation of other measured and model simulated ozone, and in radiative transfer studies of the atmosphere.
Lieuwe G. Tilstra, Olaf N. E. Tuinder, Ping Wang, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4219–4238,Short summary
In this paper we introduce the new concept of directionally dependent Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (DLER) of the Earth's surface retrieved from satellite observations. We apply this concept to data of the GOME-2 satellite instruments to create a global database of the reflectivity of the Earth's surface, providing surface DLER for 26 wavelength bands between 328 and 772 nm as a function of the satellite viewing angle via a second-degree polynomial parameterisation.
Xiaoli Sun, James B. Abshire, Anand Ramanathan, Stephan R. Kawa, and Jianping Mao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3909–3922,Short summary
This paper gives a detailed and complete description of the retrieval algorithm used in the multi-wavelength lidar for average column carbon dioxide mixing ratio measurements. The algorithm is similar to that used in passive trace-gas sounding and simultaneously solves for several parameters and provides the associated averaging kernel. The algorithm has been successfully used with the airborne lidar measurements. It can also be used with similar lidar for other trace-gas measurements.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, James R. Podolske, David F. Pollard, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3837–3869,Short summary
We present the first GOSAT and GOSAT-2 XCO2 data derived with the FOCAL retrieval algorithm. Comparisons of the GOSAT-FOCAL product with other data reveal long-term agreement within about 1 ppm over 1 decade, differences in seasonal variations of about 0.5 ppm, and a mean regional bias to ground-based TCCON data of 0.56 ppm with a mean scatter of 1.89 ppm. GOSAT-2-FOCAL data are preliminary only, but first comparisons show that they compare well with the GOSAT-FOCAL results and TCCON.
Nikita M. Fedkin, Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Pascal Hedelt, Diego G. Loyola, Russell R. Dickerson, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3673–3691,Short summary
This study presents a new volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) layer height retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We generated a large spectral dataset with a radiative transfer model and used it to train neural networks to predict SO2 height from OMI radiance data. The algorithm is fast and takes less than 10 min for a single orbit. Retrievals were tested on four eruption cases, and results had reasonable agreement (within 2 km) with other retrievals and previous studies.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Bart Dils, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Jean-Marc Metzger, Emmanuel Mahieu, Pucai Wang, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
NO is a key active trace gas in the atmosphere, which affects the atmospheric environment and human health. In this study, we show that the tropospheric and stratospheric NO partial columns can be observed from the ground-based FTIR measurements at a polluted site (Xianghe, China), but only stratospheric NO partial columns can be observed at a background site (Maïdo, Reunion Island). The variations of the NO observed by the FTIR measurements at the two sites are analyzed and discussed.
Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Debra Wunch, Joseph Mendonca, Colm Sweeney, Bianca Baier, Sébastien C. Biraud, Joshua L. Laughner, Geoffrey C. Toon, and Brian J. Connor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3087–3118,Short summary
We evaluate CO2 profile retrievals from ground-based near-infrared solar absorption spectra after implementing several improvements to the GFIT2 retrieval algorithm. Realistic errors in the a priori temperature profile (~ 2 °C in the lower troposphere) are found to be the leading source of differences between the retrieved and true CO2 profiles, differences that are larger than typical CO2 variability. A temperature retrieval or correction is critical to improve CO2 profile retrieval results.
David Garcia-Nieto, Nuria Benavent, Rafael Borge, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2941–2955,Short summary
Trace gases play a key role in the chemistry of urban atmospheres. Therefore, knowledge about their spatial distribution is needed to fully characterize the air quality in urban areas. Using a new Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy two-dimensional (MAXDOAS-2D) instrument, along with inversion algorithms, we report for the first time two-dimensional maps of NO2 concentrations in the city of Madrid, Spain.
Mohammad El Aabaribaoune, Emanuele Emili, and Vincent Guidard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2841–2856,Short summary
This work aims to use correlated IASI errors in the ozone band within a chemical transport model assimilation. The validation of the results against ozone observations from ozonesondes, MLS, and OMI instruments has shown an improvement of the ozone distribution. The computational time was also highly reduced. The surface sea temperature was also improved. The work aims to improve the quality of the ozone prediction, which is important for air quality, climate, and meteorological applications.
David R. Thompson, Brian H. Kahn, Philip G. Brodrick, Matthew D. Lebsock, Mark Richardson, and Robert O. Green
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2827–2840,Short summary
Concentrations of water vapor in the atmosphere vary dramatically over space and time. Mapping this variability can provide insights into atmospheric processes that help us understand atmospheric processes in the Earth system. Here we use a new measurement strategy based on imaging spectroscopy to map atmospheric water vapor concentrations at very small spatial scales. Experiments demonstrate the accuracy of this technique and some initial results from an airborne remote sensing experiment.
Daniel J. Varon, Dylan Jervis, Jason McKeever, Ian Spence, David Gains, and Daniel J. Jacob
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2771–2785,Short summary
Satellites can detect methane emissions by measuring sunlight reflected from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Here we show that the European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 twin satellites can be used to monitor anomalously large methane point sources around the world, with global coverage every 2–5 days and 20 m spatial resolution. We demonstrate this previously unreported capability through high-frequency Sentinel-2 monitoring of two strong methane point sources in Algeria and Turkmenistan.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Robert Spurr, Kai Yang, Caroline R. Nowlan, Christopher Chan Miller, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2659–2672,Short summary
We apply a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach combined with lookup tables (LUTs) of corrections to accelerate the VLIDORT radiative transfer (RT) model used in the retrieval of ozone profiles from backscattered ultraviolet (UV) measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI).
Eloise A. Marais, John F. Roberts, Robert G. Ryan, Henk Eskes, K. Folkert Boersma, Sungyeon Choi, Joanna Joiner, Nader Abuhassan, Alberto Redondas, Michel Grutter, Alexander Cede, Laura Gomez, and Monica Navarro-Comas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2389–2408,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides in the upper troposphere have a profound influence on the global troposphere, but routine reliable observations there are exceedingly rare. We apply cloud-slicing to TROPOMI total columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at high spatial resolution to derive near-global observations of NO2 in the upper troposphere and show consistency with existing datasets. These data offer tremendous potential to address knowledge gaps in this oft underappreciated portion of the atmosphere.
Ellis Remsberg, V. Lynn Harvey, Arlin Krueger, and Murali Natarajan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2185–2199,Short summary
The LIMS satellite instrument operated in 1978/1979 and provided profiles of temperature (T) and four key species. LIMS viewed the atmosphere in opposite directions on its ascending (A) vs. descending (D) orbital segments. We find that (A-D) diagnostic plots of the species contain residual T biases that are a problem for assimilation of profiles in re-analyses. Even so, the combined data yield fields of O3 and H2O that agree well with that of the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Vijay Natraj, Feng Xu, Sihe Chen, Fang-Ying Gong, Thomas J. Pongetti, Keeyoon Sung, Geoffrey Toon, Stanley P. Sander, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Large carbon source regions such as megacities are also typically associated with heavy aerosol loading, which introduces uncertainties in the retrieval of greenhouse gases from reflected and scattered sunlight measurements. In this study, we developed a full physics algorithm to retrieve greenhouse gases in the presence of aerosols and demonstrated its performance by retrieving CO2 and CH4 columns from remote sensing measurements in the Los Angeles megacity.
Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Oliver Schneising, Michael Hilker, Blanca Fuentes Andrade, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hartmut Boesch, Lianghai Wu, Jochen Landgraf, Ilse Aben, Christian Retscher, Christopher W. O'Dell, and David Crisp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2141–2166,Short summary
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during 2020 in large parts of the world. We have used a small ensemble of satellite retrievals of column-averaged CO2 (XCO2) to find out if a regional-scale reduction of atmospheric CO2 can be detected from space. We focus on East China and show that it is challenging to reliably detect and to accurately quantify the emission reduction, which only results in regional XCO2 reductions of about 0.1–0.2 ppm.
Nicola Zoppetti, Simone Ceccherini, Bruno Carli, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Cecilia Tirelli, Flavio Barbara, Rossana Dragani, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald van der A, and Ugo Cortesi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2041–2053,Short summary
The new platforms for Earth observation from space will provide an enormous amount of data that can be hard to exploit as a whole. The Complete Data Fusion algorithm can reduce the data volume while retaining the information of the full dataset. In this work, we applied the Complete Data Fusion algorithm to simulated ozone profiles, and the results show that the fused products are characterized by higher information content compared to individual L2 products.
Jakob Borchardt, Konstantin Gerilowski, Sven Krautwurst, Heinrich Bovensmann, Andrew K. Thorpe, David R. Thompson, Christian Frankenberg, Charles E. Miller, Riley M. Duren, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1267–1291,Short summary
The AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral imager has been used successfully to identify and quantify anthropogenic methane sources utilizing different retrieval and inversion methods. Here, we examine the adaption and application of the WFM-DOAS algorithm to AVIRIS-NG measurements to retrieve local methane column enhancements, compare the results with other retrievals, and quantify the uncertainties resulting from the retrieval method. Additionally, we estimate emissions from five detected methane plumes.
Stephanie P. Rusli, Otto Hasekamp, Joost aan de Brugh, Guangliang Fu, Yasjka Meijer, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1167–1190,Short summary
This study investigates the added value of multi-angle polarimeter (MAP) measurements for XCO2 retrievals, particularly in the context of the Copernicus Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Monitoring (CO2M) mission. In this paper, we derive the required MAP instrument specification, and we demonstrate that MAP observations significantly improve the retrieval performance and are needed to meet the XCO2 precision and accuracy requirements of the CO2M mission.
Bianca Lauster, Steffen Dörner, Steffen Beirle, Sebastian Donner, Sergey Gromov, Katharina Uhlmannsiek, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 769–783,Short summary
In urban areas, road traffic is a dominant source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, two multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments on opposite sides of a motorway were used to measure the nitrogen dioxide absorption near Mainz, Germany. Total nitrogen oxide emissions are estimated for the occurring traffic flux. We show that the measured emissions systematically exceed the maximum expected emissions calculated from the European emission standards.
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Andre Butz, Otto Hasekamp, Joost aan de Brugh, Andreas Schneider, Lianghai Wu, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Debra Wunch, David F. Pollard, Kei Shiomi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Coleen M. Roehl, Paul O. Wennberg, Thorsten Warneke, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 665–684,Short summary
TROPOMI aboard Sentinel-5P satellite provides methane (CH4) measurements with exceptional temporal and spatial resolution. The study describes a series of improvements developed to retrieve CH4 from TROPOMI. The updated CH4 product features (among others) a more accurate a posteriori correction derived independently of any reference data. The validation of the improved data product shows good agreement with ground-based and satellite measurements, which highlights the quality of the TROPOMI CH4.
Kimberlee Dubé, Adam Bourassa, Daniel Zawada, Douglas Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, David Flittner, and William Randel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 557–566,Short summary
SAGE III/ISS measures profiles of NO2; however the algorithm to convert raw measurements to NO2 concentration neglects variations caused by changes in chemistry over the course of a day. We devised a procedure to account for these diurnal variations and assess their impact on NO2 measurements from SAGE III/ISS. We find that the new NO2 concentration is more than 10 % lower than NO2 from the standard algorithm below 30 km, showing that this effect is important to consider at lower altitudes.
Lok N. Lamsal, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Alexander Vasilkov, Sergey Marchenko, Wenhan Qin, Eun-Su Yang, Zachary Fasnacht, Joanna Joiner, Sungyeon Choi, David Haffner, William H. Swartz, Bradford Fisher, and Eric Bucsela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 455–479,Short summary
The NASA standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) version 4.0 product for OMI Aura incorporates the most salient improvements. It represents the first global satellite trace gas retrieval with OMI–MODIS synergy accounting for surface reflectance anisotropy in cloud and NO2 retrievals. Improved spectral fitting procedures for NO2 and oxygen dimer (for cloud) retrievals and reliance on high-resolution field-of-view-specific input information for NO2 and cloud retrievals help enhance the NO2 data quality.
Diego Santaren, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Frédéric Chevallier, Denis Siméoni, Bo Zheng, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 403–433,Short summary
Atmospheric transport inversions with synthetic data are used to assess the potential of new satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 to monitor anthropogenic emissions from regions, cities and large industrial plants. The analysis, applied to a large ensemble of sources in western Europe, shows a strong dependence of the results on different characteristics of the spaceborne instrument, on the source emission budgets and spreads, and on the wind conditions.
Leslie David, François-Marie Bréon, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 117–132,Short summary
This paper shows that a neural network (NN) approach can be used to process spaceborne observations from the OCO-2 satellite and retrieve both surface pressure and atmospheric CO2 content. The accuracy evaluation indicates that the retrievals have an accuracy that is at least as good as those of the operational approach, which relies on complex algorithms and is computer intensive. The NN approach is therefore a promising alternative for the processing of CO2-monitoring missions.
Yunxia Huang, Vijay Natraj, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Pushkar Kopparla, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6755–6769,Short summary
As a greenhouse gas with strong global warming potential, atmospheric methane emissions have attracted a great deal of attention. However, accurate assessment of these emissions is challenging in the presence of atmospheric particulates called aerosols. We quantify the aerosol impact on methane quantification from airborne measurements using two techniques, one that has traditionally been used by the imaging spectroscopy community and the other commonly employed in trace gas remote sensing.
Gerrit Kuhlmann, Dominik Brunner, Grégoire Broquet, and Yasjka Meijer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6733–6754,Short summary
The European CO2M mission is a proposed constellation of CO2 imaging satellites expected to monitor CO2 emissions of large cities. Using synthetic observations, we show that a constellation of two or more satellites should be able to quantify Berlin's annual emissions with 10–20 % accuracy, even when considering atmospheric transport model errors. We therefore expect that CO2M will make an important contribution to the monitoring and verification of CO2 emissions from cities worldwide.
Wenjing Su, Cheng Liu, Ka Lok Chan, Qihou Hu, Haoran Liu, Xiangguang Ji, Yizhi Zhu, Ting Liu, Chengxin Zhang, Yujia Chen, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6271–6292,Short summary
The paper presents an improved retrieval of the TROPOMI tropospheric HCHO column over China. The new retrieval optimized both slant column retrieval and air mass factor calculation for TROPOMI observations of HCHO over China. The improved TROPOMI HCHO is subsequently validated by MAX-DOAS observations. Compared to the operational product, the improved HCHO agrees better with the MAX-DOAS data and thus is better suited for the analysis of regional- and city-scale pollution in China.
Anqi Li, Chris Z. Roth, Kristell Pérot, Ole Martin Christensen, Adam Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, and Donal P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6215–6236,Short summary
The OSIRIS IR imager, one of the instruments on the Odin satellite, routinely measures the oxygen airglow at 1.27 μm. In this study, we primarily focus on the steps done for retrieving the calibrated IRA band limb radiance, the volume emission rate of O2(a1∆g) and finally the ozone number density. Specifically, we use a novel approach to address the issue of the measurements that were made close to the local sunrise, where the O2(a1∆g) diverges from the equilibrium state.
Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Peter J. T. Leonard, Simon Carn, Joanna Joiner, Robert J. D. Spurr, and Alexander Vasilkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6175–6191,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important pollutant that causes haze and acid rain. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global observation of SO2 from space for over 15 years. In this paper, we introduce a new OMI SO2 dataset for global pollution monitoring. The dataset better accounts for the influences of different factors such as location and sun and satellite angles, leading to improved data quality. The new OMI SO2 dataset is publicly available through NASA's data center.
Yeyuan Huang, Ang Li, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhaokun Hu, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Hongmei Ren, Julia Remmers, Xiaoyi Fang, and Bing Dang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6025–6051,Short summary
Mobile DOAS has become an important tool for the quantification of emission sources. In this study, we focused on the error budget of mobile DOAS measurements from NOx and SO2 point sources based on the model simulations, and we also offered recommendations for the optimum settings of such measurements.
David M. Hyman and Michael J. Pavolonis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5891–5921,Short summary
Understanding the lateral extent, altitude, and amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important for studying volcanic clouds in support of aviation safety and for analyzing the effects of volcanoes on global climate. In this study, we detail an enhanced satellite measurement that provides probability distributions for the altitude and concentration of SO2 instead of single estimates using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Manfred Birk, Georg Wagner, Iouli E. Gordon, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5845–5854,Short summary
This paper evaluates different sets of high-resolution ozone absorption cross-section data for use in atmospheric ozone profile measurements in the Hartley and Huggins bands with a particular focus on BDM 1995 (Daumont et al. 1992; Brion et al., 1993; Malicet et al., 1995) currently used in our retrievals and a new laboratory dataset by Birk and Wagner (BW) (2018).
Cody M. Webber and John P. Kerekes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5359–5367,Short summary
Here we present a study performed to determine the methane detection capabilities of a novel remote thermal instrument, the Multiband Uncooled Radiometer Imager. We utilize a novel methane detection approach, the normalized differential methane index, that when applied to simulated multispectral thermal imagery with a single spectral channel dedicated to methane detection shows similar results to a state-of-the-art method, the matched-filter approach.
Minqiang Zhou, Pucai Wang, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Ting Wang, Yang Yang, Denghui Ji, Liang Ran, Jinqiang Zhang, Yuejian Xuan, Hongbin Chen, Françoise Posny, Valentin Duflot, Jean-Marc Metzger, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5379–5394,Short summary
We study O3 retrievals in the 3040 cm-1 spectral range from FTIR measurements at Xianghe China (39.75° N, 116.96° E; 50 m a.s.l.) between June 2018 and December 2019. It was found that the FTIR O3 (3040 cm-1) retrievals capture the seasonal and synoptic variations of O3 very well. The systematic and random uncertainties of FTIR O3 (3040 cm-1) total column are about 13.6 % and 1.4 %, respectively. The DOFS is 2.4±0.3 (1σ), with two individual pieces of information in surface–20 km and 20–40 km.
L. Larrabee Strow and Sergio DeSouza-Machado
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4619–4644,Short summary
The NASA AIRS satellite instrument has measured the infrared emission of the Earth continuously since 2002. If AIRS measurements are stable, these radiances can provide globally consistent multi-decadal trends of important climate variables, including the Earth's surface temperature, and the atmospheric temperature and humidity vs. height. Using the sensitivity of the AIRS radiances to well-known carbon dioxide trends, we show that AIRS is stable to 0.02 K per decade, well below climate trends.
Ka Lok Chan, Matthias Wiegner, Jos van Geffen, Isabelle De Smedt, Carlos Alberti, Zhibin Cheng, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4499–4520,Short summary
The paper presents 2D MAX-DOAS observations of vertical distributions of aerosol extinction, NO2 and HCHO in Munich. The measured surface aerosol extinction coefficients and NO2 mixing ratios are compared to in situ monitoring data. The NO2 and HCHO data are subsequently used to validate satellite measurements. The MAX-DOAS measurements are also used to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristic of NO2 and HCHO in Munich.
Thomas von Clarmann, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Stefan Bender, Amy Braverman, André Butz, Steven Compernolle, Robert Damadeo, Seth Dueck, Patrick Eriksson, Bernd Funke, Margaret C. Johnson, Yasuko Kasai, Arno Keppens, Anne Kleinert, Natalya A. Kramarova, Alexandra Laeng, Bavo Langerock, Vivienne H. Payne, Alexei Rozanov, Tomohiro O. Sato, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Sheese, Viktoria Sofieva, Gabriele P. Stiller, Christian von Savigny, and Daniel Zawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4393–4436,Short summary
Remote sensing of atmospheric state variables typically relies on the inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation. An adequately characterized retrieval provides information on the uncertainties of the estimated state variables as well as on how any constraint or a priori assumption affects the estimate. This paper summarizes related techniques and provides recommendations for unified error reporting.
Nadia Smith and Christopher D. Barnet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4437–4459,Short summary
We diagnose CLIMCAPS observing capability from two different instrument suites and satellite platforms using averaging kernels that quantify information content at every retrieval scene. CLIMCAPS retrieves atmospheric state variables from infrared and microwave measurements and is designed to maintain consistency across time to support climate science and applications. We use averaging kernels to characterize the degree to which we achieved consistency in CLIMCAPS V2 observing capability.
Marc Schwaerzel, Claudia Emde, Dominik Brunner, Randulph Morales, Thomas Wagner, Alexis Berne, Brigitte Buchmann, and Gerrit Kuhlmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4277–4293,Short summary
Horizontal homogeneity is often assumed for trace gases remote sensing, although it is not valid where trace gas concentrations have high spatial variability, e.g., in cities. We show the importance of 3D effects for MAX-DOAS and airborne imaging spectrometers using 3D-box air mass factors implemented in the MYSTIC radiative transfer solver. In both cases, 3D information is invaluable for interpreting the measurements, as not considering 3D effects can lead to misinterpretation of measurements.
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Bruns, M., Buehler, S. A., Burrows, J. P., Heue, K.-P., Platt, U., Pundt, I., Richter, A., Rozanov, A., Wagner, T., and Wang, P.: Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV-visible skylight absorption measurements, Appl. Optics, 43, 4415–4426, https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.43.004415, 2004.
Bruns, M., Buehler, S. A., Burrows, J. P., Richter, A., Rozanov, A., Wang, P., Heue, K. P., Platt, U., Pundt, I., and Wagner, T.: NO2 Profile retrieval using airborne multi axis UV-visible skylight absorption measurements over central Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3049–3058, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-3049-2006, 2006.
Butz, A., Bösch, H., Camy-Peyret, C., Chipperfield, M., Dorf, M., Dufour, G., Grunow, K., Jeseck, P., Kühl, S., Payan, S., Pepin, I., Pukite, J., Rozanov, A., von Savigny, C., Sioris, C., Wagner, T., Weidner, F., and Pfeilsticker, K.: Inter-comparison of stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances retrieved from balloon borne direct sun observations and Envisat/SCIAMACHY limb measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1293–1314, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-1293-2006, 2006.
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Gurlit, W., Bösch, H., Bovensmann, H., Burrows, J. P., Butz, A., Camy-Peyret, C., Dorf, M., Gerilowski, K., Lindner, A., Noël, S., Platt, U., Weidner, F., and Pfeilsticker, K.: The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: inter-comparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1879–1890, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-1879-2005, 2005.
Harder, H., Camy-Peyret, C., Ferlemann, F., Fitzenberger, R., Hawat, T., Osterkamp, H., Schneider, M., Perner, D., Platt, U., Vradelis, P., and Pfeilsticker, K.: Stratospheric BrO profiles measured at different latitudes and seasons: atmospheric observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3843–3846, 1998.
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