Articles | Volume 11, issue 5
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Snowfall retrieval at X, Ka and W bands: consistency of backscattering and microphysical properties using BAECC ground-based measurements
Marta Tecla Falconi
Department of Information Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy and CETEMPS, L'Aquila, Italy
Space and Earth Observation Center, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Frank Silvio Marzano
Department of Information Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy and CETEMPS, L'Aquila, Italy
Space and Earth Observation Center, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
No articles found.
Haoran Li, Dmitri Moisseev, Yali Luo, Liping Liu, Zheng Ruan, Liman Cui, and Xinghua Bao
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1033–1046,Short summary
A rainfall event that occurred at Zhengzhou on 20 July 2021 caused tremendous loss of life and property. This study compares different KDP estimation methods as well as the resulting QPE outcomes. The results show that the selection of the KDP estimation method has minimal impact on QPE, whereas the inadequate assumption of rain microphysics and unquantified vertical air motion may explain the underestimated 201.9 mm h−1 record.
Jenna Ritvanen, Ewan O'Connor, Dmitri Moisseev, Raisa Lehtinen, Jani Tyynelä, and Ludovic Thobois
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6507–6519,Short summary
Doppler lidars and weather radars provide accurate wind measurements, with Doppler lidar usually performing better in dry weather conditions and weather radar performing better when there is precipitation. Operating both instruments together should therefore improve the overall performance. We investigate how well a co-located Doppler lidar and X-band radar perform with respect to various weather conditions, including changes in horizontal visibility, cloud altitude, and precipitation.
Silvia M. Calderón, Juha Tonttila, Angela Buchholz, Jorma Joutsensaari, Mika Komppula, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Dmitri Moisseev, Iida Pullinen, Petri Tiitta, Jian Xu, Annele Virtanen, Harri Kokkola, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12417–12441,Short summary
The spatial and temporal restrictions of observations and oversimplified aerosol representation in large eddy simulations (LES) limit our understanding of aerosol–stratocumulus interactions. In this closure study of in situ and remote sensing observations and outputs from UCLALES–SALSA, we have assessed the role of convective overturning and aerosol effects in two cloud events observed at the Puijo SMEAR IV station, Finland, a diurnal-high aerosol case and a nocturnal-low aerosol case.
Leonie von Terzi, José Dias Neto, Davide Ori, Alexander Myagkov, and Stefan Kneifel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11795–11821,Short summary
We present a statistical analysis of ice microphysical processes (IMP) in mid-latitude clouds. Combining various radar approaches, we find that the IMP active at −20 to −10 °C seems to be the main driver of ice particle size, shape and concentration. The strength of aggregation at −20 to −10 °C correlates with the increase in concentration and aspect ratio of locally formed ice particles. Despite ongoing aggregation, the concentration of ice particles stays enhanced until −4 °C.
Roberto Cremonini, Tanel Voormansik, Piia Post, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Climatology of extreme rainfalls for a certain location is crucial for several applications. This study investigates the use of weather polarimetric data to estimate annual hourly maxima in Italy and Estonia. The results demonstrate that thanks to weather radar's high spatial resolution, even a limited-time series of polarimetric weather radar observations can provide reliable estimations of extreme values distribution parameters for rainfall maxima in climatological homogeneous regions.
Annakaisa von Lerber, Mario Mech, Annette Rinke, Damao Zhang, Melanie Lauer, Ana Radovan, Irina Gorodetskaya, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7287–7317,Short summary
Snowfall is an important climate indicator. However, microphysical snowfall processes are challenging for atmospheric models. In this study, the performance of a regional climate model is evaluated in modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of Arctic snowfall when compared to CloudSat satellite observations. Excellent agreement in averaged annual snowfall rates is found, and the shown methodology offers a promising diagnostic tool to investigate the shown differences further.
Victoria Anne Sinclair, Jenna Ritvanen, Gabin Urbancic, Irina Statnaia, Yurii Batrak, Dmitri Moisseev, and Mona Kurppa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3075–3103,Short summary
We investigate the boundary-layer (BL) height and surface stability in southern Finland using radiosondes, a microwave radiometer and ERA5 reanalysis. Accurately quantifying the BL height is challenging, and the diagnosed BL height can depend strongly on the method used. Microwave radiometers provide reliable estimates of the BL height but only in unstable conditions. ERA5 captures the BL height well except under very stable conditions, which occur most commonly at night during the warm season.
Zoé Brasseur, Dimitri Castarède, Erik S. Thomson, Michael P. Adams, Saskia Drossaart van Dusseldorp, Paavo Heikkilä, Kimmo Korhonen, Janne Lampilahti, Mikhail Paramonov, Julia Schneider, Franziska Vogel, Yusheng Wu, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Nina S. Atanasova, Dennis H. Bamford, Barbara Bertozzi, Matthew Boyer, David Brus, Martin I. Daily, Romy Fösig, Ellen Gute, Alexander D. Harrison, Paula Hietala, Kristina Höhler, Zamin A. Kanji, Jorma Keskinen, Larissa Lacher, Markus Lampimäki, Janne Levula, Antti Manninen, Jens Nadolny, Maija Peltola, Grace C. E. Porter, Pyry Poutanen, Ulrike Proske, Tobias Schorr, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, János Stenszky, Annele Virtanen, Dmitri Moisseev, Markku Kulmala, Benjamin J. Murray, Tuukka Petäjä, Ottmar Möhler, and Jonathan Duplissy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5117–5145,Short summary
The present measurement report introduces the ice nucleation campaign organized in Hyytiälä, Finland, in 2018 (HyICE-2018). We provide an overview of the campaign settings, and we describe the measurement infrastructure and operating procedures used. In addition, we use results from ice nucleation instrument inter-comparison to show that the suite of these instruments deployed during the campaign reports consistent results.
Alexander Myagkov and Davide Ori
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1333–1354,Short summary
This study provides equations to characterize random errors of spectral polarimetric observations from cloud radars. The results can be used for a broad spectrum of applications. For instance, accurate error characterization is essential for advanced retrievals of microphysical properties of clouds and precipitation. Moreover, error characterization allows for the use of measurements from polarimetric cloud radars to potentially improve weather forecasts.
Teresa Vogl, Maximilian Maahn, Stefan Kneifel, Willi Schimmel, Dmitri Moisseev, and Heike Kalesse-Los
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 365–381,Short summary
We are using machine learning techniques, a type of artificial intelligence, to detect graupel formation in clouds. The measurements used as input to the machine learning framework were performed by cloud radars. Cloud radars are instruments located at the ground, emitting radiation with wavelenghts of a few millimeters vertically into the cloud and measuring the back-scattered signal. Our novel technique can be applied to different radar systems and different weather conditions.
Markus Karrer, Axel Seifert, Davide Ori, and Stefan Kneifel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17133–17166,Short summary
Modeling precipitation is of great relevance, e.g., for mitigating damage caused by extreme weather. A key component in accurate precipitation modeling is aggregation, i.e., sticking together of snowflakes. Simulating aggregation is difficult due to multiple parameters that are not well-known. Knowing how these parameters affect aggregation can help its simulation. We put new parameters in the model and select a combination of parameters with which the model can simulate observations better.
Anna Franck, Dmitri Moisseev, Ville Vakkari, Matti Leskinen, Janne Lampilahti, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Ewan O'Connor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7341–7353,Short summary
We proposed a method to derive a convective boundary layer height, using insects in radar observations, and we investigated the consistency of these retrievals among different radar frequencies (5, 35 and 94 GHz). This method can be applied to radars at other measurement stations and serve as additional way to estimate the boundary layer height during summer. The entrainment zone was also observed by the 5 GHz radar above the boundary layer in the form of a Bragg scatter layer.
Haoran Li, Ottmar Möhler, Tuukka Petäjä, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14671–14686,Short summary
In natural clouds, ice-nucleating particles are expected to be rare above –10 °C. In the current paper, we found that the formation of ice columns is frequent in stratiform clouds and is associated with increased precipitation intensity and liquid water path. In single-layer shallow clouds, the production of ice columns was attributed to secondary ice production, despite the rime-splintering process not being expected to take place in such clouds.
Haoran Li, Alexei Korolev, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13593–13608,Short summary
Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) clouds embedded in a stratiform precipitation event were uncovered via radar Doppler spectral analysis. Given the unprecedented detail of the observations, we show that multiple populations of secondary ice columns were generated in the pockets where larger cloud droplets are formed and not at some constant level within the cloud. Our results highlight that the K–H instability is favorable for liquid droplet growth and secondary ice formation.
Davide Ori, Leonie von Terzi, Markus Karrer, and Stefan Kneifel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1511–1531,Short summary
Snowflakes have very complex shapes, and modeling their properties requires vast computing power. We produced a large number of realistic snowflakes and modeled their average properties by leveraging their fractal structure. Our approach allows modeling the properties of big ensembles of snowflakes, taking into account their natural variability, at a much lower cost. This enables the usage of remote sensing instruments, such as radars, to monitor the evolution of clouds and precipitation.
Julia Schneider, Kristina Höhler, Paavo Heikkilä, Jorma Keskinen, Barbara Bertozzi, Pia Bogert, Tobias Schorr, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Franziska Vogel, Zoé Brasseur, Yusheng Wu, Simo Hakala, Jonathan Duplissy, Dmitri Moisseev, Markku Kulmala, Michael P. Adams, Benjamin J. Murray, Kimmo Korhonen, Liqing Hao, Erik S. Thomson, Dimitri Castarède, Thomas Leisner, Tuukka Petäjä, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3899–3918,Short summary
By triggering the formation of ice crystals, ice-nucleating particles (INP) strongly influence cloud formation. Continuous, long-term measurements are needed to characterize the atmospheric INP variability. Here, a first long-term time series of INP spectra measured in the boreal forest for more than 1 year is presented, showing a clear seasonal cycle. It is shown that the seasonal dependency of INP concentrations and prevalent INP types is driven by the abundance of biogenic aerosol.
Tanel Voormansik, Roberto Cremonini, Piia Post, and Dmitri Moisseev
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1245–1258,Short summary
A long set of operational polarimetric weather radar rainfall accumulations from Estonia and Italy are generated and investigated. Results show that the combined product of specific differential phase and horizontal reflectivity yields the best results when compared to rain gauge measurements. The specific differential-phase-based product overestimates weak precipitation, and the horizontal-reflectivity-based product underestimates heavy rainfall in all analysed accumulation periods.
Kamil Mróz, Alessandro Battaglia, Stefan Kneifel, Leonie von Terzi, Markus Karrer, and Davide Ori
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 511–529,Short summary
The article examines the relationship between the characteristics of rain and the properties of the ice cloud from which the rain originated. Our results confirm the widely accepted assumption that the mass flux through the melting zone is well preserved with an exception of extreme aggregation and riming conditions. Moreover, it is shown that the mean (mass-weighted) size of particles above and below the melting zone is strongly linked, with the former being on average larger.
Jie Gong, Xiping Zeng, Dong L. Wu, S. Joseph Munchak, Xiaowen Li, Stefan Kneifel, Davide Ori, Liang Liao, and Donifan Barahona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12633–12653,Short summary
This work provides a novel way of using polarized passive microwave measurements to study the interlinked cloud–convection–precipitation processes. The magnitude of differences between polarized radiances is found linked to ice microphysics (shape, size, orientation and density), mesoscale dynamic and thermodynamic structures, and surface precipitation. We conclude that passive sensors with multiple polarized channel pairs may serve as cheaper and useful substitutes for spaceborne radar sensors.
Mario Mech, Maximilian Maahn, Stefan Kneifel, Davide Ori, Emiliano Orlandi, Pavlos Kollias, Vera Schemann, and Susanne Crewell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4229–4251,Short summary
The Passive and Active Microwave TRAnsfer tool (PAMTRA) is a public domain software package written in Python and Fortran for the simulation of microwave remote sensing observations. PAMTRA models the interaction of radiation with gases, clouds, precipitation, and the surface using either in situ observations or model output as input parameters. The wide range of applications is demonstrated for passive (radiometer) and active (radar) instruments on ground, airborne, and satellite platforms.
Michael Fehlmann, Mario Rohrer, Annakaisa von Lerber, and Markus Stoffel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4683–4698,Short summary
The Thies disdrometer is used to monitor precipitation intensity and its phase and thus may provide valuable information for the management of meteorological and hydrological risks. In this study, we characterize biases of this instrument using common reference instruments at a pre-alpine study site in Switzerland. We find a systematic underestimation of liquid precipitation amounts and suggest possible reasons for and corrections to this bias and relate these findings to other study sites.
Haoran Li, Jussi Tiira, Annakaisa von Lerber, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9547–9562,Short summary
A method for classifying rimed and unrimed snow based on X- and Ka-band Doppler radar measurements is developed and applied to synergetic radar observations collected during BAECC 2014. The results show that the radar-observed melting layer properties are highly related to the precipitation intensity. The previously reported bright band sagging is mainly connected to the increase in precipitation intensity, while riming plays a secondary role.
Tuukka Petäjä, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ksenia Tabakova, Julia Schmale, Barbara Altstädter, Gerard Ancellet, Mikhail Arshinov, Yurii Balin, Urs Baltensperger, Jens Bange, Alison Beamish, Boris Belan, Antoine Berchet, Rossana Bossi, Warren R. L. Cairns, Ralf Ebinghaus, Imad El Haddad, Beatriz Ferreira-Araujo, Anna Franck, Lin Huang, Antti Hyvärinen, Angelika Humbert, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Pavel Konstantinov, Astrid Lampert, Matthew MacLeod, Olivier Magand, Alexander Mahura, Louis Marelle, Vladimir Masloboev, Dmitri Moisseev, Vaios Moschos, Niklas Neckel, Tatsuo Onishi, Stefan Osterwalder, Aino Ovaska, Pauli Paasonen, Mikhail Panchenko, Fidel Pankratov, Jakob B. Pernov, Andreas Platis, Olga Popovicheva, Jean-Christophe Raut, Aurélie Riandet, Torsten Sachs, Rosamaria Salvatori, Roberto Salzano, Ludwig Schröder, Martin Schön, Vladimir Shevchenko, Henrik Skov, Jeroen E. Sonke, Andrea Spolaor, Vasileios K. Stathopoulos, Mikko Strahlendorff, Jennie L. Thomas, Vito Vitale, Sterios Vratolis, Carlo Barbante, Sabine Chabrillat, Aurélien Dommergue, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jyri Heilimo, Kathy S. Law, Andreas Massling, Steffen M. Noe, Jean-Daniel Paris, André S. H. Prévôt, Ilona Riipinen, Birgit Wehner, Zhiyong Xie, and Hanna K. Lappalainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8551–8592,Short summary
The role of polar regions is increasing in terms of megatrends such as globalization, new transport routes, demography, and the use of natural resources with consequent effects on regional and transported pollutant concentrations. Here we summarize initial results from our integrative project exploring the Arctic environment and pollution to deliver data products, metrics, and indicators for stakeholders.
Jussi Tiira and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1227–1241,Short summary
Modern weather radars are sensitive for properties of precipitating snow particles, such as their sizes, shapes and number concentration. Vertical profiles of such radar measurements can be used for studying the processes through which snow is formed. We created a profile classification method for this purpose, and we show how it can be used for automatic identification of snow growth processes. Being able to identify the processes is expected to improve radar-based precipitation estimation.
Shannon L. Mason, Robin J. Hogan, Christopher D. Westbrook, Stefan Kneifel, Dmitri Moisseev, and Leonie von Terzi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4993–5018,Short summary
The mass contents of snowflakes are critical to remotely sensed estimates of snowfall. The signatures of snow measured at three radar frequencies can distinguish fluffy, fractal snowflakes from dense and more homogeneous rimed snow. However, we show that the shape of the particle size spectrum also has a significant impact on triple-frequency radar signatures and must be accounted for when making triple-frequency radar estimates of snow that include variations in particle structure and density.
José Dias Neto, Stefan Kneifel, Davide Ori, Silke Trömel, Jan Handwerker, Birger Bohn, Normen Hermes, Kai Mühlbauer, Martin Lenefer, and Clemens Simmer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 845–863,Short summary
This study describes a 2-month dataset of ground-based, vertically pointing triple-frequency cloud radar observations recorded during the winter season 2015/2016 in Jülich, Germany. Intensive quality control has been applied to the unique long-term dataset, which allows the multifrequency signatures of ice and snow particles to be statistically analyzed for the first time. The analysis includes, for example, aggregation and its dependence on cloud temperature, riming, and onset of melting.
Gwo-Jong Huang, Viswanathan N. Bringi, Andrew J. Newman, Gyuwon Lee, Dmitri Moisseev, and Branislav M. Notaroš
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1409–1427,Short summary
This paper proposes a method for snow rate (SR) estimation using observations collected by NASA dual-frequency dual-polarized (D3R) radar during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx). The new method utilizes dual-wavelength radar reflectivity ratio (DWR) and 2-D-video disdrometer (2DVD) measurements to improve SR estimation accuracy. It is validated by comparing the D3R radar-retrieved SR with accumulated SR directly measured by a Pluvio gauge for an entire GCPEx synoptic event.
Jussi Leinonen, Matthew D. Lebsock, Simone Tanelli, Ousmane O. Sy, Brenda Dolan, Randy J. Chase, Joseph A. Finlon, Annakaisa von Lerber, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5471–5488,Short summary
We developed a technique for inferring the physical properties (amount, size and density) of falling snow from radar observations made using multiple different frequencies. We tested this method using measurements from airborne radar and compared the results to direct measurements from another aircraft, as well as ground-based radar. The results demonstrate that multifrequency radars have significant advantages over those with a single frequency in determining the snow size and density.
Ida Maiello, Sabrina Gentile, Rossella Ferretti, Luca Baldini, Nicoletta Roberto, Errico Picciotti, Pier Paolo Alberoni, and Frank Silvio Marzano
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5459–5476,Short summary
In this paper the impact of multiple radar reflectivity data assimilation on a flash flood event occurred during SOP1 of the HyMeX campaign has been evaluated: the aim is to build a regionally tuned numerical prediction model and decision-support system for environmental civil protection services within the central Italian regions. The results are encouraging, but a significant number of flash flood cases and a deeper analysis of the meteorology of the region are necessary.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Roberto Cremonini, Dmitri Moisseev, and Venkatachalam Chandrasekar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5063–5075,Short summary
Although high-spatial-resolution weather radar observations are of primary relevance for urban hydrology, weather radar siting and characterization are challenging in an urban environment. Buildings, masts and trees cause partial beam blockages and clutter that seriously affect the observations. For the first time, this paper investigates the benefits of using airborne laser scanner (ALS) data for quantitative estimations of partial beam blockages in an urban environment.
Jussi Tiira, Dmitri N. Moisseev, Annakaisa von Lerber, Davide Ori, Ali Tokay, Larry F. Bliven, and Walter Petersen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4825–4841,Short summary
In this study winter measurements collected in Southern Finland are used to document microphysical properties of falling snow. It is shown that a new video imager can be used for such studies. Snow properties do vary between winters.
Vincenzo Capozzi, Errico Picciotti, Vincenzo Mazzarella, Giorgio Budillon, and Frank Silvio Marzano
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This work explores the potentialities in urban hailstorms detection of X-band miniradar measurements. The results show that the latter are suitable for early monitoring of hail events at urban scale, especially when combined with conventional meteorological data. The experimental hail detection product developed in this study, although trained for a specific urban environment (i.e. Naples urban area), can be easily adapted to other areas where detailed meteorological information is needed.
R. Ferretti, E. Pichelli, S. Gentile, I. Maiello, D. Cimini, S. Davolio, M. M. Miglietta, G. Panegrossi, L. Baldini, F. Pasi, F. S. Marzano, A. Zinzi, S. Mariani, M. Casaioli, G. Bartolini, N. Loglisci, A. Montani, C. Marsigli, A. Manzato, A. Pucillo, M. E. Ferrario, V. Colaiuda, and R. Rotunno
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1953–1977,
A. Hirsikko, E. J. O'Connor, M. Komppula, K. Korhonen, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, C. R. Wood, M. Bauer-Pfundstein, A. Poikonen, T. Karppinen, H. Lonka, M. Kurri, J. Heinonen, D. Moisseev, E. Asmi, V. Aaltonen, A. Nordbo, E. Rodriguez, H. Lihavainen, A. Laaksonen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, T. Laurila, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and Y. Viisanen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1351–1375,
D. Cimini, F. Romano, E. Ricciardelli, F. Di Paola, M. Viggiano, F. S. Marzano, V. Colaiuda, E. Picciotti, G. Vulpiani, and V. Cuomo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3181–3196,
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Demonstrator in support of the Aeolus wind product validationDetection and Localization of F-layer Ionospheric Irregularities with Back Propagation Method Along Radio Occultation Ray PathCloud-probability-based estimation of black-sky surface albedo from AVHRR dataA high-resolution monitoring approach of canopy urban heat island using a random forest model and multi-platform observationsDifferential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor by the High Altitude Lidar Observatory (HALO): retrieval framework and first resultsImproving thermodynamic profile retrievals from microwave radiometers by including radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) observationsCalibration of radar differential reflectivity using quasi-vertical profiles
Mathieu Ratynski, Sergey Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, Robin Wing, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Yann Hello, and Philippe Keckhut
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 997–1016,Short summary
Aeolus is the first spaceborne wind lidar providing global wind measurements since 2018. This study offers a comprehensive analysis of Aeolus instrument performance, using ground-based wind lidars and meteorological radiosondes, at tropical and mid-latitudes sites. The analysis allows assessing the long-term evolution of the satellite's performance for more than 3 years. The results will help further elaborate the understanding of the error sources and the behavior of the Doppler wind lidar.
Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, Gionata Ghiggi, Louis Jaffeux, Audrey Martini, Nicolas Viltard, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 911–940,Short summary
Better understanding and modeling snowfall properties and processes is relevant to many fields, ranging from weather forecasting to aircraft safety. Meteorological radars can be used to gain insights into the microphysics of snowfall. In this work, we propose a new method to retrieve snowfall properties from measurements of radars with different frequencies. It relies on an original deep-learning framework, which incorporates knowledge of the underlying physics, i.e., electromagnetic scattering.
Chia-Lun Tsai, Kwonil Kim, Yu-Chieng Liou, and GyuWon Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 845–869,Short summary
Since the winds in clear-air conditions usually play an important role in the initiation of various weather systems and phenomena, the modified Wind Synthesis System using Doppler Measurements (WISSDOM) synthesis scheme was developed to derive high-quality and high-spatial-resolution 3D winds under clear-air conditions. The performance and accuracy of derived 3D winds from this modified scheme were evaluated with an extreme strong wind event over complex terrain in Pyeongchang, South Korea.
Simone Kotthaus, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Martine Collaud Coen, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Maria João Costa, Domenico Cimini, Ewan J. O'Connor, Maxime Hervo, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, María Jiménez-Portaz, Lucia Mona, Dominique Ruffieux, Anthony Illingworth, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 433–479,Short summary
Profile observations of the atmospheric boundary layer now allow for layer heights and characteristics to be derived at high temporal and vertical resolution. With novel high-density ground-based remote-sensing measurement networks emerging, horizontal information content is also increasing. This review summarises the capabilities and limitations of various sensors and retrieval algorithms which need to be considered during the harmonisation of data products for high-impact applications.
Michael Frech, Cornelius Hald, Maximilian Schaper, Bertram Lange, and Benjamin Rohrdantz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 295–309,Short summary
Weather radar data are the backbone of a lot of meteorological products. In order to obtain a better low-level coverage with radar data, additional systems have to be included. The frequency range in which radars are allowed to operate is limited. A potential radar-to-radar interference has to be avoided. The paper derives guidelines on how additional radars can be included into a C-band weather radar network and how interferences can be avoided.
Yeeun Lee, Myoung-Hwan Ahn, Mina Kang, and Mijin Eo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 153–168,Short summary
This study aims to verify that a partly defective hyperspectral measurement can be successfully reproduced with concise machine learning models coupled with principal component analysis. Evaluation of the approach is performed with radiances and retrieval results of ozone and cloud properties. Considering that GEMS is the first geostationary UV–VIS hyperspectral spectrometer, we expect our findings can be introduced further to similar geostationary environmental instruments to be launched soon.
Mathias Gergely, Maximilian Schaper, Matthias Toussaint, and Michael Frech
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7315–7335,Short summary
This study presents the new vertically pointing birdbath scan of the German C-band radar network, which provides high-resolution profiles of precipitating clouds above all DWD weather radars since the spring of 2021. Our AI-based postprocessing method for filtering and analyzing the recorded radar data offers a unique quantitative view into a wide range of precipitation events from snowfall over stratiform rain to intense frontal showers and will be used to complement DWD's operational services.
Kenneth A. Brown and Thomas G. Herges
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7211–7234,Short summary
The character of the airflow around and within wind farms has a significant impact on the energy output and longevity of the wind turbines in the farm. For both research and control purposes, accurate measurements of the wind speed are required, and these are often accomplished with remote sensing devices. This article pertains to a field experiment of a lidar mounted to a wind turbine and demonstrates three data post-processing techniques with efficacy at extracting useful airflow information.
Xavier Calbet, Cintia Carbajal Henken, Sergio DeSouza-Machado, Bomin Sun, and Tony Reale
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7105–7118,Short summary
Water vapor concentration in the atmosphere at small scales (< 6 km) is considered. The measurements show Gaussian random field behavior following Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence two-thirds law. These properties can be useful when estimating the water vapor variability within a given observed satellite scene or when different water vapor measurements have to be merged consistently.
Qiuyu Chen, Konstantin Ntokas, Björn Linder, Lukas Krasauskas, Manfred Ern, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Erich Becker, Martin Kaufmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7071–7103,Short summary
Observations of phase speed and direction spectra as well as zonal mean net gravity wave momentum flux are required to understand how gravity waves reach the mesosphere–lower thermosphere and how they there interact with background flow. To this end we propose flying two CubeSats, each deploying a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for limb observation of the airglow. End-to-end simulations demonstrate that individual gravity waves are retrieved faithfully for the expected instrument performance.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Ingrid Ingemarsson, Patrick Eriksson, Daniel A. Vila, and Alan J. P. Calheiros
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6907–6933,Short summary
We used methods from the field of artificial intelligence to train an algorithm to estimate rain from satellite observations. In contrast to other methods, our algorithm not only estimates rain, but also the uncertainty of the estimate. Using independent measurements from rain gauges, we show that our method performs better than currently available methods and that the provided uncertainty estimates are reliable. Our method makes satellite-based measurements of rain more accurate and reliable.
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The atmosphere can cause radar beams to bend more or less towards the ground. When the atmosphere differs from standard atmospheric conditions the propagation is called anomalous. Radars affected by anomalous propagation can receive ground clutter far beyond the radar horizon. In this work 4.5 years of data from five operational Swedish weather radars are presented. Analyses of the data reveal a strong seasonal cycle and weaker diurnal cycle in ground clutter from across nearby waters.
Maximilian Schaper, Michael Frech, David Michaelis, Cornelius Hald, and Benjamin Rohrdantz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6625–6642,Short summary
C-band weather radar data are commonly compromised by radio frequency interference (RFI) from external sources. It is not possible to separate a superimposed interference signal from the radar data. Therefore, the best course of action is to shut down RFI sources as quickly as possible. An automated RFI detection algorithm has been developed. Since its implementation, persistent RFI sources are eliminated much more quickly, while the number of short-lived RFI sources keeps steadily increasing.
Oliver Lux, Benjamin Witschas, Alexander Geiß, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Uwe Marksteiner, Stephan Rahm, Andreas Schäfler, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6467–6488,Short summary
We discuss the influence of different quality control schemes on the results of Aeolus wind product validation and present statistical tools for ensuring consistency and comparability among diverse validation studies with regard to the specific error characteristics of the Rayleigh-clear and Mie-cloudy winds. The developed methods are applied for the validation of Aeolus winds against an ECMWF model background and airborne wind lidar data from the Joint Aeolus Tropical Atlantic Campaign.
Alex T. Chartier, Thomas R. Hanley, and Daniel J. Emmons
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6387–6393,Short summary
This is a study of anomalous long-distance (>1000 km) radio propagation that was identified in United States Coast Guard monitors of automatic identification system (AIS) shipping transmissions at 162 MHz. Our results indicate this long-distance propagation is caused by dense sporadic E layers in the daytime ionosphere, which were observed by nearby ionosondes at the same time. This finding is surprising because it indicates these sporadic E layers may be far more dense than previously thought.
Johannes K. Nielsen, Hans Gleisner, Stig Syndergaard, and Kent B. Lauritsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6243–6256,Short summary
This paper provides a new way to estimate uncertainties and error correlations. The method is a generalization of a known method called the
three-cornered hat: Instead of calculating uncertainties from assumed knowledge about the observation method, uncertainties and error correlations are estimated statistically from tree independent observation series, measuring the same variable. The results are useful for future estimation of atmospheric-specific humidity from the bending of radio waves.
Fraser King, George Duffy, Lisa Milani, Christopher G. Fletcher, Claire Pettersen, and Kerstin Ebell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6035–6050,Short summary
Under warmer global temperatures, precipitation patterns are expected to shift substantially, with critical impact on the global water-energy budget. In this work, we develop a deep learning model for predicting snow and rain accumulation based on surface radar observations of the lower atmosphere. Our model demonstrates improved skill over traditional methods and provides new insights into the regions of the atmosphere that provide the most significant contributions to high model accuracy.
Matthias Aichinger-Rosenberger, Elmar Brockmann, Laura Crocetti, Benedikt Soja, and Gregor Moeller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5821–5839,Short summary
This study develops an innovative approach for the detection and prediction of foehn winds. The approach uses products generated from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) in combination with machine learning-based classification algorithms to detect and predict foehn winds at Altdorf, Switzerland. Results are encouraging and comparable to similar studies using meteorological data, which might qualify the method as an additional tool for short-term foehn forecasting in the future.
Gunter Stober, Alan Liu, Alexander Kozlovsky, Zishun Qiao, Ales Kuchar, Christoph Jacobi, Chris Meek, Diego Janches, Guiping Liu, Masaki Tsutsumi, Njål Gulbrandsen, Satonori Nozawa, Mark Lester, Evgenia Belova, Johan Kero, and Nicholas Mitchell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5769–5792,Short summary
Precise and accurate measurements of vertical winds at the mesosphere and lower thermosphere are rare. Although meteor radars have been used for decades to observe horizontal winds, their ability to derive reliable vertical wind measurements was always questioned. In this article, we provide mathematical concepts to retrieve mathematically and physically consistent solutions, which are compared to the state-of-the-art non-hydrostatic model UA-ICON.
Benjamin Schumacher, Marwan Katurji, Jiawei Zhang, Peyman Zawar-Reza, Benjamin Adams, and Matthias Zeeman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5681–5700,Short summary
This investigation presents adaptive thermal image velocimetry (A-TIV), a newly developed algorithm to spatially measure near-surface atmospheric velocities using an infrared camera mounted on uncrewed aerial vehicles. A validation and accuracy assessment of the retrieved velocity fields shows the successful application of the algorithm over short-cut grass and turf surfaces in dry conditions. This provides new opportunities for atmospheric scientists to study surface–atmosphere interactions.
Laura M. Tomkins, Sandra E. Yuter, Matthew A. Miller, and Luke R. Allen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5515–5525,Short summary
Locally higher radar reflectivity values in winter storms can mean more snowfall or a transition from snow to mixtures of snow, partially melted snow, and/or rain. We use the correlation coefficient to de-emphasize regions of mixed precipitation. Visual muting is valuable for analyzing and monitoring evolving weather conditions during winter storm events.
Willem J. Marais and Matthew Hayman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5159–5180,Short summary
For atmospheric science and weather prediction, it is important to make water vapor measurements in real time. A low-cost lidar instrument has been developed by Montana State University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. We developed an advanced signal-processing method to extend the scientific capability of the lidar instrument. With the new method we show that the maximum altitude at which the MPD can make water vapor measurements can be extended up to 8 km.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Paula J. Brown, Christian D. Kummerow, Patrick Eriksson, and Teodor Norrestad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5033–5060,Short summary
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission is an international satellite mission providing regular global rain measurements. We present two newly developed machine-learning-based implementations of one of the algorithms responsible for turning the satellite observations into rain measurements. We show that replacing the current algorithm with a neural network improves the accuracy of the measurements. A neural network that also makes use of spatial information unlocks further improvements.
Christos Gatidis, Marc Schleiss, and Christine Unal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4951–4969,Short summary
Knowledge of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) is crucial for understanding rainfall microphysics and quantifying uncertainty in quantitative precipitation estimates. In this study a general overview of the DSD retrieval approach from a polarimetric radar is discussed, highlighting sensitivity to potential sources of errors, either directly linked to the radar measurements or indirectly through the critical modeling assumptions behind the method such as the shape–size (μ–Λ) relationship.
Stephen R. Kaeppler, Ethan S. Miller, Daniel Cole, and Teresa Updyke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4531–4545,Short summary
This investigation demonstrates how useful ionospheric parameters can be extracted from existing high-frequency radars that are used for oceanographic research. The methodology presented can be used by scientists and radio amateurs to understand ionospheric dynamics.
Hui Liu, Kevin Garrett, Kayo Ide, Ross N. Hoffman, and Katherine E. Lukens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3925–3940,Short summary
A total least squares (TLS) regression is used to optimally estimate linear speed-dependent biases between Aeolus Level-2B winds and short-term (6 h) forecasts of NOAA’s FV3GFS. The winds for 1–7 September 2019 are examined. Clear speed-dependent biases for both Mie and Rayleigh winds are found, particularly in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Use of the TLS correction improves the forecast of the 26–28 November 2019 winter storm over the USA.
Snizhana Ross, Arttu Arjas, Ilkka I. Virtanen, Mikko J. Sillanpää, Lassi Roininen, and Andreas Hauptmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3843–3857,Short summary
Radar measurements of thermal fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere produce weak signals, and tuning to specific altitudes results in suboptimal resolution for other regions, making an accurate analysis of these changes difficult. A novel approach to improve the resolution and remove measurement noise is considered. The method can capture variable characteristics, making it ideal for the study of a large range of data. Synthetically generated examples and two measured datasets were considered.
Benoît Tournadre, Benoît Gschwind, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Xuemei Chen, Rodrigo Amaro E Silva, and Philippe Blanc
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3683–3704,Short summary
Solar radiation received by the Earth's surface is valuable information for various fields like the photovoltaic industry or climate research. Pictures taken from satellites can be used to estimate the solar radiation from cloud reflectivity. Two issues for a good estimation are different instrumentations and orbits. We modify a widely used method that is today only used on geostationary satellites, so it can be applied on instruments on different orbits and with different sensitivities.
Alfonso Ferrone, Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3569–3592,Short summary
The Micro Rain Radar PRO (MRR-PRO) is a meteorological radar, with a relevant set of features for deployment in remote locations. We developed an algorithm, named ERUO, for the processing of its measurements of snowfall. The algorithm addresses typical issues of the raw spectral data, such as interference lines, but also improves the quality and sensitivity of the radar variables. ERUO has been evaluated over four different datasets collected in Antarctica and in the Swiss Jura.
Isabell Krisch, Neil P. Hindley, Oliver Reitebuch, and Corwin J. Wright
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3465–3479,Short summary
The Aeolus satellite measures global height resolved profiles of wind along a certain line-of-sight. However, for atmospheric dynamics research, wind measurements along the three cardinal axes are most useful. This paper presents methods to convert the measurements into zonal and meridional wind components. By combining the measurements during ascending and descending orbits, we achieve good derivation of zonal wind (equatorward of 80° latitude) and meridional wind (poleward of 70° latitude).
Francisco J. Pérez-Invernón, Heidi Huntrieser, Thilo Erbertseder, Diego Loyola, Pieter Valks, Song Liu, Dale J. Allen, Kenneth E. Pickering, Eric J. Bucsela, Patrick Jöckel, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, Sergio Soler, Francisco J. Gordillo-Vázquez, and Jeff Lapierre
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3329–3351,Short summary
Lightning, one of the major sources of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, contributes to the tropospheric concentration of ozone and to the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. In this work, we contribute to improving the estimation of lightning-produced nitrogen oxides in the Ebro Valley and the Pyrenees by using two different TROPOMI products and comparing the results.
Guy Delrieu, Anil Kumar Khanal, Frédéric Cazenave, and Brice Boudevillain
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3297–3314,Short summary
The RadAlp experiment aims at improving quantitative precipitation estimation in the Alps thanks to X-band polarimetric radars and in situ measurements deployed in Grenoble, France. We revisit the physics of propagation and attenuation of microwaves in rain. We perform a generalized sensitivity analysis in order to establish useful parameterization for attenuation corrections. Originality lies in the use of otherwise undesired mountain returns for constraining the considered physical model.
Julian Steinheuer, Carola Detring, Frank Beyrich, Ulrich Löhnert, Petra Friederichs, and Stephanie Fiedler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3243–3260,Short summary
Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) allow the determination of wind profiles with high vertical resolution and thus provide an alternative to meteorological towers. We address the question of whether wind gusts can be derived since they are short-lived phenomena. Therefore, we compare different DWL configurations and develop a new method applicable to all of them. A fast continuous scanning mode that completes a full observation cycle within 3.4 s is found to be the best-performing configuration.
Sebastian Becker, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Tim Carlsen, Michael Schäfer, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2939–2953,Short summary
Airborne radiation measurements are used to characterize the solar directional reflection of a mixture of Arctic sea ice and open-ocean surfaces in the transition zone between both surface types. The mixture reveals reflection properties of both surface types. It is shown that the directional reflection of the mixture can be reconstructed from the directional reflection of the individual surfaces, accounting for the special conditions present in the transition zone.
You Zhao, Chao Liu, Di Di, Ziqiang Ma, and Shihao Tang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2791–2805,Short summary
A typhoon is a high-impact atmospheric phenomenon that causes most significant socioeconomic damage, and its precipitation observation is always needed for typhoon characteristics and disaster prevention. This study developed a typhoon precipitation fusion method to combine observations from satellite radiometers, rain gauges and reanalysis to provide much improved typhoon precipitation datasets.
Witali Krochin, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, David Kuhl, Axel Murk, and Gunter Stober
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2231–2249,Short summary
This study leverages atmospheric temperature measurements performed with a ground-based radiometer making use of data that was collected during a 4-year observational campaign applying a new retrieval algorithm that improves the maximal altitude range from 45 to 55 km. The measurements are validated against two independent data sets, MERRA2 reanalysis data and the meteorological analysis of NAVGEM-HA.
Lu Yao, Yi Liu, Dongxu Yang, Zhaonan Cai, Jing Wang, Chao Lin, Naimeng Lu, Daren Lyu, Longfei Tian, Maohua Wang, Zengshan Yin, Yuquan Zheng, and Sisi Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2125–2137,Short summary
A physics-based SIF retrieval algorithm, IAPCAS/SIF, is introduced and applied to OCO-2 and TanSat measurements. The strong linear relationship between OCO-2 SIF retrieved by IAPCAS/SIF and the official product indicates the algorithm's reliability. The good consistency in the spatiotemporal patterns and magnitude of the OCO-2 and TanSat SIF products suggests that the combinative usage of multi-satellite products has potential and that such work would contribute to further research.
Biao Tong, Xiangfei Sun, Jiyang Fu, Yuncheng He, and Pakwai Chan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1829–1848,Short summary
In recent years, there has been numerous research on tropical cyclone (TC) observation based on satellite cloud images (SCIs), but most methods are limited by low efficiency and subjectivity. To overcome subjectivity and improve efficiency of traditional methods, this paper uses deep learning technology to do further research on fingerprint identification of TCs. Results provide an automatic and objective method to distinguish TCs from SCIs and are convenient for subsequent research.
Marie Bouillon, Sarah Safieddine, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Filipe Aires, Victor Pellet, Olivier Lezeaux, Noëlle A. Scott, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1779–1793,Short summary
The IASI instruments have been observing Earth since 2007. We use a neural network to retrieve atmospheric temperatures. This new temperature data record is validated against other datasets and shows good agreement. We use this new dataset to compute trends over the 2008–2020 period. We found a warming of the troposphere, more important at the poles. In the stratosphere, we found that temperatures decrease everywhere except at the South Pole. The cooling is more pronounced at the South pole.
Maya Ben-Yami, Hilke Oetjen, Helen Brindley, William Cossich, Dulce Lajas, Tiziano Maestri, Davide Magurno, Piera Raspollini, Luca Sgheri, and Laura Warwick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1755–1777,Short summary
Spectral emissivity is a key property of the Earth's surface. Few measurements exist in the far-infrared, despite recent work showing that its contribution is important for accurate modelling of global climate. In preparation for ESA’s EE9 FORUM mission (launch in 2026), this study takes the first steps towards the development of an operational emissivity retrieval for FORUM by investigating the sensitivity of the emissivity product to different physical and operational parameters.
Matthew A. Miller, Sandra E. Yuter, Nicole P. Hoban, Laura M. Tomkins, and Brian A. Colle
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1689–1702,Short summary
Apparent waves in the atmosphere and similar features in storm winds can be detected by taking the difference between successive Doppler weather radar scans measuring radar-relative storm air motions. Applying image filtering to the difference data better isolates the detected signal. This technique is a useful tool in weather research and forecasting since such waves can trigger or enhance precipitation.
Richard Müller and Uwe Pfeifroth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1537–1561,Short summary
The great works of physics teach us that a central paradigm of science should be to make methods and theories as easy as possible and as complex as needed. This paper provides a brief review of remote sensing of solar surface irradiance based on this paradigm.
S. Joseph Munchak, Robert S. Schrom, Charles N. Helms, and Ali Tokay
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1439–1464,Short summary
The ability to measure snowfall with weather radar has greatly advanced with the development of techniques that utilize dual-polarization measurements, which provide information about the snow particle shape and orientation, and multi-frequency measurements, which provide information about size and density. This study combines these techniques with the NASA D3R radar, which provides dual-frequency polarimetric measurements, with data that were observed during the 2018 Winter Olympics.
Oliver Lux, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Uwe Marksteiner, Benjamin Witschas, Stephan Rahm, Alexander Geiß, Andreas Schäfler, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1303–1331,Short summary
The article discusses modifications in the wind retrieval of the ALADIN Airborne Demonstrator (A2D) – one of the key instruments for the validation of Aeolus. Thanks to the retrieval refinements, which are demonstrated in the context of two airborne campaigns in 2019, the systematic and random wind errors of the A2D were significantly reduced, thereby enhancing its validation capabilities. Finally, wind comparisons between A2D and Aeolus for the validation of the satellite data are presented.
Vinícius Ludwig-Barbosa, Joel Rasch, Thomas Sievert, Anders Carlström, Mats I. Pettersson, Viet Thuy Vu, and Jacob Christensen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The back propagation method has its capabilities and limitations regarding detection and location of irregularity regions in the ionosphere, e.g., equatorial plasma bubbles, evaluated. The assessment was performed with simulations in which different scenarios were assumed. The results showed that the location estimate is possible if the amplitude of the ionospheric is stronger than the instrument noise level. Further, multiple patches can be resolved if regions are well separated.
Terhikki Manninen, Emmihenna Jääskeläinen, Niilo Siljamo, Aku Riihelä, and Karl-Göran Karlsson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 879–893,Short summary
A new method for cloud-correcting observations of surface albedo is presented for AVHRR data. Instead of a binary cloud mask, it applies cloud probability values smaller than 20% of the A3 edition of the CLARA (CM SAF cLoud, Albedo and surface Radiation dataset from AVHRR data) record provided by the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) project of EUMETSAT. According to simulations, the 90% quantile was 1.1% for the absolute albedo error and 2.2% for the relative error.
Shihan Chen, Yuanjian Yang, Fei Deng, Yanhao Zhang, Duanyang Liu, Chao Liu, and Zhiqiu Gao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 735–756,Short summary
This paper proposes a method for evaluating canopy UHI intensity (CUHII) at high resolution by using remote sensing data and machine learning with a random forest (RF) model. The spatial distribution of CUHII was evaluated at 30 m resolution based on the output of the RF model. The present RF model framework for real-time monitoring and assessment of high-resolution CUHII provides scientific support for studying the changes and causes of CUHII.
Brian J. Carroll, Amin R. Nehrir, Susan A. Kooi, James E. Collins, Rory A. Barton-Grimley, Anthony Notari, David B. Harper, and Joseph Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 605–626,Short summary
HALO is a recently developed lidar system that demonstrates new technologies and advanced algorithms for profiling water vapor as well as aerosol and cloud properties. The high-resolution, high-accuracy measurements have unique advantages within the suite of atmospheric instrumentation, such as directly trading water vapor measurement resolution for precision. This paper provides the methodology and first water vapor results, showing agreement with in situ and spaceborne sounder measurements.
Irina V. Djalalova, David D. Turner, Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak, James Duncan, Bianca Adler, and Daniel Gottas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 521–537,Short summary
In this paper we investigate the synergy obtained by combining active (radio acoustic sounding system – RASS) and passive (microwave radiometer) remote sensing observations to obtain temperature vertical profiles through a radiative transfer model. Inclusion of the RASS observations leads to more accurate temperature profiles from the surface to 5 km above ground, well above the maximum height of the RASS observations themselves (2000 m), when compared to the microwave radiometer used alone.
Daniel Sanchez-Rivas and Miguel A. Rico-Ramirez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 503–520,Short summary
In this work, we review the use of quasi-vertical profiles for monitoring the calibration of the radar differential reflectivity ZDR. We validate the proposed method by comparing its results against the traditional approach based on measurements taken at 90°; we observed good agreement as the errors are within 0.2 dB. Additionally, we compare the results of the proposed method with ZDR derived from disdrometers; the errors are reasonable considering factors discussed in the paper.
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Estimating snowfall intensity from satellite and ground-based radar missions requires accurate retrieval models. Reflectivity–snowfall relations are obtained at cm and mm wavelengths using data recorded during the Biogenic Aerosols Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) campaign in Finland. Lightly, moderately and heavily rimed snow cases are identified. Numerical simulations are performed to relate snowflake microphysical (video disdrometer) and multifrequency backscattering properties (radars).
Estimating snowfall intensity from satellite and ground-based radar missions requires accurate...