Articles | Volume 13, issue 11
06 Nov 2020
Research article | 06 Nov 2020
A portable, robust, stable, and tunable calibration source for gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO)
Melodie Lao et al.
No articles found.
Linghan Zeng, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Joseph M. Katich, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Tom Ryerson, Carsten Warneke, Anne E. Perring, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Demetrios Pagonis, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Lu Xu, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8009–8036,Short summary
Wildfires emit aerosol particles containing brown carbon material that affects visibility and global climate and is toxic. Brown carbon is poorly characterized due to measurement limitations, and its evolution in the atmosphere is not well known. We report on aircraft measurements of brown carbon from large wildfires in the western United States. We compare two methods for measuring brown carbon and study the evolution of brown carbon in the smoke as it moved away from the burning regions.
Youhua Tang, Patrick Campbell, Pius Lee, Rick Saylor, Fanglin Yang, Barry Baker, Daniel Tong, Ariel Stein, Jianping Huang, Ho-Chun Huang, Li Pan, Jeff McQueen, Ivanka Stajner, Jose Tirado-Delgado, Youngsun Jung, Melissa Yang, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Tom Ryerson, Donald Blake, Joshua Schwarz, Jose-Luis Jimenez, James Crawford, Glenn Diskin, Richard Moore, Johnathan Hair, Greg Huey, Andrew Rollins, Jack Dibb, and Xiaoyang Zhang
This paper compared two meteorological data for driving the regional air quality model: a regional meteorological modelling using WRF (WRF-CMAQ), and the direct interpolation from an operational global model (GFS-CMAQ). In the comparison with surface measurements and aircraft data in summer 2019, these two methods have mixed performance depending on the corresponding meteorological settings and performances. The direct interpolation is a viable method to drive air quality models.
Shang Liu, Barbara Barletta, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Alan Fried, Jeff Peischl, Simone Meinardi, Matthew Coggon, Aaron Lamplugh, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Carsten Warneke, Eric C. Apel, Alan J. Hills, Ilann Bourgeois, James Walega, Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, Toshihiro Kuwayama, Michael FitzGibbon, and Donald Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
California’s ozone persistently exceeds the air quality standards. We studied the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that produce ozone over the most polluted regions in California using aircraft measurements. We find that the oxygenated VOCs have the highest ozone formation potential. Spatially, biogenic VOCs are important during high ozone episodes in the South Coast Air Basin, while dairy emissions may be critical for ozone production in the San Joaquin Valley.
Christopher E. Lawrence, Paul Casson, Richard Brandt, James J. Schwab, James E. Dukett, Phil Snyder, Elizabeth Yerger, Daniel Kelting, Trevor C. VandenBoer, and Sara Lance
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Atmospheric aqueous chemistry can have profound effects on our environment, as illustrated by historical data from Whiteface Mountain (WFM) that was critical for uncovering the process of acid rain. The current study updates the long-term trends in cloud water composition at WFM for the past 28 years (1994–2021). We highlight the emergence of a new chemical regime dominated by organics and ammonium, quite different from the highly acidic regime observed in the past, but not necessarily “clean”.
Pamela Rickly, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ryan Bennett, Ilann Bourgeois, John D. Crounse, Jack E. Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Maximilian Dollner, Emily M. Gargulinski, Samuel R. Hall, Hannah S. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Jin Liao, Richard Moore, Benjamin A. Nault, John B. Nowak, Claire E. Robinson, Thomas Ryerson, Kevin J. Sanchez, Manuel Schöberl, Amber J. Soja, Jason M. St. Clair, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, Bernadett Weinzierl, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, and Andrew W. Rollins
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Biomass burning sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission factors range from 0.27–1.1 g kg-1 C. Biomass burning SO2 can quickly form sulfate and organosulfur, but these pathways are dependent on liquid water content and pH. Hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) appears to be directly emitted from some fire sources, but is not the sole contributor to the organosulfur signal. It is shown that HMS and organosulfur chemistry may be an important S(IV) reservoir with the fate dependent on the surrounding conditions.
Michael A. Robinson, J. Andrew Neuman, L. Gregory Huey, James M. Roberts, Steven S. Brown, and Patrick R. Veres
Iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometers (CIMS) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry laboratory studies and field campaigns. Deployment of the NOAA iodide CIMS in the summer of 2021 indicated a significant and overlooked temperature dependence of instrument sensitivity. This work explores the analytes influenced by this phenomena. Additionally, we recommend controls to reduce this influence for field deployments in the future.
Teles C. Furlani, Peter M. Edwards, Tara F. Kahan, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This study describes a new technique to measure the sum of gas phase chlorine-containing chemicals in the atmosphere. The method converts any chlorine-containing molecule to hydrogen chloride, which can be detected in real time using a cavity ring-down spectrometer. The new method was validated through laboratory experiments, as well as by making measurements outdoors and indoors during cleaning with a chlorine-based cleaner.
Ülkü Alver Şahin, Roy M. Harrison, Mohammed S. Alam, David C. S. Beddows, Dimitrios Bousiotis, Zongbo Shi, Leigh R. Crilley, William Bloss, James Brean, Isha Khanna, and Rulan Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5415–5433,Short summary
Wide-range particle size spectra have been measured in three seasons in Delhi and are interpreted in terms of sources and processes. Condensational growth is a major feature of the fine fraction, and a coarse fraction contributes substantially – but only in summer.
Robert Woodward-Massey, Roberto Sommariva, Lisa K. Whalley, Danny R. Cryer, Trevor Ingham, William J1 Bloss, Sam Cox, James D. Lee, Chris P. Reed, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Brian J. Bandy, Grant L. Forster, Claire E. Reeves, Paul S. Monks, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We measured radicals (OH, HO2, RO2) and OH reactivity at a UK coastal site and compared our observations to the predictions of an MCMv3.3.1 box model. We find variable agreement between measured and modelled radical concentrations and OH reactivity, where the levels of agreement for individual species display strong dependences on NO concentrations. The most substantial disagreement is found for RO2 at high NO (> 1 ppbv), when RO2 levels are underpredicted by a factor of ~10–30.
Robert Woodward-Massey, Roberto Sommariva, Lisa K. Whalley, Danny R. Cryer, Trevor Ingham, William J. Bloss, Stephen M. Ball, James D. Lee, Chris P. Reed, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Brian J. Bandy, Grant L. Forster, Claire E. Reeves, Paul S. Monks, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We performed a radical (OH, HO2, RO2; total ROx) budget analysis on a dataset collected during a field intensive at a UK coastal site. We found significant differences between calculated HO2 and RO2 production and destruction rates, which should be balanced for such highly reactive radicals under steady state conditions. In addition, ozone production rates were calculated from measured radicals and compared to MCMv3.3.1 model predictions.
Martin Breitenlechner, Gordon A. Novak, J. Andrew Neuman, Andrew W. Rollins, and Patrick R. Veres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1159–1169,Short summary
We coupled a new ion source to a commercially available state-of-the-art trace gas analyzer. The instrument is particularly well suited for conducting high-altitude observations, addressing the challenges of low ambient pressures and a complex sample matrix. The new instrument and ion source provides significant advantages to more traditional modes of operation, without sacrificing the sensitivity and flexibility of this technique.
Ka Ming Fung, Colette L. Heald, Jesse H. Kroll, Siyuan Wang, Duseong S. Jo, Andrew Gettelman, Zheng Lu, Xiaohong Liu, Rahul A. Zaveri, Eric C. Apel, Donald R. Blake, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Patrick R. Veres, Timothy S. Bates, John E. Shilling, and Maria Zawadowicz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1549–1573,Short summary
Understanding the natural aerosol burden in the preindustrial era is crucial for us to assess how atmospheric aerosols affect the Earth's radiative budgets. Our study explores how a detailed description of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation (implemented in the Community Atmospheric Model version 6 with chemistry, CAM6-chem) could help us better estimate the present-day and preindustrial concentrations of sulfate and other relevant chemicals, as well as the resulting aerosol radiative impacts.
Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, J. Andrew Neuman, Steven S. Brown, Hannah M. Allen, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Matthew M. Coggon, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hongyu Guo, Hannah Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Christopher D. Holmes, L. Gregory Huey, Jose L. Jimenez, Aaron D. Lamplugh, Young Ro Lee, Jakob Lindaas, Richard H. Moore, John B. Nowak, Demetrios Pagonis, Pamela S. Rickly, Michael A. Robinson, Andrew W. Rollins, Vanessa Selimovic, Jason M. St. Clair, David Tanner, Krystal T. Vasquez, Patrick R. Veres, Carsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Caroline C. Womack, Lu Xu, Kyle J. Zarzana, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Understanding fire emission impacts on the atmosphere is key to effective air quality management and requires accurate measurements. We present a comparison of airborne measurements of key atmospheric species in ambient air and in fire smoke. We show that most instruments performed within instrument uncertainties. In some cases, further work is needed to fully characterize instrument performance. Comparing independent measurements using different techniques is important to assess their accuracy.
Debora Griffin, Chris A. McLinden, Enrico Dammers, Cristen Adams, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Carsten Warneke, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Jake P. Rowe, Rainer Volkamer, Christoph Knote, Natalie Kille, Theodore K. Koenig, Christopher F. Lee, Drew Rollins, Pamela S. Rickly, Jack Chen, Lukas Fehr, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Katherine Hayden, Cristian Mihele, Sumi N. Wren, John Liggio, Ayodeji Akingunola, and Paul Makar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7929–7957,Short summary
Satellite-derived NOx emissions from biomass burning are estimated with TROPOMI observations. Two common emission estimation methods are applied, and sensitivity tests with model output were performed to determine the accuracy of these methods. The effect of smoke aerosols on TROPOMI NO2 columns is estimated and compared to aircraft observations from four different aircraft campaigns measuring biomass burning plumes in 2018 and 2019 in North America.
Jin Liao, Glenn M. Wolfe, Reem A. Hannun, Jason M. St. Clair, Thomas F. Hanisco, Jessica B. Gilman, Aaron Lamplugh, Vanessa Selimovic, Glenn S. Diskin, John B. Nowak, Hannah S. Halliday, Joshua P. DiGangi, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Christopher D. Holmes, Charles H. Fite, Anxhelo Agastra, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Carsten Warneke, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Kanako Sekimoto, Alan Fried, Dirk Richter, Petter Weibring, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Steven S. Brown, Caroline C. Womack, Michael A. Robinson, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Patrick R. Veres, and J. Andrew Neuman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18319–18331,Short summary
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important oxidant precursor and affects the formation of O3 and other secondary pollutants in wildfire plumes. We disentangle the processes controlling HCHO evolution from wildfire plumes sampled by NASA DC-8 during FIREX-AQ. We find that OH abundance rather than normalized OH reactivity is the main driver of fire-to-fire variability in HCHO secondary production and estimate an effective HCHO yield per volatile organic compound molecule oxidized in wildfire plumes.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Francis D. Pope, Chris Reed, James D. Lee, Lucy J. Carpenter, Lloyd D. J. Hollis, Stephen M. Ball, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18213–18225,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key source of atmospheric oxidants. We evaluate if the ocean surface is a source of HONO for the marine boundary layer, using measurements from two contrasting coastal locations. We observed no evidence for a night-time ocean surface source, in contrast to previous work. This points to significant geographical variation in the predominant HONO formation mechanisms in marine environments, reflecting possible variability in the sea-surface microlayer composition.
Zachary C. J. Decker, Michael A. Robinson, Kelley C. Barsanti, Ilann Bourgeois, Matthew M. Coggon, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Frank M. Flocke, Alessandro Franchin, Carley D. Fredrickson, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Samuel R. Hall, Hannah Halliday, Christopher D. Holmes, L. Gregory Huey, Young Ro Lee, Jakob Lindaas, Ann M. Middlebrook, Denise D. Montzka, Richard Moore, J. Andrew Neuman, John B. Nowak, Brett B. Palm, Jeff Peischl, Felix Piel, Pamela S. Rickly, Andrew W. Rollins, Thomas B. Ryerson, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Kanako Sekimoto, Lee Thornhill, Joel A. Thornton, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, Kirk Ullmann, Paul Van Rooy, Patrick R. Veres, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elizabeth Wiggins, Edward Winstead, Armin Wisthaler, Caroline Womack, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16293–16317,Short summary
To understand air quality impacts from wildfires, we need an accurate picture of how wildfire smoke changes chemically both day and night as sunlight changes the chemistry of smoke. We present a chemical analysis of wildfire smoke as it changes from midday through the night. We use aircraft observations from the FIREX-AQ field campaign with a chemical box model. We find that even under sunlight typical
nighttimechemistry thrives and controls the fate of key smoke plume chemical processes.
Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, Dale F. Hurst, Geoff S. Dutton, Bradley D. Hall, J. David Nance, Ben R. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura P. Wolton, Audra McClure-Begley, James W. Elkins, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Laurel A. Watts, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Bruce C. Daube, Yenny Gonzalez Ramos, Roisin Commane, Gregory W. Santoni, Jasna V. Pittman, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric Kort, Glenn S. Diskin, and T. Paul Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6795–6819,Short summary
We built UCATS to study atmospheric chemistry and transport. It has measured trace gases including CFCs, N2O, SF6, CH4, CO, and H2 with gas chromatography, as well as ozone and water vapor. UCATS has been part of missions to study the tropical tropopause; transport of air into the stratosphere; greenhouse gases, transport, and chemistry in the troposphere; and ozone chemistry, on both piloted and unmanned aircraft. Its design, capabilities, and some results are shown and described here.
Hélène Angot, Connor Davel, Christine Wiedinmyer, Gabrielle Pétron, Jashan Chopra, Jacques Hueber, Brendan Blanchard, Ilann Bourgeois, Isaac Vimont, Stephen A. Montzka, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, and Detlev Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15153–15170,Short summary
After a multidecadal global decline in atmospheric abundance of ethane and propane (precursors of tropospheric ozone and aerosols), previous work showed a reversal of this trend in 2009–2015 in the Northern Hemisphere due to the growth in oil and natural gas production in North America. Here we show a temporary pause in the growth of atmospheric ethane and propane in 2015–2018 and highlight the critical need for additional top-down studies to further constrain ethane and propane emissions.
Charles A. Brock, Karl D. Froyd, Maximilian Dollner, Christina J. Williamson, Gregory Schill, Daniel M. Murphy, Nicholas J. Wagner, Agnieszka Kupc, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Douglas A. Day, Derek J. Price, Bernadett Weinzierl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Joseph M. Katich, Siyuan Wang, Linghan Zeng, Rodney Weber, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, ThaoPaul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Bruce C. Daube, Róisín Commane, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15023–15063,Short summary
The Atmospheric Tomography Mission was an airborne study that mapped the chemical composition of the remote atmosphere. From this, we developed a comprehensive description of aerosol properties that provides a unique, global-scale dataset against which models can be compared. The data show the polluted nature of the remote atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere and quantify the contributions of sea salt, dust, soot, biomass burning particles, and pollution particles to the haziness of the sky.
Linghan Zeng, Amy P. Sullivan, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Teresa L. Campos, Joseph M. Katich, Ezra Levin, Michael A. Robinson, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6357–6378,Short summary
Three online systems for measuring water-soluble brown carbon are compared. A mist chamber and two different particle-into-liquid samplers were deployed on separate research aircraft targeting wildfires and followed a similar detection method using a long-path liquid waveguide with a spectrometer to measure the light absorption from 300 to 700 nm. Detection limits, signal hysteresis and other sampling issues are compared, and further improvements of these liquid-based systems are provided.
Xuan Wang, Daniel J. Jacob, William Downs, Shuting Zhai, Lei Zhu, Viral Shah, Christopher D. Holmes, Tomás Sherwen, Becky Alexander, Mathew J. Evans, Sebastian D. Eastham, J. Andrew Neuman, Patrick R. Veres, Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, L. Gregory Huey, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Ben H. Lee, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13973–13996,Short summary
Halogen radicals have a broad range of implications for tropospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. We present a new mechanistic description and comprehensive simulation of tropospheric halogens in a global 3-D model and compare the model results with surface and aircraft measurements. We find that halogen chemistry decreases the global tropospheric burden of ozone by 11 %, NOx by 6 %, and OH by 4 %.
Beth S. Nelson, Gareth J. Stewart, Will S. Drysdale, Mike J. Newland, Adam R. Vaughan, Rachel E. Dunmore, Pete M. Edwards, Alastair C. Lewis, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, W. Joe Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ülkü A. Şahin, David C. S. Beddows, William J. Bloss, Eloise Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Eiko Nemitz, Roberto Sommariva, Sam Cox, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola R. Gurjar, James R. Hopkins, Andrew R. Rickard, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13609–13630,Short summary
Ozone production at an urban site in Delhi is sensitive to volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, particularly those of the aromatic, monoterpene, and alkene VOC classes. The change in ozone production by varying atmospheric pollutants according to their sources, as defined in an emissions inventory, is investigated. The study suggests that reducing road transport emissions alone does not reduce reactive VOCs in the atmosphere enough to perturb an increase in ozone production.
Teles C. Furlani, Patrick R. Veres, Kathryn E. R. Dawe, J. Andrew Neuman, Steven S. Brown, Trevor C. VandenBoer, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5859–5871,Short summary
This study characterized and validated a commercial spectroscopic instrument for the measurement of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the atmosphere. Near the Earth’s surface, HCl acts as the dominant reservoir for other chlorine-containing reactive chemicals that play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. The properties of HCl make it challenging to measure. This instrument can overcome many of these challenges, enabling reliable HCl measurements.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, Daniel J. Rooney, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Tuhin K. Mandal, Bhola R. Gurjar, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11655–11667,Short summary
This paper shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India, with measurements over different seasons in Old Delhi and New Delhi in 2018. Organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorisation (PMF). Traffic was the main primary aerosol source for both OAs and black carbon, seen with PMF and Aethalometer model analysis, indicating that control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to Delhi air pollution.
Yenny Gonzalez, Róisín Commane, Ethan Manninen, Bruce C. Daube, Luke D. Schiferl, J. Barry McManus, Kathryn McKain, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Stephen A. Montzka, Colm Sweeney, Fred Moore, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Eric Ray, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Michelle Kim, Hannah M. Allen, Paul A. Newman, Britton B. Stephens, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Morgan, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11113–11132,Short summary
Vertical profiles of N2O and a variety of chemical species and aerosols were collected nearly from pole to pole over the oceans during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography mission. We observed that tropospheric N2O variability is strongly driven by the influence of stratospheric air depleted in N2O, especially at middle and high latitudes. We also traced the origins of biomass burning and industrial emissions and investigated their impact on the variability of tropospheric N2O.
Christina J. Williamson, Agnieszka Kupc, Andrew Rollins, Jan Kazil, Karl D. Froyd, Eric A. Ray, Daniel M. Murphy, Gregory P. Schill, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea Thompson, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, Donald R. Blake, Thao Paul V. Bui, Maximilian Dollner, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Charles A. Brock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9065–9088,Short summary
Aerosols in the stratosphere influence climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight and through chemical reactions occurring on the particles’ surfaces. We observed more nucleation mode aerosols (small aerosols, with diameters below 12 nm) in the mid- and high-latitude lowermost stratosphere (8–13 km) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) than in the Southern Hemisphere. The most likely cause of this is aircraft emissions, which are concentrated in the NH at similar altitudes to our observations.
Daniel M. Murphy, Karl D. Froyd, Ilann Bourgeois, Charles A. Brock, Agnieszka Kupc, Jeff Peischl, Gregory P. Schill, Chelsea R. Thompson, Christina J. Williamson, and Pengfei Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8915–8932,Short summary
New measurements in the lower stratosphere highlight differences between particles that originated in the troposphere or the stratosphere. The stratospheric-origin particles have relatively large radiative effects because they are at nearly the optimum diameter for light scattering. The tropospheric particles contribute significantly to surface area. These and other chemical and physical properties are then extended to study the implications if material were to be added to the stratosphere.
Caroline C. Womack, Katherine M. Manfred, Nicholas L. Wagner, Gabriela Adler, Alessandro Franchin, Kara D. Lamb, Ann M. Middlebrook, Joshua P. Schwarz, Charles A. Brock, Steven S. Brown, and Rebecca A. Washenfelder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7235–7252,Short summary
Microscopic particles interact with sunlight and affect the earth's climate in ways that are not fully understood. Aerosols from wildfire smoke present particular challenges due to their complexity in shape and composition. We demonstrate that we can experimentally measure aerosol optical properties for many types of smoke particles, using measurements of smoke from controlled burns, but that the method does not work well for smoke with high soot content.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Ananth Ranjithkumar, Hamish Gordon, Christina Williamson, Andrew Rollins, Kirsty Pringle, Agnieszka Kupc, Nathan Luke Abraham, Charles Brock, and Ken Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4979–5014,Short summary
The effect aerosols have on climate can be better understood by studying their vertical and spatial distribution throughout the atmosphere. We use observation data from the ATom campaign and evaluate the vertical profile of aerosol number concentration, sulfur dioxide and condensation sink using the UKESM (UK Earth System Model). We identify uncertainties in key atmospheric processes that help improve their theoretical representation in global climate models.
Pamela S. Rickly, Lu Xu, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, and Andrew W. Rollins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2429–2439,Short summary
Key improvements have been made to an in situ laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measuring SO2 in polluted and pristine environments. Laser linewidth is reduced, rapid laser tuning is implemented, and fluorescence bandpass filters are optimized. These improvements have led to a 50 % reduction in instrument detection limit. The influence of aromatic compounds was also investigated and determined to not bias SO2 measurements.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Reem A. Hannun, Andrew K. Swanson, Steven A. Bailey, Thomas F. Hanisco, T. Paul Bui, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6877–6887,Short summary
We have developed a cavity-enhanced absorption instrument to measure ozone in the atmosphere. The detection technique enables highly sensitive measurements in fast averaging times. The compact, robust instrument is suitable for operation in varied field environments, including aboard research aircraft. We have successfully flown the instrument and demonstrated its performance capabilities with measurements of ozone deposition rates over the coastal Pacific Ocean.
Agnieszka Kupc, Christina J. Williamson, Anna L. Hodshire, Jan Kazil, Eric Ray, T. Paul Bui, Maximilian Dollner, Karl D. Froyd, Kathryn McKain, Andrew Rollins, Gregory P. Schill, Alexander Thames, Bernadett B. Weinzierl, Jeffrey R. Pierce, and Charles A. Brock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15037–15060,Short summary
Tropical upper troposphere over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans is a major source region of new particles. These particles are associated with the outflow from deep convection. We investigate the processes that govern the formation of these particles and their initial growth and show that none of the formation schemes commonly used in global models are consistent with observations. Using newer schemes indicates that organic compounds are likely important as nucleating and initial growth agents.
Eloise J. Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa Kramer, William Bloss, Tuan Vu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14847–14871,Short summary
The paper details atmospheric chemistry in a megacity (Beijing), focussing on radicals which mediate the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Highly polluted conditions were experienced, including the highest ever levels of nitric oxide (NO), with simultaneous radical measurements. Radical concentrations were large during "haze" events, demonstrating active photochemistry. Modelling showed that our understanding of the chemistry at high NOx levels is incomplete.
Atallah Elzein, Gareth J. Stewart, Stefan J. Swift, Beth S. Nelson, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ranu Gadi, Roy M. Harrison, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14303–14319,Short summary
We collected high-frequency air particle samples (PM2.5) in Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and measured the concentration of PAHs in daytime and night-time. PAHs were higher in Delhi than in Beijing, and the five-ring PAHs contribute the most to the total PAH concentration. We compared the emission sources and identified the major sectors that could be subject to mitigation measures. The adverse health effects from inhalation exposure to PAHs in Delhi are 2.2 times higher than in Beijing.
Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, James D. Lee, Louisa J. Kramer, Christian Pfrang, Mónica Vázquez-Moreno, Milagros Ródenas, Amalia Muñoz, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5977–5991,Short summary
We report on the interference arising in measurements of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the presence of a range of alkenes in sampled air when using the most widespread air quality monitoring technique for chemiluminescence detection. Interferences of up to 11 % are reported, depending upon the alkene present and conditions used. Such interferences may be of substantial importance for the interpretation of ambient NOx data, particularly for high volatile organic compound and low NOx environments.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, David Fahey, Eric Jensen, Sergey Khaykin, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Laura L. Pan, Martin Riese, Andrew Rollins, Fred Stroh, Troy Thornberry, Veronika Wolf, Sarah Woods, Peter Spichtinger, Johannes Quaas, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12569–12608,Short summary
To improve the representations of cirrus clouds in climate predictions, extended knowledge of their properties and geographical distribution is required. This study presents extensive airborne in situ and satellite remote sensing climatologies of cirrus and humidity, which serve as a guide to cirrus clouds. Further, exemplary radiative characteristics of cirrus types and also in situ observations of tropical tropopause layer cirrus and humidity in the Asian monsoon anticyclone are shown.
Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Kenneth C. Aikin, Teresa Campos, Hannah Clark, Róisín Commane, Bruce Daube, Glenn W. Diskin, James W. Elkins, Ru-Shan Gao, Audrey Gaudel, Eric J. Hintsa, Bryan J. Johnson, Rigel Kivi, Kathryn McKain, Fred L. Moore, David D. Parrish, Richard Querel, Eric Ray, Ricardo Sánchez, Colm Sweeney, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Valérie Thouret, Jacquelyn C. Witte, Steve C. Wofsy, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10611–10635,
Yi Ji, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Young Ro Lee, Patrick R. Veres, J. Andrew Neuman, Yuhang Wang, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3683–3696,Short summary
A common way of measuring trace gases in the atmosphere is chemical ionization mass spectrometry. One large drawback of these instruments is that they require radioactive ion sources. In this work we demonstrate a simple ion source that uses a small krypton lamp that can be used to replace a radioactive source.
Andrew W. Rollins, Pamela S. Rickly, Ru-Shan Gao, Thomas B. Ryerson, Steven S. Brown, Jeff Peischl, and Ilann Bourgeois
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2425–2439,Short summary
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key atmospheric constituent controlling atmospheric oxidation chemistry and tropospheric ozone formation. Existing instrumentation capable of quantifying NO at very low mixing ratios is uncommon and typically relies on chemiluminescence. We describe and demonstrate a new laser-based technique (LIF) with significant practical and technical advantages to CL. This technique is expected to allow for advances in understanding of atmospheric radical chemistry.
Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh R. Crilley, Thomas J. Adams, Stephen M. Ball, Francis D. Pope, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5231–5248,Short summary
HONO is a large source of OH radicals, which can drive VOC oxidation, leading to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we investigate primary vehicle emissions of HONO from measurements in a road tunnel in Birmingham, UK. A HONO/NOx emission ratio was detemined and compared to previous studies. Results indicate HONO/NOx has not varied much over the last two decades and technologies aimed at reducing NO2 may have also resulted in a reduction in direct HONO vehicle emissions.
Roberto Sommariva, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1655–1670,Short summary
Ozone is a key atmospheric pollutant formed through chemical processing of natural and anthropogenic emissions and removed by reaction with organic compounds emitted by plants. We describe a new instrument – the
Total Ozone Reactivity Systemor TORS – that measures the total loss of ozone in the troposphere. The objective of the TORS instrument is to provide an estimate of the organic compounds emitted by plants which are not measured and thus to improve our understanding of the ozone budget.
Leigh R. Crilley, Ajit Singh, Louisa J. Kramer, Marvin D. Shaw, Mohammed S. Alam, Joshua S. Apte, William J. Bloss, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, Pingqing Fu, Weiqi Fu, Shahzad Gani, Michael Gatari, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Alastair C. Lewis, David Ng'ang'a, Yele Sun, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Siyao Yue, Stuart Young, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1181–1193,Short summary
There is considerable interest in using low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) for particle mass measurements; however, there is no agreed upon method with respect to calibration. Here we exploit a number of datasets globally to demonstrate that particle composition and relative humidity are the key factors affecting measured concentrations from a low-cost OPC, and we present a simple correction methodology that corrects for this influence.
Alexander Moravek, Jennifer G. Murphy, Amy Hrdina, John C. Lin, Christopher Pennell, Alessandro Franchin, Ann M. Middlebrook, Dorothy L. Fibiger, Caroline C. Womack, Erin E. McDuffie, Randal Martin, Kori Moore, Munkhbayar Baasandorj, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15691–15709,Short summary
Ammonium nitrate is a major component of fine particulate matter of wintertime air pollution in the Great Salt Lake Region (UT, USA). We investigate the sources of ammonia in the region by using aircraft observations and comparing them to modelled ammonia mixing ratios based on emission inventory estimates. The results suggest that ammonia emissions are underestimated, specifically in regions with high agricultural activity, while ammonia in Salt Lake City is mainly of local origin.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Bin Ouyang, Jun Duan, Wenqian Zhang, Shengrui Tong, Maofa Ge, Ke Tang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, James Allan, Carl J. Percival, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is key species for understanding tropospheric chemistry, yet accurate and precise measurements are challenging. Here we report an inter–comparison exercise of a number of instruments that measured HONO in a highly polluted location (Beijing). All instruments agreed on the temporal trends yet displayed divergence in absolute concentrations. The cause of this divergence was unclear, but it may in part be due to spatial variability in instrument location.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Erin E. McDuffie, Caroline C. Womack, Dorothy L. Fibiger, William P. Dube, Alessandro Franchin, Ann M. Middlebrook, Lexie Goldberger, Ben H. Lee, Joel A. Thornton, Alexander Moravek, Jennifer G. Murphy, Munkhbayar Baasandorj, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9287–9308,Short summary
Populated mountain basins, including the Salt Lake Valley (SLV) in Utah, suffer from wintertime stagnation events that trap emissions near the surface and cause fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations to reach unhealthy levels. Previously limited by a lack of nighttime measurements, this study uses 2017 UWFPS aircraft campaign data, in combination with a box model, to show that nitrogen chemistry above the surface at night is a major source of PM2.5 during a wintertime event in the SLV.
Xin Chen, Dylan B. Millet, Hanwant B. Singh, Armin Wisthaler, Eric C. Apel, Elliot L. Atlas, Donald R. Blake, Ilann Bourgeois, Steven S. Brown, John D. Crounse, Joost A. de Gouw, Frank M. Flocke, Alan Fried, Brian G. Heikes, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Tomas Mikoviny, Kyung-Eun Min, Markus Müller, J. Andrew Neuman, Daniel W. O'Sullivan, Jeff Peischl, Gabriele G. Pfister, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Stephen R. Shertz, Chelsea R. Thompson, Victoria Treadaway, Patrick R. Veres, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Petter Weibring, and Bin Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9097–9123,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect air quality and modify the lifetimes of other pollutants. We combine a high-resolution 3-D atmospheric model with an ensemble of aircraft observations to perform an integrated analysis of the VOC budget over North America. We find that biogenic emissions provide the main source of VOC reactivity even in most major cities. Our findings point to key gaps in current models related to oxygenated VOCs and to the distribution of VOCs in the free troposphere.
Xiaoxi Liu, Benjamin Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Douglas A. Day, Brett B. Palm, Ranajit Talukdar, James M. Roberts, Patrick R. Veres, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joel A. Thornton, Joost A. de Gouw, Paul J. Ziemann, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3137–3149,Short summary
Delays or losses of gases in sampling tubing and instrumental surfaces due to surface interactions can lead to inaccurate quantification. By sampling with several chemical ionization mass spectrometers and six tubing materials, we quantify delays of semivolatile organic compounds and small polar gases. Delay times generally increase with decreasing volatility or increasing polarity and also depend on materials. The method and results will inform inlet material selection and instrumental design.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Sabine Robrecht, Bärbel Vogel, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Karen Rosenlof, Troy Thornberry, Andrew Rollins, Martina Krämer, Lance Christensen, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5805–5833,Short summary
The potential destruction of stratospheric ozone in the mid-latitudes has been discussed recently. We analysed this ozone loss mechanism and its sensitivities. In a certain temperature range, we found a threshold in water vapour, which has to be exceeded for ozone loss to occur. We show the dependence of this water vapour threshold on temperature, sulfate content and air composition. This study provides a basis to estimate the impact of potential sulphate geoengineering on stratospheric ozone.
Nick Jordan, Connie Z. Ye, Satyaki Ghosh, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Steven S. Brown, and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1277–1293,Short summary
A new spectrometer to measure abundances of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide and iodine is described. The spectrometer uses a light-emitting diode between 470 and 540 nm and two highly reflective mirrors to yield an effective absorption path of 6.3 km. We remeasured scattering cross sections of common atmospheric gases in the cyan region and present sample NO2 measurements that agreed with those made with a laser-based instrument.
Alessandro Franchin, Dorothy L. Fibiger, Lexie Goldberger, Erin E. McDuffie, Alexander Moravek, Caroline C. Womack, Erik T. Crosman, Kenneth S. Docherty, William P. Dube, Sebastian W. Hoch, Ben H. Lee, Russell Long, Jennifer G. Murphy, Joel A. Thornton, Steven S. Brown, Munkhbayar Baasandorj, and Ann M. Middlebrook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17259–17276,Short summary
We present the results of aerosol and trace gas measurements from airborne and ground-based platforms. The measurements took place in January–February 2017 in northern Utah as part of the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS). We characterized the chemical composition of PM1 on a regional scale, also probing the vertical dimension. We used a thermodynamic model to study the effectiveness of limiting total ammonium or total nitrate as a strategy to control aerosol concentrations.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Marsailidh M. Twigg, Nicholas Cowan, Matthew R. Jones, Sarah R. Leeson, William J. Bloss, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh Crilley, Matthias Sörgel, Meinrat Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16953–16978,Short summary
Understanding the impact of agricultural activities on the atmosphere requires more measurements of inorganic trace gases and associated aerosol counterparts. This research presents 1 month of measurements above agricultural grassland during a period of fertiliser application. It was found that emissions of the important trace gases ammonia and nitrous acid peaked after fertiliser use and that the velocity at which the measured aerosols were deposited was dependent upon their size.
Prasad Kasibhatla, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Chris Reed, Becky Alexander, Qianjie Chen, Melissa P. Sulprizio, James D. Lee, Katie A. Read, William Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, William C. Keene, Alexander A. P. Pszenny, and Alma Hodzic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11185–11203,Short summary
Recent measurements of NOx and HONO suggest that photolysis of particulate nitrate in sea-salt aerosols is important in terms of marine boundary layer oxidant chemistry. We present the first global-scale assessment of the significance of this new chemical pathway for NOx, O3, and OH in the marine boundary layer. We also present a preliminary assessment of the potential impact of photolysis of particulate nitrate associated with other aerosol types on continental boundary layer chemistry.
Chelsea E. Stockwell, Agnieszka Kupc, Bartłomiej Witkowski, Ranajit K. Talukdar, Yong Liu, Vanessa Selimovic, Kyle J. Zarzana, Kanako Sekimoto, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Robert J. Yokelson, Ann M. Middlebrook, and James M. Roberts
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2749–2768,Short summary
This work investigates the total conversion of particle-bound nitrogen and organic carbon across platinum and molybdenum catalysts followed by NO–O3 chemiluminescence and nondispersive infrared CO2 detection. We show the instrument is an accurate particle mass measurement method and demonstrate its ability to calibrate particle mass measurement instrumentation through comparisons with a calibrated particle-into-liquid sampler coupled to an electrospray ionization source of a mass spectrometer.
Heidi M. Pickard, Alison S. Criscitiello, Christine Spencer, Martin J. Sharp, Derek C. G. Muir, Amila O. De Silva, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5045–5058,Short summary
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent, bioaccumulative compounds found in the environment far from source regions, including the remote Arctic. We collected a 15 m ice core from the Canadian High Arctic to measure a 38-year deposition record of PFAAs, proving information about major pollutant sources and production changes over time. Our results demonstrate that PFAAs have continuous and increasing deposition, despite recent North American regulations and phase-outs.
Jingyi Li, Jingqiu Mao, Arlene M. Fiore, Ronald C. Cohen, John D. Crounse, Alex P. Teng, Paul O. Wennberg, Ben H. Lee, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Jeff Peischl, Ilana B. Pollack, Thomas B. Ryerson, Patrick Veres, James M. Roberts, J. Andrew Neuman, John B. Nowak, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas F. Hanisco, Alan Fried, Hanwant B. Singh, Jack Dibb, Fabien Paulot, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2341–2361,Short summary
We present the first comprehensive model evaluation of summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen using a high-resolution chemistry–climate model with up-to-date isoprene oxidation chemistry, along with a series of observations from aircraft campaigns and ground measurement networks from 2004 to 2013 over the Southeast US. We investigate the impact of NOx emission reductions on changes in reactive nitrogen speciation and export efficiency as well as ozone in the past and future decade.
Katherine M. Manfred, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Nicholas L. Wagner, Gabriela Adler, Frank Erdesz, Caroline C. Womack, Kara D. Lamb, Joshua P. Schwarz, Alessandro Franchin, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert J. Yokelson, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1879–1894,Short summary
In this study, we use a new laser imaging nephelometer to measure the bulk aerosol scattering phase function for biomass burning aerosol from controlled fires. By comparing measurements to models for spherical and fractal particles, we demonstrate that the dominant morphology varies by fuel type. This instrument has unique capabilities to directly measure how morphology affects optical properties, and can be used in the future for important validations of remote sensing retrievals.
Leigh R. Crilley, Marvin Shaw, Ryan Pound, Louisa J. Kramer, Robin Price, Stuart Young, Alastair C. Lewis, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 709–720,Short summary
The affordability and small size of low-cost particle sensors make them attractive for air pollution experiments that require multiple instruments, or take place in hard-to-access locations or low-income countries. For any sensor to be useful, its accuracy and precision need to be known. We evaluate the Alphasense OPC-N2 for monitoring airborne particles at typical UK urban background sites. The devices were found to be accurate provided they are correctly calibrated.
Maria A. Navarro, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Elliot Atlas, Xavier Rodriguez-Lloveras, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, Troy Thornberry, Andrew Rollins, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, and Fred L. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9917–9930,Short summary
Inorganic bromine (Bry) plays an important role in ozone layer depletion. Based on aircraft observations of organic bromine species and chemistry simulations, we model the Bry abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause. Our results show BrO and Br as the dominant species during daytime hours, and BrCl and BrONO2 as the nighttime dominant species over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The difference in the partitioning is due to changes in the abundance of O3, NO2, and Cly.
Abigail Koss, Bin Yuan, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Patrick R. Veres, Jeff Peischl, Scott Eilerman, Rob Wild, Steven S. Brown, Chelsea R. Thompson, Thomas Ryerson, Thomas Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Mitchell Thayer, Frank N. Keutsch, Shane Murphy, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2941–2968,Short summary
Oil and gas extraction activity can cause air quality issues through emission of reactive chemicals. VOCs related to extraction operations in the United States were measured by PTR-ToF-MS from aircraft during the SONGNEX campaign in March–April 2015. The detailed analysis in this work provides a guide to interpreting PTR-ToF measurements in oil- and gas-producing regions, and it includes fundamental observations of VOC speciation and mixing ratios.
Shantanu H. Jathar, Christopher Heppding, Michael F. Link, Delphine K. Farmer, Ali Akherati, Michael J. Kleeman, Joost A. de Gouw, Patrick R. Veres, and James M. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8959–8970,Short summary
Our work makes novel emissions measurements of isocyanic acid, a toxic gas, from a modern-day diesel engine and finds that diesel engines emit isocyanic acid but the emissions control devices do not enhance or destroy the isocyanic acid. Air quality model calculations suggest that diesel engines are possibly important sources of isocyanic acid in urban environments although the isocyanic acid levels are ten times lower than levels linked to adverse human health effects.
Stephan Keßel, David Cabrera-Perez, Abraham Horowitz, Patrick R. Veres, Rolf Sander, Domenico Taraborrelli, Maria Tucceri, John N. Crowley, Andrea Pozzer, Christof Stönner, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8789–8804,Short summary
In this study we identify an often overlooked stable oxide of carbon, namely carbon suboxide (C3O2), in ambient air. We have made C3O2 and in the laboratory determined its absorption cross section data and the rate of reaction with two important atmospheric oxidants, OH and O3. By incorporating known sources and sinks in a global model we have generated a first global picture of the distribution of this species in the atmosphere.
Christopher Chan Miller, Daniel J. Jacob, Eloise A. Marais, Karen Yu, Katherine R. Travis, Patrick S. Kim, Jenny A. Fisher, Lei Zhu, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas F. Hanisco, Frank N. Keutsch, Jennifer Kaiser, Kyung-Eun Min, Steven S. Brown, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Gonzalo González Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8725–8738,Short summary
The use of satellite glyoxal observations for estimating isoprene emissions has been limited by knowledge of the glyoxal yield from isoprene. We use SENEX aircraft observations over the southeast US to evaluate glyoxal yields from isoprene in a 3-D atmospheric model. The SENEX observations support a pathway for glyoxal formation in pristine regions that we propose here, which may have implications for improving isoprene emissions estimates from upcoming high-resolution geostationary satellites.
Caroline C. Womack, J. Andrew Neuman, Patrick R. Veres, Scott J. Eilerman, Charles A. Brock, Zachary C. J. Decker, Kyle J. Zarzana, William P. Dube, Robert J. Wild, Paul J. Wooldridge, Ronald C. Cohen, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1911–1926,Short summary
The accurate detection of reactive nitrogen species (NOy) is key to understanding tropospheric ozone production. Typically, NOy is detected by thermal conversion to NO2, followed by NO2 detection. Here, we assess the conversion efficiency of several NOy species to NO2 in a thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer and discuss how this conversion efficiency is affected by certain experimental conditions, such as oven residence time, and interferences from non-NOy species.
Hongyu Guo, Jiumeng Liu, Karl D. Froyd, James M. Roberts, Patrick R. Veres, Patrick L. Hayes, Jose L. Jimenez, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5703–5719,Short summary
Fine particle pH is linked to many environmental impacts by affecting particle concentration and composition. Predicted Pasadena, CA (CalNex campaign), PM1 pH is 1.9 and PM2.5 pH 2.7, the latter higher due to sea salts. The model predicted gas–particle partitionings of HNO3–NO3−, NH3–NH4+, and HCl–Cl− are in good agreement, verifying the model predictions. A summary of contrasting locations in the US and eastern Mediterranean shows fine particles are generally highly acidic, with pH below 3.
Chris Reed, Mathew J. Evans, Leigh R. Crilley, William J. Bloss, Tomás Sherwen, Katie A. Read, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4081–4092,Short summary
The source of ozone-depleting compounds in the remote troposphere has been thought to be long-range transport of secondary pollutants such as organic nitrates. Processing of organic nitrates to nitric acid and subsequent deposition on surfaces in the atmosphere was thought to remove these nitrates from the ozone–NOx–HOx cycle. We found through observation of NOx in the remote tropical troposphere at the Cape Verde Observatory that surface nitrates can be released back into the atmosphere.
Bryan K. Place, Aleya T. Quilty, Robert A. Di Lorenzo, Susan E. Ziegler, and Trevor C. VandenBoer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1061–1078,Short summary
Amines are important drivers in particle formation and growth, which has implications for Earth’s climate. We developed a novel ion chromatographic method for separating and quantifying the 11 most abundant atmospheric alkyl amines, including three sets of structural isomers and two diamines. The detection limits are in the picogram per injection range. We quantified these analytes in two Canadian biomass burning aerosol samples with ammonium ratios of 1 : 2 up to 1000 : 1.
Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Jennifer D. Hegarty, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Matthew J. Alvarado, Daven K. Henze, Matthew D. Turner, Shannon L. Capps, John B. Nowak, J. Andy Neuman, Ann M. Middlebrook, Roya Bahreini, Jennifer G. Murphy, Milos Z. Markovic, Trevor C. VandenBoer, Lynn M. Russell, and Amy Jo Scarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2721–2739,Short summary
This study takes advantage of the high-resolution observations of NH3(g) made by the TES satellite instrument over Bakersfield during the CalNex campaign, along with campaign measurements, to compare CMAQ model results in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Additionally we evaluate the CMAQ bi-directional ammonia flux results using the CARB emissions inventory against these satellite and campaign measurements, not previously explored in combination.
Lindsay E. Hatch, Robert J. Yokelson, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Patrick R. Veres, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, John J. Orlando, and Kelley C. Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1471–1489,Short summary
The most comprehensive database of gaseous biomass burning emissions to date was compiled. Four complementary instruments were deployed together during laboratory fires. The results generally compared within experimental uncertainty and highlighted that a range of measurement approaches are required for adequate characterization of smoke composition. Observed compounds were binned based on volatility, and priority recommendations were made to improve secondary organic aerosol predictions.
Katherine R. Travis, Daniel J. Jacob, Jenny A. Fisher, Patrick S. Kim, Eloise A. Marais, Lei Zhu, Karen Yu, Christopher C. Miller, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Anne M. Thompson, Paul O. Wennberg, John D. Crounse, Jason M. St. Clair, Ronald C. Cohen, Joshua L. Laughner, Jack E. Dibb, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Glenn M. Wolfe, Illana B. Pollack, Jeff Peischl, Jonathan A. Neuman, and Xianliang Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13561–13577,Short summary
Ground-level ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and biogenic emissions of isoprene. We find that US NOx emissions are overestimated nationally by as much as 50 % and that reducing model emissions by this amount results in good agreement with SEAC4RS aircraft measurements in August and September 2013. Observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes and satellite NO2 columns further support this result.
Luke D. Schiferl, Colette L. Heald, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre-François Coheur, John B. Nowak, J. Andrew Neuman, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, and Scott J. Eilerman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12305–12328,Short summary
This study combines new observations and a simulation to assess the interannual variability of atmospheric ammonia concentrations over the United States. The model generally underrepresents the observed variability. Nearly two-thirds of the simulated variability is caused by meteorology, twice that caused by regulations on fossil fuel combustion emissions. Adding ammonia emissions variability does not substantially improve the simulation and has little impact on summer particle concentrations.
Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Steven J. Ciciora, Richard J. McLaughlin, Laurel A. Watts, Thomas F. Hanisco, Esther Baumann, Fabrizio R. Giorgetta, Thaopaul V. Bui, David W. Fahey, and Ru-Shan Gao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4601–4613,Short summary
In situ measurements of SO2 in the tropical UT–LS have been scarce, in part due to limitations of existing instrumentation. Here we present a new laser-induced fluorescence instrument capable of measuring SO2 in the UT–LS region at single part-per-trillion (ppt) mixing ratios and demonstrate it on the NASA WB-57F aircraft up to 19.7 km altitude.
Jan Zörner, Marloes Penning de Vries, Steffen Beirle, Holger Sihler, Patrick R. Veres, Jonathan Williams, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9457–9487,Short summary
We present a top-down approach to infer and quantify rain-induced emission pulses of nitrogen oxides from soils using satellite-borne measurements of NO2. We found strong enhancements of NO2 induced by the first intense precipitation after prolonged droughts in many semi-arid regions of the world, in particular in the Sahel. Apart from the clear first-day peak, NO2 VCDs are moderately enhanced compared to background over the following 2 weeks suggesting potential further emissions.
Carsten Warneke, Michael Trainer, Joost A. de Gouw, David D. Parrish, David W. Fahey, A. R. Ravishankara, Ann M. Middlebrook, Charles A. Brock, James M. Roberts, Steven S. Brown, Jonathan A. Neuman, Brian M. Lerner, Daniel Lack, Daniel Law, Gerhard Hübler, Iliana Pollack, Steven Sjostedt, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jessica B. Gilman, Jin Liao, John Holloway, Jeff Peischl, John B. Nowak, Kenneth C. Aikin, Kyung-Eun Min, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Martin G. Graus, Mathew Richardson, Milos Z. Markovic, Nick L. Wagner, André Welti, Patrick R. Veres, Peter Edwards, Joshua P. Schwarz, Timothy Gordon, William P. Dube, Stuart A. McKeen, Jerome Brioude, Ravan Ahmadov, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Jack J. Lin, Athanasios Nenes, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas F. Hanisco, Ben H. Lee, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Frank N. Keutsch, Jennifer Kaiser, Jingqiu Mao, and Courtney D. Hatch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3063–3093,Short summary
In this paper we describe the experimental approach, the science goals and early results of the NOAA SENEX campaign, which was focused on studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to form secondary pollutants. During SENEX, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted 20 research flights between 27 May and 10 July 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. The SENEX flights included day- and nighttime flights in the Southeast as well as flights over areas with intense shale gas extraction.
Abigail R. Koss, Carsten Warneke, Bin Yuan, Matthew M. Coggon, Patrick R. Veres, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2909–2925,Short summary
Using laboratory and field experiments, we have explored how the technique of NO+ chemical ionization mass spectrometry can be used to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere. Results include the design and operation of the instrument, an evaluation of the technique’s utility for atmospheric measurement, and a guide for data interpretation. Use of this technique will improve our understanding of VOC chemistry.
Chris Reed, Charlotte A. Brumby, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Paul W. Seakins, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2483–2495,Short summary
A new method of measuring nitrous acid (HONO), a potent mediator of air quality in the atmosphere as well as an important indoor pollutant, is presented. The new method relies on simple, proven techniques already widely applied to other atmospheric compounds. The technique can be retrofitted to existing analysers at minimal cost, or developed into instruments capable of very fast measurement which allow for more complex analysis of the behaviour of HONO.
Charles A. Brock, Nicholas L. Wagner, Bruce E. Anderson, Alexis R. Attwood, Andreas Beyersdorf, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Annmarie G. Carlton, Douglas A. Day, Glenn S. Diskin, Timothy D. Gordon, Jose L. Jimenez, Daniel A. Lack, Jin Liao, Milos Z. Markovic, Ann M. Middlebrook, Nga L. Ng, Anne E. Perring, Matthews S. Richardson, Joshua P. Schwarz, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Andre Welti, Lu Xu, Luke D. Ziemba, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4987–5007,Short summary
Microscopic pollution particles make the atmosphere look hazy and also cool the earth by sending sunlight back to space. When the air is moist, these particles swell with water and scatter even more sunlight. We showed that particles formed from organic material – which dominates particulate pollution in the southeastern U.S. – does not take up water very effectively, toward the low end of most previous studies. We also found a better way to mathematically describe this swelling process.
G. M. Wolfe, J. Kaiser, T. F. Hanisco, F. N. Keutsch, J. A. de Gouw, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, C. D. Hatch, J. Holloway, L. W. Horowitz, B. H. Lee, B. M. Lerner, F. Lopez-Hilifiker, J. Mao, M. R. Marvin, J. Peischl, I. B. Pollack, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, J. A. Thornton, P. R. Veres, and C. Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2597–2610,Short summary
This study uses airborne trace gas observations acquired over the southeast US to examine how both natural (isoprene) and anthropogenic (NOx) emissions influence the production of formaldehyde (HCHO). We find a 3-fold increase in HCHO yield between rural and polluted environments. State-of-the-science chemical mechanisms are generally able to reproduce this behavior. These results add confidence to global hydrocarbon emission inventories constrained by spaceborne HCHO observations.
K.-E. Min, R. A. Washenfelder, W. P. Dubé, A. O. Langford, P. M. Edwards, K. J. Zarzana, J. Stutz, K. Lu, F. Rohrer, Y. Zhang, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 423–440,Short summary
We have developed a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for field measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO, and NO2 are 34, 350, and 80 parts per trillion (pptv) in 5 s, with accuracy of 5.8, 9.0 and 5.0 %.
R. J. Wild, P. M. Edwards, T. S. Bates, R. C. Cohen, J. A. de Gouw, W. P. Dubé, J. B. Gilman, J. Holloway, J. Kercher, A. R. Koss, L. Lee, B. M. Lerner, R. McLaren, P. K. Quinn, J. M. Roberts, J. Stutz, J. A. Thornton, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, E. Williams, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, K. J. Zarzana, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 573–583,Short summary
High wintertime ozone levels have been observed in the Uintah Basin, Utah, a sparsely populated rural region with intensive oil and gas operations. The reactive nitrogen budget plays an important role in tropospheric ozone formation, and we find that nighttime chemistry has a large effect on its partitioning. Much of the oxidation of reactive nitrogen during a high-ozone year occurred via heterogeneous uptake onto aerosol at night, keeping NOx at concentrations comparable to a low-ozone year.
R. A. Washenfelder, A. R. Attwood, J. M. Flores, K. J. Zarzana, Y. Rudich, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 41–52,Short summary
Formaldehyde is the most abundant aldehyde in the atmosphere and plays an important role in photochemistry. Broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy uses a high finesse cavity to obtain effective path lengths of kilometers. We use a diode-pumped plasma lamp and custom cavity mirrors to extend this technique further into the ultraviolet spectral region, and we achieve detection limits of hundreds of parts per trillion in 1 min for formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide.
J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, C. Warneke, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, J. A. de Gouw, I. R. Burling, and R. J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13915–13938,Short summary
A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic and inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern United States. Emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) are used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; OH reactivity; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the three different U.S. fuel regions presented here.
F. Salimi, L. R. Crilley, S. Stevanovic, Z. Ristovski, M. Mazaheri, C. He, G. Johnson, G. Ayoko, and L. Morawska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13475–13485,
J. Meyer, C. Rolf, C. Schiller, S. Rohs, N. Spelten, A. Afchine, M. Zöger, N. Sitnikov, T. D. Thornberry, A. W. Rollins, Z. Bozóki, D. Tátrai, V. Ebert, B. Kühnreich, P. Mackrodt, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, K. H. Rosenlof, and M. Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8521–8538,
P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, R. J. Wild, P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, T. S. Bates, P. K. Quinn, J. E. Johnson, R. J. Zamora, and J. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8101–8114,Short summary
In this paper laboratory work is documented establishing iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I- CIMS) as a sensitive method for the unambiguous detection of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2; PNA). A dynamic calibration source for HO2NO2, HO2, and HONO was developed and calibrated using a novel total NOy detector (NOy CaRDS). The ambient observations of HO2NO2 using I- CIMS made during the 2013 and 2014 Uintah Basin Wintertime Ozone Study (UBWOS) are presented.
J. Kaiser, G. M. Wolfe, K. E. Min, S. S. Brown, C. C. Miller, D. J. Jacob, J. A. deGouw, M. Graus, T. F. Hanisco, J. Holloway, J. Peischl, I. B. Pollack, T. B. Ryerson, C. Warneke, R. A. Washenfelder, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7571–7583,
D. B. Millet, M. Baasandorj, D. K. Farmer, J. A. Thornton, K. Baumann, P. Brophy, S. Chaliyakunnel, J. A. de Gouw, M. Graus, L. Hu, A. Koss, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, J. A. Neuman, F. Paulot, J. Peischl, I. B. Pollack, T. B. Ryerson, C. Warneke, B. J. Williams, and J. Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6283–6304,Short summary
Formic acid (HCOOH) is an abundant atmospheric acid that affects precipitation chemistry and acidity. HCOOH measurements over the USA are 2-3× larger than can be explained by known sources and sinks, revealing a key gap in current understanding. Observations indicate a large biogenic source plus chemical production across a range of precursors. Model simulations cannot capture the HCOOH diurnal amplitude or nocturnal profile, implying a deposition bias and possibly even larger missing source.
P. R. Veres and J. M. Roberts
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2225–2231,Short summary
A dynamic system for the calibration of acyl peroxynitrate compounds has been developed to reduce the difficulty, required time, and stability of laboratory standards. We present a photochemical source for the generation of acetyl peroxynitrate (PAN), propionyl peroxynitrate (PPN), acryloyl peroxynitrate (APAN), methacryloyl peroxynitrate (MPAN), and crotonyl peroxynitrate (CPAN). Validation of the APN products was performed using iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (I- CIMS).
P. L. Hayes, A. G. Carlton, K. R. Baker, R. Ahmadov, R. A. Washenfelder, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglück, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, J. A. de Gouw, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, S. Szidat, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, P. K. Ma, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5773–5801,Short summary
(1) Four different parameterizations for the formation and chemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a box model representing the Los Angeles region during the CalNex campaign. (2) The SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations. (3) The amount of SOA mass formed from diesel vehicle emissions is estimated to be 16-27%. (4) Modeled SOA depends strongly on the P-S/IVOC volatility distribution.
M. Van Damme, L. Clarisse, E. Dammers, X. Liu, J. B. Nowak, C. Clerbaux, C. R. Flechard, C. Galy-Lacaux, W. Xu, J. A. Neuman, Y. S. Tang, M. A. Sutton, J. W. Erisman, and P. F. Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1575–1591,Short summary
In this study, comprehensive ground-based data sets (Europe, China, Africa and United States) are used to evaluate NH3 measurements from IASI. Global yearly and regional monthly comparisons show fair agreement, while hourly measurements are used to investigate the limitations of direct comparisons. In addition, dense airborne measurements are explored and show the highest correlation coefficients in this study. Finally, the urgent need for independent NH3 column measurements is discussed.
L. R. Crilley, W. J. Bloss, J. Yin, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, M. Flynn, P. Williams, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prevot, M. R. Heal, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, J. D. Lee, S. Szidat, and C. Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3149–3171,Short summary
Wood is a renewable fuel but its combustion for residential heating releases a number of locally acting air pollutants, most notably particulate matter known to have adverse effects on human health. This paper used chemical tracers for wood smoke to estimate the contribution that burning wood makes to concentrations of airborne particles in the atmosphere of southern England and most particularly in London.
B. C. Kindel, P. Pilewskie, K. S. Schmidt, T. Thornberry, A. Rollins, and T. Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1147–1156,Short summary
Measurements of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric water vapor amounts in the tropics were made using the 1400 and 1900nm water vapor bands present in airborne solar spectral irradiance data. These were validated with radiative transfer modeling using in situ profiles of water vapor, temperature, and pressure. An approach to extending these types of measurements from aircraft altitudes to the top of the atmosphere to infer stratospheric water vapor amount is outlined.
B. Yuan, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, J. M. Roberts, J. B. Gilman, A. Koss, P. M. Edwards, M. Graus, W. C. Kuster, S.-M. Li, R. J. Wild, S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, J. E. Johnson, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, B. Lefer, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, R. J. Weber, R. Zamora, B. Ervens, D. B. Millet, B. Rappenglück, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1975–1993,Short summary
In this work, secondary formation of formic acid at an urban site and a site in an oil and gas production region is studied. We investigated various gas phase formation pathways of formic acid, including those recently proposed, using a box model. The contributions from aerosol-related processes, fog events and air-snow exchange to formic acid are also quantified.
C. Warneke, P. Veres, S. M. Murphy, J. Soltis, R. A. Field, M. G. Graus, A. Koss, S.-M. Li, R. Li, B. Yuan, J. M. Roberts, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 411–420,
C. E. Stockwell, P. R. Veres, J. Williams, and R. J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 845–865,Short summary
We used a high-resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer to measure emissions from peat, crop residue, cooking fires, etc. We assigned > 80% of the mass of gas-phase organic compounds and much of it was secondary organic aerosol precursors. The open cooking emissions were much larger than from advanced cookstoves. Little-studied N-containing organic compounds accounted for 0.1-8.7% of the fuel N and may influence new particle formation.
R. Ahmadov, S. McKeen, M. Trainer, R. Banta, A. Brewer, S. Brown, P. M. Edwards, J. A. de Gouw, G. J. Frost, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, B. Johnson, A. Karion, A. Koss, A. Langford, B. Lerner, J. Olson, S. Oltmans, J. Peischl, G. Pétron, Y. Pichugina, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, R. Schnell, C. Senff, C. Sweeney, C. Thompson, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, R. Wild, E. J. Williams, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 411–429,Short summary
High 2013 wintertime O3 pollution events associated with oil/gas production within the Uinta Basin are studied using a 3D model. It's able quantitatively to reproduce these events using emission estimates of O3 precursors based on ambient measurements (top-down approach), but unable to reproduce them using a recent bottom-up emission inventory for the oil/gas industry. The role of various physical and meteorological processes, chemical species and pathways contributing to high O3 are quantified.
T. D. Thornberry, A. W. Rollins, R. S. Gao, L. A. Watts, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, and D. W. Fahey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 211–224,Short summary
The two-channel NOAA Water instrument was developed for in situ measurement of water vapor and cirrus cloud ice water content (IWC) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Tunable diode laser absorption is used to achieve accurate measurements at part per million H2O and low µg/m3 IWC. This paper reports the instrument’s design and performance achieved during its first aircraft deployment on the NASA Global Hawk during the 2013 ATTREX mission in the tropical tropopause layer.
F. Salimi, Z. Ristovski, M. Mazaheri, R. Laiman, L. R. Crilley, C. He, S. Clifford, and L. Morawska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11883–11892,
R. Li, C. Warneke, M. Graus, R. Field, F. Geiger, P. R. Veres, J. Soltis, S.-M. Li, S. M. Murphy, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, J. M. Roberts, and J. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3597–3610,
T. Behrendt, P. R. Veres, F. Ashuri, G. Song, M. Flanz, B. Mamtimin, M. Bruse, J. Williams, and F. X. Meixner
Biogeosciences, 11, 5463–5492,
P. R. Veres, T. Behrendt, A. Klapthor, F. X. Meixner, and J. Williams
Revised manuscript not accepted
C. Knote, A. Hodzic, J. L. Jimenez, R. Volkamer, J. J. Orlando, S. Baidar, J. Brioude, J. Fast, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, W. B. Knighton, H. Oetjen, A. Setyan, H. Stark, R. Thalman, G. Tyndall, R. Washenfelder, E. Waxman, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6213–6239,
C. J. Young, R. A. Washenfelder, P. M. Edwards, D. D. Parrish, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, L. H. Mielke, H. D. Osthoff, C. Tsai, O. Pikelnaya, J. Stutz, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, S. Griffith, S. Dusanter, P. S. Stevens, J. Flynn, N. Grossberg, B. Lefer, J. S. Holloway, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. L. Atlas, D. R. Blake, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3427–3440,
S. E. Pusede, D. R. Gentner, P. J. Wooldridge, E. C. Browne, A. W. Rollins, K.-E. Min, A. R. Russell, J. Thomas, L. Zhang, W. H. Brune, S. B. Henry, J. P. DiGangi, F. N. Keutsch, S. A. Harrold, J. A. Thornton, M. R. Beaver, J. M. St. Clair, P. O. Wennberg, J. Sanders, X. Ren, T. C. VandenBoer, M. Z. Markovic, A. Guha, R. Weber, A. H. Goldstein, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3373–3395,
S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. de Gouw, R. A. Washenfelder, E. Atlas, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, J. P. Schwarz, R. Spackman, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11317–11337,
P. M. Edwards, C. J. Young, K. Aikin, J. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, F. Geiger, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, J. S. Holloway, J. Kercher, B. Lerner, R. Martin, R. McLaren, D. D. Parrish, J. Peischl, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, J. Thornton, C. Warneke, E. J. Williams, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8955–8971,
T. D. Thornberry, A. W. Rollins, R. S. Gao, L. A. Watts, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, C. Voigt, B. Hall, and D. W. Fahey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1461–1475,
R. A. Washenfelder, J. M. Flores, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and Y. Rudich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 861–877,
J. Brioude, W. M. Angevine, R. Ahmadov, S.-W. Kim, S. Evan, S. A. McKeen, E.-Y. Hsie, G. J. Frost, J. A. Neuman, I. B. Pollack, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. Holloway, S. S. Brown, J. B. Nowak, J. M. Roberts, S. C. Wofsy, G. W. Santoni, T. Oda, and M. Trainer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3661–3677,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsDetection of nitrous acid in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR using open-path incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and extractive long-path absorption photometryBehavior of KCl sorbent traps and KCl trapping solutions used for atmospheric mercury speciation: stability and specificityIntercomparison of O2 ∕ N2 ratio scales among AIST, NIES, TU, and SIO based on a round-robin exercise using gravimetric standard mixturesCharacterisation of gas reference materials for underpinning atmospheric measurements of stable isotopes of nitrous oxideAn indirect-calibration method for non-target quantification of trace gases applied to a time series of fourth-generation synthetic halocarbons at the Taunus Observatory (Germany)Revision of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) CO2 calibration scaleComparability of calibration strategies for measuring mercury concentrations in gas emission sources and the atmosphereCharacterizing water vapour concentration dependence of commercial cavity ring-down spectrometers for continuous on-site atmospheric water vapour isotope measurements in the tropicsImplementation of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique in an atmospheric simulation chamber for in situ NO3 monitoring: characterization and validation for kinetic studiesOptimisation of a thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for the analysis of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenesSIFT-MS optimization for atmospheric trace gas measurements at varying humidityN2O isotopocule measurements using laser spectroscopy: analyzer characterization and intercomparisonAn intercomparison of CH3O2 measurements by fluorescence assay by gas expansion and cavity ring-down spectroscopy within HIRAC (Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry)Photoacoustic measurement with infrared band-pass filters significantly overestimates NH3 emissions from cattle houses due to volatile organic compound (VOC) interferencesIsotopic characterization of nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitrate (pNO3−) from laboratory biomass burning during FIREXA new laser-based and ultra-portable gas sensor for indoor and outdoor formaldehyde (HCHO) monitoringNegligible influence of livestock contaminants and sampling system on ammonia measurements with cavity ring-down spectroscopyPreparation of primary standard mixtures for atmospheric oxygen measurements with less than 1 µmol mol−1 uncertainty for oxygen molar fractionsThe interference of tetrachloromethane in the measurement of benzene in the air by a gas chromatography–photoionisation detector (GC-PID)Evaluation of cation exchange membrane performance under exposure to high Hg0 and HgBr2 concentrationsGravimetrically prepared carbon dioxide standards in support of atmospheric researchThe importance of cylinder passivation for preparation and long-term stability of multicomponent monoterpene primary reference materialsDynamic–gravimetric preparation of metrologically traceable primary calibration standards for halogenated greenhouse gasesThe water vapour self-continuum absorption in the infrared atmospheric windows: new laser measurements near 3.3 and 2.0 µmInterlaboratory comparison of δ13C and δD measurements of atmospheric CH4 for combined use of data sets from different laboratoriesAbsolute, pressure-dependent validation of a calibration-free, airborne laser hygrometer transfer standard (SEALDH-II) from 5 to 1200 ppmv using a metrological humidity generatorAn intercomparison of HO2 measurements by fluorescence assay by gas expansion and cavity ring-down spectroscopy within HIRAC (Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry)Abundances of isotopologues and calibration of CO2 greenhouse gas measurementsIntercomparison of two cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyzers for atmospheric 13CO2 ∕ 12CO2 measurementDevelopment and evaluation of a suite of isotope reference gases for methane in airMIPAS database: new HNO3 line parameters at 7.6 µm validated with MIPAS satellite measurementsChallenges associated with the sampling and analysis of organosulfur compounds in air using real-time PTR-ToF-MS and offline GC-FIDTwin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditionsGas adsorption and desorption effects on cylinders and their importance for long-term gas recordsHOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modelingACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networksA method for stable carbon isotope ratio and concentration measurements of ambient aromatic hydrocarbonsInstrument intercomparison of glyoxal, methyl glyoxal and NO2 under simulated atmospheric conditionsMeasuring acetic and formic acid by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry: sensitivity, humidity dependence, and quantifying interferencesAccurate measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley bandPressure-dependent calibration of the OH and HO2 channels of a FAGE HOx instrument using the Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC)Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurementsThe AquaVIT-1 intercomparison of atmospheric water vapor measurement techniquesCharacterization and mitigation of water vapor effects in the measurement of ozone by chemiluminescence with nitric oxideResults from the International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE)A smog chamber comparison of a microfluidic derivatisation measurement of gas-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal with other analytical techniquesHigh-precision analysis of SF6 at ambient levelJena Reference Air Set (JRAS): a multi-point scale anchor for isotope measurements of CO2 in airA combustion setup to precisely reference δ13C and δ2H isotope ratios of pure CH4 to produce isotope reference gases of δ13C-CH4 in synthetic airQuantification of biogenic volatile organic compounds with a flame ionization detector using the effective carbon number concept
Sophie Dixneuf, Albert A. Ruth, Rolf Häseler, Theo Brauers, Franz Rohrer, and Hans-Peter Dorn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 945–964,Short summary
Atmospheric chambers, like SAPHIR in Jülich (Germany), are used to experimentally simulate specific atmospheric scenarios to improve our understanding of the complex chemical reactions occurring in our atmospheres. These facilities hence require cutting-edge gas-sensing capabilities to detect trace gases at the lowest level and in a short time. One important trace gas is HONO, for which we custom-built an optical sensing setup, capable of detecting one HONO molecule in ~40 billion in 1 min.
Jan Gačnik, Igor Živković, Sergio Ribeiro Guevara, Radojko Jaćimović, Jože Kotnik, Gianmarco De Feo, Matthew A. Dexter, Warren T. Corns, and Milena Horvat
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6619–6631,Short summary
Atmospheric mercury and knowledge of its transformations and processes are of great importance for lowering its anthropogenic emissions. To ensure that, it is crucial to have a tested and validated measurement procedure. Since this is not always the case, we performed experiments that provided insight into commonly used atmospheric mercury sampling methods. The results showed that some sampling methods are unsuitable, and some are useful if we consider the results obtained from this work.
Nobuyuki Aoki, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Yasunori Tohjima, Shinji Morimoto, Ralph F. Keeling, Adam Cox, Shuichiro Takebayashi, and Shohei Murayama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6181–6193,Short summary
Observing the minimal long-term change in atmospheric O2 molar fraction combined with CO2 observation enables us to estimate terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes separately. In this study, we firstly identified the span offset between the laboratory O2 scales using our developed high-precision standard mixtures, suggesting that the result may allow us to estimate terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes precisely.
Ruth E. Hill-Pearce, Aimee Hillier, Eric Mussell Webber, Kanokrat Charoenpornpukdee, Simon O'Doherty, Joachim Mohn, Christoph Zellweger, David R. Worton, and Paul J. Brewer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5447–5458,Short summary
There is currently a need for gas reference materials with well-characterised delta values for monitoring N2O amount fractions. We present work towards the preparation of gas reference materials for calibration of in-field monitoring equipment, which target the WMO-GAW data quality objectives for comparability of amount fraction and demonstrate the stability of δ15Nα, δ15Nβ and δ18O values with pressure and effects of cylinder passivation.
Fides Lefrancois, Markus Jesswein, Markus Thoma, Andreas Engel, Kieran Stanley, and Tanja Schuck
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4669–4687,Short summary
Synthetic halocarbons can contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or to climate change. In many applications they have been replaced over the last years. The presented non-target analysis shows an application approach to quantify those replacements retrospectively, using recorded data of air measurements with gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We focus on the retrospective analysis of the fourth-generation halocarbons, detected at Taunus Observatory in Germany.
Bradley D. Hall, Andrew M. Crotwell, Duane R. Kitzis, Thomas Mefford, Benjamin R. Miller, Michael F. Schibig, and Pieter P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3015–3032,Short summary
We have recently revised the carbon dioxide calibration scale used by numerous laboratories that measure atmospheric CO2. The revision follows from an improved understanding of the manometric method used to determine the absolute amount of CO2 in an atmospheric air sample. The new scale is 0.18 μmol mol−1 (ppm) greater than the previous scale at 400 ppm CO2. While this difference is small in relative terms (0.045 %), it is significant in terms of atmospheric monitoring.
Iris de Krom, Wijnand Bavius, Ruben Ziel, Elizabeth A. McGhee, Richard J. C. Brown, Igor Živković, Jan Gačnik, Vesna Fajon, Jože Kotnik, Milena Horvat, and Hugo Ent
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2317–2326,Short summary
To demonstrate the robustness and comparability of the novel primary mercury gas standard, the results of comparisons are presented with current calibration methods maintained, using the bell jar in combination with the Dumarey equation or NIST liquid standard reference material. The results show that the primary standard and the NIST reference material are comparable, whereas a difference of −8 % exists between results traceable to the primary standard and the Dumarey equation.
Shujiro Komiya, Fumiyoshi Kondo, Heiko Moossen, Thomas Seifert, Uwe Schultz, Heike Geilmann, David Walter, and Jost V. Lavric
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1439–1455,Short summary
The Amazon basin influences the atmospheric and hydrological cycles on local to global scales. To better understand how, we plan to perform continuous on-site measurements of the stable isotope composition of atmospheric water vapour. For making accurate on-site observations possible, we have investigated the performance of two commercial analysers and determined the best calibration strategy. Well calibrated, both analysers will allow us to record natural signals in the Amazon rainforest.
Axel Fouqueau, Manuela Cirtog, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Pascal Zapf, Guillaume Siour, Xavier Landsheere, Guillaume Méjean, Daniele Romanini, and Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6311–6323,Short summary
An incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) technique has been developed for the in situ monitoring of NO3 radicals in the CSA simulation chamber at LISA. The optical cavity allows a high sensitivity for NO3 detection up to 6 ppt for an integration time of 10 s. The technique is now fully operational and can be used to determine rate constants for fast reactions involving complex volatile organic compounds (with rate constants up to 10−10 cm3 molecule−1 s−1).
Aku Helin, Hannele Hakola, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3543–3560,Short summary
A thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method following sorbent tube sampling was developed for the determination of terpenes in gas-phase samples. The main focus was on the analysis of diterpenes, which have been limited in study in gas-phase samples. The analytical figures of merit were fit for purpose (e.g. quantitation limits <10 pptv and reproducibility <10 % for terpenes). Diterpenes could be detected and identified in emissions from spruce and pine samples.
Ann-Sophie Lehnert, Thomas Behrendt, Alexander Ruecker, Georg Pohnert, and Susan E. Trumbore
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3507–3520,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like scents can appear and disappear quickly. For example, when a bug starts on a tree, the tree releases VOCs that warn the trees around him. Thus, one needs instruments measuring their concentration in real time and identify which VOC is measured. In our study, we compared two instruments doing that, PTR-MS and SIFT-MS. Both work similarly, but we found that the PTR-MS can measure lower concentrations, but the SIFT-MS can identify VOCs better.
Stephen J. Harris, Jesper Liisberg, Longlong Xia, Jing Wei, Kerstin Zeyer, Longfei Yu, Matti Barthel, Benjamin Wolf, Bryce F. J. Kelly, Dioni I. Cendón, Thomas Blunier, Johan Six, and Joachim Mohn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2797–2831,Short summary
The latest commercial laser spectrometers have the potential to revolutionize N2O isotope analysis. However, to do so, they must be able to produce trustworthy data. Here, we test the performance of widely used laser spectrometers for ambient air applications and identify instrument-specific dependencies on gas matrix and trace gas concentrations. We then provide a calibration workflow to facilitate the operation of these instruments in order to generate reproducible and accurate data.
Lavinia Onel, Alexander Brennan, Michele Gianella, James Hooper, Nicole Ng, Gus Hancock, Lisa Whalley, Paul W. Seakins, Grant A. D. Ritchie, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2441–2456,
Dezhao Liu, Li Rong, Jesper Kamp, Xianwang Kong, Anders Peter S. Adamsen, Albarune Chowdhury, and Anders Feilberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 259–272,
Jiajue Chai, David J. Miller, Eric Scheuer, Jack Dibb, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert Yokelson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, Abigail R. Koss, Carsten Warneke, and Meredith Hastings
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6303–6317,Short summary
Isotopic analysis offers a potential tool to distinguish between sources and interpret transformation pathways of atmospheric species. We applied recently developed techniques in our lab to characterize the isotopic composition of reactive nitrogen species (NOx, HONO, HNO3, pNO3-) in fresh biomass burning emissions. Intercomparison with other techniques confirms the suitability of our methods, allowing for future applications of our techniques in a variety of environments.
Joshua D. Shutter, Norton T. Allen, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6079–6089,Short summary
A new mid-infrared and ultra-portable formaldehyde (HCHO) sensor from Aeris Technologies is characterized and evaluated against well-established laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrumentation. The Aeris sensor displays linear behavior (R squared > 0.94) and shows good agreement with LIF instruments. While the compact sensor is not currently a replacement for the most sensitive research-grade instrumentation available, its sub-ppbv precision is sufficient for indoor and outdoor HCHO monitoring.
Jesper Nørlem Kamp, Albarune Chowdhury, Anders Peter S. Adamsen, and Anders Feilberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2837–2850,Short summary
We tested the performance of a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument from Picarro for measuring ammonia. Interference tests with 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were conducted to find potential interference of these VOCs. Calibrations show excellent linearity over a large dynamic range of NH3 concentrations. There is negligible interference from humidity and few of the tested VOCs. Overall, the CRDS system performs well with only negligible influence from other compounds.
Nobuyuki Aoki, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Takuro Watanabe, Takuya Shimosaka, and Shohei Murayama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2631–2646,Short summary
Observation of atmospheric O2 requires highly precise standard gas mixtures with uncertainty of less than 1 ppm for the O2 mole fraction or 5 per meg for O2 / N2. The uncertainty had not been achieved due unknown uncertainty factors in mass determination of the filled source gases. We first developed the primary standard mixtures with 1 ppm for the O2 mole fraction or 5 per meg by identifying and reducing the unknown uncertainty factors.
Cristina Romero-Trigueros, María Esther González, Marta Doval Miñarro, and Enrique González Ferradás
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1685–1695,Short summary
Determining benzene in ambient air is mandatory in the European Union. The reference measuring technique is by gas chromatography (GC), and a photometric ionisation detector is recommended. This study shows that the simultaneous presence of benzene and tetrachloromethane causes a significant decrease in GC–photoionisation detector (GC-PID) readings. Given the importance of this behaviour, a possible mechanism was proposed. This study highlights the uncertainty of measuring benzene with a GC-PID.
Matthieu B. Miller, Sarrah M. Dunham-Cheatham, Mae Sexauer Gustin, and Grant C. Edwards
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1207–1217,Short summary
This study was undertaken to demonstrate that a cation exchange membrane (CEM) material used for sampling reactive mercury (RM) does not possess an inherent tendency to collect gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). Using a custom-built mercury vapor permeation system, we found that the CEM material has a very small GEM uptake of approximately 0.004 %, too small to create a significant artifact. We also found that a representative RM compound was collected by the CEM material with high efficiency.
Bradley D. Hall, Andrew M. Crotwell, Benjamin R. Miller, Michael Schibig, and James W. Elkins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 517–524,Short summary
We have used a one-step method for gravimetric preparation of CO2-in-air standards in aluminum cylinders. We consider both adsorption to stainless steel surfaces used in the transfer of highly pure CO2 and adsorption of CO2 to cylinder walls. This work compliments ongoing efforts to support atmospheric monitoring of CO2.
Nicholas D. C. Allen, David R. Worton, Paul J. Brewer, Celine Pascale, and Bernhard Niederhauser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6429–6438,Short summary
This paper investigates the stability of trace level static terpene primary reference materials (PRMs) and how the choice of passivation affects this process. For the first time, sampling canisters that can be used in the field are tested and demonstrated to be suitable for terpene mixtures. The PRMs were compared against a novel dynamic generator system based on dilution of pure limonene vapour emitted from a permeation tube. The effect of cylinder pressure and decanting are also investigated.
Myriam Guillevic, Martin K. Vollmer, Simon A. Wyss, Daiana Leuenberger, Andreas Ackermann, Céline Pascale, Bernhard Niederhauser, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3351–3372,Short summary
We present new primary calibration scales for five halogenated greenhouse gases. The preparation method, newly applied to halocarbons, is dynamic and gravimetric and allows the generation of reference gas mixtures at near-ambient levels (pmol mol−1). Each prepared molar fraction is traceable to the realisation of SI units (International System of Units) and is assigned an uncertainty estimate following international guidelines.
Loic Lechevallier, Semen Vasilchenko, Roberto Grilli, Didier Mondelain, Daniele Romanini, and Alain Campargue
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2159–2171,Short summary
The amplitude, the temperature dependence, and the physical origin of the water vapour absorption continuum are a long standing issue in molecular spectroscopy with a direct impact in atmospheric and planetary sciences. Using highly sensitive laser spectrometers, the water self continuum has been determined with unprecedented sensitivity in infrared atmospheric transparency windows.
Taku Umezawa, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W. C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1207–1231,Short summary
Isotope measurements are useful for separating different methane sources. However, the lack of widely accepted standards and calibration methods for stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane in air has caused significant measurement offsets among laboratories. We conducted worldwide interlaboratory comparisons, surveyed the literature and assessed them systematically. This study may be of help in future attempts to harmonize data sets of isotopic composition of atmospheric methane.
Bernhard Buchholz and Volker Ebert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 459–471,Short summary
This paper describes the absolute validation of the novel, calibration-free SEALDH-II hygrometer at a traceable humidity generator. During 23 days of permanent operation, 15 H2O mole fractions levels (5–1200 ppmv) at 6 gas pressures (65–950 hPa) were validated. With this validation, SEALDH-II is the first metrologically validated humidity transfer standard which links several scientific airborne and laboratory measurement campaigns to the international metrological water vapor scale.
Lavinia Onel, Alexander Brennan, Michele Gianella, Grace Ronnie, Ana Lawry Aguila, Gus Hancock, Lisa Whalley, Paul W. Seakins, Grant A. D. Ritchie, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4877–4894,Short summary
Hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key intermediates participating in a rapid chemical cycling at the centre of the tropospheric oxidation. Fluorescence assay by gas expansion (FAGE) technique is the most commonly used for the HO2 measurements in the atmosphere. However, FAGE is an indirect technique, requiring calibration. This work finds a good agreement between the indirect FAGE method and the direct cavity ring-down spectroscopy method and hence validates FAGE and the FAGE calibration method.
Pieter P. Tans, Andrew M. Crotwell, and Kirk W. Thoning
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2669–2685,Short summary
We describe a new CO2 calibration system for the Central Calibration Laboratory of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch program. The system uses two laser spectroscopic instruments to measure the three major CO2 isotopologues individually. We account for isotopic differences between standards in the calibration hierarchy when assigning CO2 mole fraction, eliminating bias due to variations in the isotopic composition.
Jiaping Pang, Xuefa Wen, Xiaomin Sun, and Kuan Huang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3879–3891,
Peter Sperlich, Nelly A. M. Uitslag, Jürgen M. Richter, Michael Rothe, Heike Geilmann, Carina van der Veen, Thomas Röckmann, Thomas Blunier, and Willi A. Brand
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3717–3737,Short summary
Isotope measurements in atmospheric CH4 are performed since more than 3 decades. However, standard gases to harmonize global measurements are not available to this day. We designed two methods to calibrate a suite of 8 CH4 gases with a wide range in isotopic composition to the VPDB and VSMOW scales with high precision and accuracy. Synthetic air mixtures with ~2 ppm of calibrated CH4 can be provided to the community by the ISOLAB of the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Germany.
Agnès Perrin, Jean-Marie Flaud, Marco Ridolfi, Jean Vander Auwera, and Massimo Carlotti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2067–2076,Short summary
Improved line positions and intensities have been generated for the 7.6 µm spectral region of nitric acid, relying on a recent laboratory reinvestigation and comparisons of HNO3 volume mixing ratios retrieved from Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) radiances in the 11 and 7.6 µm regions. The much improved consistency of line intensities in both regions will make it possible to use them simultaneously to retrieve atmospheric HNO3.
Véronique Perraud, Simone Meinardi, Donald R. Blake, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1325–1340,Short summary
Gas phase organosulfur compounds in air serve as precursors of particles which impact human health, visibility, and climate. We compare here two different approaches to measuring these compounds, one an online mass spectrometry technique and the other canister sampling followed by offline analysis by gas chromatography. We show that each approach has its own advantages and limitations in measuring these compounds in complex mixtures, including some artifacts due to reactions on surfaces.
Shang Sun, Alexander Moravek, Lisa von der Heyden, Andreas Held, Matthias Sörgel, and Jürgen Kesselmeier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 599–617,Short summary
We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. We found out that at a relative humidity of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the O3-deposition to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves.
M. C. Leuenberger, M. F. Schibig, and P. Nyfeler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5289–5299,Short summary
Adsorption/desorption effects of trace gases in gas cylinders were investigated. Our measurements indicate a rather strong effect on steel cylinders for CO2 that becomes easily visible through enhanced concentrations for low (<20 bars) gas pressure. Much smaller effects are observed for CO and CH4. Significantly smaller effects are measured for all gas species investigated on aluminium cylinders. Careful selection of gas cylinders for high-precision calibration purposes is recommended.
Z. Peng, D. A. Day, H. Stark, R. Li, J. Lee-Taylor, B. B. Palm, W. H. Brune, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4863–4890,
C. C. Hoerger, A. Claude, C. Plass-Duelmer, S. Reimann, E. Eckart, R. Steinbrecher, J. Aalto, J. Arduini, N. Bonnaire, J. N. Cape, A. Colomb, R. Connolly, J. Diskova, P. Dumitrean, C. Ehlers, V. Gros, H. Hakola, M. Hill, J. R. Hopkins, J. Jäger, R. Junek, M. K. Kajos, D. Klemp, M. Leuchner, A. C. Lewis, N. Locoge, M. Maione, D. Martin, K. Michl, E. Nemitz, S. O'Doherty, P. Pérez Ballesta, T. M. Ruuskanen, S. Sauvage, N. Schmidbauer, T. G. Spain, E. Straube, M. Vana, M. K. Vollmer, R. Wegener, and A. Wenger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2715–2736,Short summary
The performance of 20 European laboratories involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements was assessed with respect to ACTRIS and GAW data quality objectives. The participants were asked to measure both a 30-component NMHC mixture in nitrogen and whole air. The NMHCs were analysed either by GC-FID or GC-MS. Most systems performed well for the NMHC in nitrogen, whereas in air more scatter was observed. Reasons for this are explained in the paper.
A. Kornilova, S. Moukhtar, M. Saccon, L. Huang, W. Zhang, and J. Rudolph
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2301–2313,Short summary
A technique for compound specific analysis of stable carbon isotope ratios and concentration of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOC) is presented. It is based on selective VOC sampling onto adsorbent filled cartridges. Examples of measurements conducted demonstrate that the ability to make accurate measurements in air with low VOC mixing ratios is important to avoid bias from an overrepresentation of samples that are strongly impacted by recent emissions.
R. Thalman, M. T. Baeza-Romero, S. M. Ball, E. Borrás, M. J. S. Daniels, I. C. A. Goodall, S. B. Henry, T. Karl, F. N. Keutsch, S. Kim, J. Mak, P. S. Monks, A. Muñoz, J. Orlando, S. Peppe, A. R. Rickard, M. Ródenas, P. Sánchez, R. Seco, L. Su, G. Tyndall, M. Vázquez, T. Vera, E. Waxman, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1835–1862,Short summary
Measurements of α-dicarbonyl compounds, like glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methyl glyoxal (CH3C(O)CHO), are informative about the rate of hydrocarbon oxidation, oxidative capacity, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. We have compared nine instruments and seven techniques to measure α-dicarbonyl, using simulation chamber facilities in the US and Europe. We assess our understanding of calibration, precision, accuracy and detection limits, as well as possible sampling biases.
M. Baasandorj, D. B. Millet, L. Hu, D. Mitroo, and B. J. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1303–1321,
J. Viallon, S. Lee, P. Moussay, K. Tworek, M. Petersen, and R. I. Wielgosz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1245–1257,
F. A. F. Winiberg, S. C. Smith, I. Bejan, C. A. Brumby, T. Ingham, T. L. Malkin, S. C. Orr, D. E. Heard, and P. W. Seakins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 523–540,
C. S. Brauer, T. A. Blake, A. B. Guenther, S. W. Sharpe, R. L. Sams, and T. J. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3839–3847,
D. W. Fahey, R.-S. Gao, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, C. Schiller, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, T. Peter, N. Amarouche, L. M. Avallone, R. Bauer, Z. Bozóki, L. E. Christensen, S. M. Davis, G. Durry, C. Dyroff, R. L. Herman, S. Hunsmann, S. M. Khaykin, P. Mackrodt, J. Meyer, J. B. Smith, N. Spelten, R. F. Troy, H. Vömel, S. Wagner, and F. G. Wienhold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3177–3213,
P. Boylan, D. Helmig, and J.-H. Park
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1231–1244,
B. D. Hall, A. Engel, J. Mühle, J. W. Elkins, F. Artuso, E. Atlas, M. Aydin, D. Blake, E.-G. Brunke, S. Chiavarini, P. J. Fraser, J. Happell, P. B. Krummel, I. Levin, M. Loewenstein, M. Maione, S. A. Montzka, S. O'Doherty, S. Reimann, G. Rhoderick, E. S. Saltzman, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, M. K. Vollmer, R. F. Weiss, D. Worthy, and Y. Yokouchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 469–490,
X. Pang, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, M. T. Baeza-Romero, T. J. Adams, S. M. Ball, M. J. S. Daniels, I. C. A. Goodall, P. S. Monks, S. Peppe, M. Ródenas García, P. Sánchez, and A. Muñoz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 373–389,
J. S. Lim, D. M. Moon, J. S. Kim, W.-T. Yun, and J. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2293–2299,
M. Wendeberg, J. M. Richter, M. Rothe, and W. A. Brand
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 817–822,
P. Sperlich, M. Guillevic, C. Buizert, T. M. Jenk, C. J. Sapart, H. Schaefer, T. J. Popp, and T. Blunier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2227–2236,
C. L. Faiola, M. H. Erickson, V. L. Fricaud, B. T. Jobson, and T. M. VanReken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1911–1923,
Braman, R. S. and de la Cantera, M. A.: Sublimation sources for nitrous acid and other nitrogen compounds in air, Anal. Chem., 58, 1533–1537, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00298a059, 1986.
Chai, J., Miller, D. J., Scheuer, E., Dibb, J., Selimovic, V., Yokelson, R., Zarzana, K. J., Brown, S. S., Koss, A. R., Warneke, C., and Hastings, M.: Isotopic characterization of nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitrate (pNO) from laboratory biomass burning during FIREX, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6303–6317, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-6303-2019, 2019.
Cheng, P., Cheng, Y., Lu, K., Su, H., Yang, Q., Zou, Y., Zhao, Y., Dong, H., Zeng, L., and Zhang, Y.: An online monitoring system for atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) based on stripping coil and ion chromatography, J. Environ. Sci. (China), 25, 895–907, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60251-4, 2013.
Collins, D. B., Hems, R. F., Zhou, S., Wang, C., Grignon, E., Alavy, M., Siegel, J. A., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Evidence for gas-surface equilibrium control of indoor nitrous acid, Environ. Sci. Technol., 52, 12419–12427, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b04512, 2018.
Crilley, L. R., Kramer, L., Pope, F. D., Whalley, L. K., Cryer, D. R., Heard, D. E., Lee, J. D., Reed, C., and Bloss, W. J.: On the interpretation of in situ HONO observations via photochemical steady state, Faraday Discuss., 189, 191–212, https://doi.org/10.1039/c5fd00224a, 2016.
Crilley, L. R., Kramer, L. J., Ouyang, B., Duan, J., Zhang, W., Tong, S., Ge, M., Tang, K., Qin, M., Xie, P., Shaw, M. D., Lewis, A. C., Mehra, A., Bannan, T. J., Worrall, S. D., Priestley, M., Bacak, A., Coe, H., Allan, J., Percival, C. J., Popoola, O. A. M., Jones, R. L., and Bloss, W. J.: Intercomparison of nitrous acid (HONO) measurement techniques in a megacity (Beijing), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-6449-2019, 2019.
Dawe, K. E. R., Furlani, T. C., Kowal, S. F., Kahan, T. F., VandenBoer, T. C., and Young, C. J.: Formation and emission of hydrogen chloride in indoor air, Indoor Air, 29, 70–78, https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.12509, 2019.
Elshorbany, Y. F., Kurtenbach, R., Wiesen, P., Lissi, E., Rubio, M., Villena, G., Gramsch, E., Rickard, A. R., Pilling, M. J., and Kleffmann, J.: Oxidation capacity of the city air of Santiago, Chile, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2257–2273, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-2257-2009, 2009.
Fahey, D. W., Eubank, C. S., Hübler, G., and Fehsenfeld, F. C.: Evaluation of a catalytic reduction technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy in the atmosphere, J. Atmos. Chem., 3, 435–468, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00053871, 1985.
Febo, A., Perrino, C., Gherardi, M., and Sparapani, R.: Evaluation of a high-purity and high-stability continuous generation system for nitrous acid, Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 2390–2395, https://doi.org/10.1021/es00009a035, 1995.
Febo, A., Perrino, C., and Allegrini, I.: Measurement of nitrous acid in Milan, Italy, by DOAS and diffusion denuders, Atmos. Environ., 30, 3599–3609, https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(96)00069-6, 1996.
Fontijn, A., Sabadell, A. J., and Ronco, R. J.: Homogeneous chemiluminescent measurement of nitric oxide with ozone: Implications for continuous selective monitoring of gaseous air pollutants, Anal. Chem., 42, 575–579, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60288a034, 1970.
Fried, A., Henry, B., and Sewell, S.: Potential calibration errors in carbonyl sulfide permeation devices: Implications for atmospheric studies, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 103, 18895–18906, https://doi.org/10.1029/98JD00620, 1998.
Gall, E. T., Griffin, R. J., Steiner, A. L., Dibb, J., Scheuer, E., Gong, L., Rutter, A. P., Cevik, B. K., Kim, S., Lefer, B., and Flynn, J.: Evaluation of nitrous acid sources and sinks in urban outflow, Atmos. Environ., 127, 272–282, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.12.044, 2016.
Gingerysty, N. J. and Osthoff, H. D.: A compact, high-purity source of HONO validated by Fourier transform infrared and thermal-dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4159–4167, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-4159-2020, 2020.
Gligorovski, S.: Nitrous acid (HONO): An emerging indoor pollutant, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem., 314, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2015.06.008, 2016.
Gómez Alvarez, E., Wortham, H., Strekowski, R., Zetzsch, C., and Gligorovski, S.: Atmospheric photosensitized heterogeneous and multiphase reactions: From outdoors to indoors, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 1955–1963, https://doi.org/10.1021/es2019675, 2012.
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Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key intermediate in the generation of oxidants and fate of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. High-purity calibration sources that produce stable atmospherically relevant levels under field conditions have not been made to date, reducing measurement accuracy. In this study a simple salt-coated tube humidified with water vapor is demonstrated to produce pure stable low levels of HONO, with modifications allowing the generation of higher amounts.
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key intermediate in the generation of oxidants and fate of nitrogen...