Articles | Volume 9, issue 8
24 Aug 2016
Research article | 24 Aug 2016
Ground-based lidar and microwave radiometry synergy for high vertical resolution absolute humidity profiling
María Barrera-Verdejo et al.
M. Barrera-Verdejo, S. Crewell, U. Löhnert, E. Orlandi, and P. Di Girolamo
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Jan H. Schween, Camilo del Rio, Juan-Luis García, Pablo Osses, Sarah Westbrook, and Ulrich Löhnert
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Marine stratocumulus clouds of the Eastern Pacific play an essential role in the Earth's climate. These clouds form the major source of water to parts of the extreme dry Atacama Desert at the northern coast of Chile. For the first time these clouds are observed over a whole year with three remote sensing instruments. It is shown how these clouds are influenced by the land-sea wind system and the distribution of ocean temperatures.
Julian Steinheuer, Carola Detring, Frank Beyrich, Ulrich Löhnert, Petra Friederichs, and Stephanie Fiedler
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) allow the determination of wind profiles with high vertical resolution and thus provide an alternative to meteorological towers. We address the question of whether wind gusts can be derived since they are short-lived phenomena. Therefore, we compare different DWL configurations and develop a new method applicable to all of them. A fast continuous scanning mode that completes a full observation cycle within 3.4 s is found to be the best performing configuration.
Annakaisa von Lerber, Mario Mech, Annette Rinke, Damao Zhang, Melanie Lauer, Ana Radovan, Irina Gorodetskaya, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Snowfall is an important climate indicator. However, microphysical snowfall processes are challenging for the atmospheric models. In this study, the performance of a regional climate model is evaluated in modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of Arctic snowfall when compared to CloudSat satellite observations. An excellent agreement in averaged annual snowfall rates is found, and the shown methodology offers a promising diagnostic tool to investigate the shown differences further.
Carolina Viceto, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Annette Rinke, Marion Maturilli, Alfredo Rocha, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 441–463,Short summary
We focus on anomalous moisture transport events known as atmospheric rivers (ARs). During ACLOUD and PASCAL, three AR events were identified: 30 May, 6 June, and 9 June 2017. We explore their spatio-temporal evolution and precipitation patterns using measurements, reanalyses, and a model. We show the importance of the following: Atlantic and Siberian pathways during spring–summer in the Arctic, AR-associated heat/moisture increase, precipitation phase transition, and high-resolution datasets.
Claudia Acquistapace, Richard Coulter, Susanne Crewell, Albert Garcia-Benadi, Rosa Gierens, Giacomo Labbri, Alexander Myagkov, Nils Risse, and Jan H. Schween
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 33–55,Short summary
This publication describes the unprecedented high-resolution cloud and precipitation dataset collected by two radars deployed on the Maria S. Merian research vessel. The ship operated in the west Atlantic Ocean during the measurement campaign called EUREC4A, between 19 January and 19 February 2020. The data collected are crucial to investigate clouds and precipitation and understand how they form and change over the ocean, where it is so difficult to measure them.
Hélène Bresson, Annette Rinke, Mario Mech, Daniel Reinert, Vera Schemann, Kerstin Ebell, Marion Maturilli, Carolina Viceto, Irina Gorodetskaya, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 173–196,Short summary
Arctic warming is pronounced, and one factor in this is the poleward atmospheric transport of heat and moisture. This study assesses the 4D structure of an Arctic moisture intrusion event which occurred in June 2017. For the first time, high-resolution pan-Arctic ICON simulations are performed and compared with global models, reanalysis, and observations. Results show the added value of high resolution in the event representation and the impact of the intrusion on the surface energy fluxes.
Heike Konow, Florian Ewald, Geet George, Marek Jacob, Marcus Klingebiel, Tobias Kölling, Anna E. Luebke, Theresa Mieslinger, Veronika Pörtge, Jule Radtke, Michael Schäfer, Hauke Schulz, Raphaela Vogel, Martin Wirth, Sandrine Bony, Susanne Crewell, André Ehrlich, Linda Forster, Andreas Giez, Felix Gödde, Silke Groß, Manuel Gutleben, Martin Hagen, Lutz Hirsch, Friedhelm Jansen, Theresa Lang, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Marc Prange, Sabrina Schnitt, Jessica Vial, Andreas Walbröl, Manfred Wendisch, Kevin Wolf, Tobias Zinner, Martin Zöger, Felix Ament, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5545–5563,Short summary
The German research aircraft HALO took part in the research campaign EUREC4A in January and February 2020. The focus area was the tropical Atlantic east of the island of Barbados. We describe the characteristics of the 15 research flights, provide auxiliary information, derive combined cloud mask products from all instruments that observe clouds on board the aircraft, and provide code examples that help new users of the data to get started.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Susanne Crewell, Kerstin Ebell, Patrick Konjari, Mario Mech, Tatiana Nomokonova, Ana Radovan, David Strack, Arantxa M. Triana-Gómez, Stefan Noël, Raul Scarlat, Gunnar Spreen, Marion Maturilli, Annette Rinke, Irina Gorodetskaya, Carolina Viceto, Thomas August, and Marc Schröder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4829–4856,Short summary
Water vapor (WV) is an important variable in the climate system. Satellite measurements are thus crucial to characterize the spatial and temporal variability in WV and how it changed over time. In particular with respect to the observed strong Arctic warming, the role of WV still needs to be better understood. However, as shown in this paper, a detailed understanding is still hampered by large uncertainties in the various satellite WV products, showing the need for improved methods to derive WV.
David D. Turner and Ulrich Löhnert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3033–3048,Short summary
Temperature and humidity profiles in the lowest couple of kilometers near the surface are very important for many applications. Passive spectral radiometers are commercially available, and observations from these instruments have been used to get these profiles. However, new active lidar systems are able to measure partial profiles of water vapor. This paper investigates how the derived profiles of water vapor and temperature are improved when the active and passive observations are combined.
Marek Jacob, Pavlos Kollias, Felix Ament, Vera Schemann, and Susanne Crewell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5757–5777,Short summary
We compare clouds in different cloud-resolving atmosphere simulations with airborne remote sensing observations. The focus is on warm shallow clouds in the Atlantic trade wind region. Those clouds are climatologically important but challenging for climate models. We use forward operators to apply instrument-specific thresholds for cloud detection to model outputs. In this comparison, the higher-resolution model better reproduces the layered cloud structure.
Mario Mech, Maximilian Maahn, Stefan Kneifel, Davide Ori, Emiliano Orlandi, Pavlos Kollias, Vera Schemann, and Susanne Crewell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4229–4251,Short summary
The Passive and Active Microwave TRAnsfer tool (PAMTRA) is a public domain software package written in Python and Fortran for the simulation of microwave remote sensing observations. PAMTRA models the interaction of radiation with gases, clouds, precipitation, and the surface using either in situ observations or model output as input parameters. The wide range of applications is demonstrated for passive (radiometer) and active (radar) instruments on ground, airborne, and satellite platforms.
Montserrat Costa-Surós, Odran Sourdeval, Claudia Acquistapace, Holger Baars, Cintia Carbajal Henken, Christa Genz, Jonas Hesemann, Cristofer Jimenez, Marcel König, Jan Kretzschmar, Nils Madenach, Catrin I. Meyer, Roland Schrödner, Patric Seifert, Fabian Senf, Matthias Brueck, Guido Cioni, Jan Frederik Engels, Kerstin Fieg, Ksenia Gorges, Rieke Heinze, Pavan Kumar Siligam, Ulrike Burkhardt, Susanne Crewell, Corinna Hoose, Axel Seifert, Ina Tegen, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5657–5678,Short summary
The impact of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds is a key uncertainty in climate change. This study analyses large-domain simulations with a new high-resolution model to investigate the differences in clouds between 1985 and 2013 comparing multiple observational datasets. The differences in aerosol and in cloud droplet concentrations are clearly detectable. For other quantities, the detection and attribution proved difficult, despite a substantial impact on the Earth's energy budget.
Elena Ruiz-Donoso, André Ehrlich, Michael Schäfer, Evelyn Jäkel, Vera Schemann, Susanne Crewell, Mario Mech, Birte Solveig Kulla, Leif-Leonard Kliesch, Roland Neuber, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5487–5511,Short summary
Mixed-phase clouds, formed of water droplets and ice crystals, appear frequently in Arctic regions. Characterizing the distribution of liquid water and ice inside the cloud appropriately is important because it influences the cloud's impact on the surface temperature. In this study, we combined images of the cloud top with measurements inside the cloud to analyze in detail the 3D spatial distribution of liquid and ice in two mixed-phase clouds occurring under different meteorological scenarios.
Tatiana Nomokonova, Kerstin Ebell, Ulrich Löhnert, Marion Maturilli, and Christoph Ritter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5157–5173,Short summary
This paper presents an influence of water vapor anomalies on cloud properties and their radiative effect at Ny-Ålesund. The study is based on a 2.5-year active and passive cloud observation and a radiative transfer model. The results show that moist and dry conditions are related to strong changes in cloud occurrence, phase partitioning, water path, and, consequently, modulate the surface radiative budget.
Rosa Gierens, Stefan Kneifel, Matthew D. Shupe, Kerstin Ebell, Marion Maturilli, and Ulrich Löhnert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3459–3481,Short summary
Multiyear statistics of persistent low-level mixed-phase clouds observed at an Arctic fjord environment in Svalbard are presented. The effects the local boundary layer (i.e. the fjords' wind climate and surface coupling), regional wind direction, and seasonality have on the cloud occurrence and properties are evaluated using a synergy of ground-based remote sensing methods and auxiliary data. The phenomena considered were found to modify the amount of liquid and ice in the studied clouds.
Tobias Marke, Ulrich Löhnert, Vera Schemann, Jan H. Schween, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1723–1736,Short summary
In this study, land surface and atmosphere interactions are addressed using ground-based remote sensing, satellite products, and high-resolution large-eddy simulations. The focus is on water vapor transport from the surface into the atmosphere. Patterns found in long-term observations can be linked to properties of the surrounding land surface. The simulation results suggest that a different distribution of land use types has implications for boundary layer characteristics and clouds.
Mario Mech, Leif-Leonard Kliesch, Andreas Anhäuser, Thomas Rose, Pavlos Kollias, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5019–5037,Short summary
An improved understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds and their contribution to Arctic warming can be achieved by observations from airborne platforms with remote sensing instruments. Such an instrument is MiRAC combining active and passive techniques to gain information on the distribution of clouds, the occurrence of precipitation, and the amount of liquid and ice within the cloud. Operated during a campaign in Arctic summer, it could observe lower clouds often not seen by spaceborne radars.
Heike Konow, Marek Jacob, Felix Ament, Susanne Crewell, Florian Ewald, Martin Hagen, Lutz Hirsch, Friedhelm Jansen, Mario Mech, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 921–934,Short summary
High-resolution measurements of maritime clouds are relatively scarce. Airborne cloud radar, microwave radiometer and dropsonde observations are used to expand these data. The measurements are unified into one data set to enable easy joint analyses of several or all instruments together to gain insight into cloud properties and atmospheric state. The data set contains measurements from four campaigns between December 2013 and October 2016 over the tropical and midlatitude Atlantic.
Marek Jacob, Felix Ament, Manuel Gutleben, Heike Konow, Mario Mech, Martin Wirth, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3237–3254,Short summary
Tropical clouds are a key climate component but are still not fully understood. Therefore, we analyze airborne remote sensing measurements that were taken in the dry and wet seasons over the Atlantic east of Barbados. From these we derive sub-kilometer resolution data of vertically integrated atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Results show that although the humidity is lower in the dry season, clouds are more frequent, contain more water, and produce more rain than in the wet season.
Tatiana Nomokonova, Kerstin Ebell, Ulrich Löhnert, Marion Maturilli, Christoph Ritter, and Ewan O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4105–4126,Short summary
In this study, properties of clouds at the French–German Arctic research station in Ny-Ålesund are related to in-cloud thermodynamic conditions. The dataset used was collected within the Arctic Amplification project with a set of active and passive remote instruments. The results are compared with a model output. Significant divergence in observations and modelling of single-layer ice and mixed-phase clouds was found.
Christoph Böhm, Odran Sourdeval, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Johannes Quaas, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1841–1860,Short summary
The cloud base height (CBH) is important for air traffic, for describing the energy budget of the Earth and for other applications. Ground-based CBH measurements are only available for individual sites and mostly limited to land. Satellites are a powerful tool for global coverage. While the cloud top height is derived operationally, the derivation of CBH from space is more difficult as the clouds hide their base. Here, we present a method to retrieve the CBH from multi-angle satellite data.
Kevin Wolf, André Ehrlich, Marek Jacob, Susanne Crewell, Martin Wirth, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1635–1658,Short summary
Using passive spectral solar radiation and active lidar, radar, and microwave measurements with HALO during NARVAL-II, the cloud droplet number concentration of shallow trade wind cumulus is estimated. With stepwise inclusion of the different instruments into the retrieval, the benefits of the synergetic approach based on artificial measurements and two cloud cases are demonstrated. Significant improvement with the synergetic method compared to the solar-radiation-only method is reported.
Erlend M. Knudsen, Bernd Heinold, Sandro Dahlke, Heiko Bozem, Susanne Crewell, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Georg Heygster, Daniel Kunkel, Marion Maturilli, Mario Mech, Carolina Viceto, Annette Rinke, Holger Schmithüsen, André Ehrlich, Andreas Macke, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17995–18022,Short summary
The paper describes the synoptic development during the ACLOUD/PASCAL airborne and ship-based field campaign near Svalbard in spring 2017. This development is presented using near-surface and upperair meteorological observations, satellite, and model data. We first present time series of these data, from which we identify and characterize three key periods. Finally, we put our observations in historical and regional contexts and compare our findings to other Arctic field campaigns.
Francesco De Angelis, Domenico Cimini, Ulrich Löhnert, Olivier Caumont, Alexander Haefele, Bernhard Pospichal, Pauline Martinet, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Henk Klein-Baltink, Jean-Charles Dupont, and James Hocking
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3947–3961,Short summary
Modern data assimilation systems require knowledge of the typical differences between observations and model background (O–B). This work illustrates a 1-year O–B analysis for ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR) observations in clear-sky conditions for a prototype network of six MWRs in Europe. Observations are MWR brightness temperatures (TB). Background profiles extracted from the output of a convective-scale model are used to simulate TB through the radiative transfer model RTTOV-gb.
Claudia Acquistapace, Stefan Kneifel, Ulrich Löhnert, Pavlos Kollias, Maximilian Maahn, and Matthias Bauer-Pfundstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1783–1802,Short summary
The goal of the paper is to understand what the optimal cloud radar settings for drizzle detection are. The number of cloud radars in the world has increased in the last 10 years and it is important to develop strategies to derive optimal settings which can be applied to all radar systems. The study is part of broader research focused on better understanding the microphysical process of drizzle growth using ground-based observations.
Andreas Macke, Patric Seifert, Holger Baars, Christian Barthlott, Christoph Beekmans, Andreas Behrendt, Birger Bohn, Matthias Brueck, Johannes Bühl, Susanne Crewell, Thomas Damian, Hartwig Deneke, Sebastian Düsing, Andreas Foth, Paolo Di Girolamo, Eva Hammann, Rieke Heinze, Anne Hirsikko, John Kalisch, Norbert Kalthoff, Stefan Kinne, Martin Kohler, Ulrich Löhnert, Bomidi Lakshmi Madhavan, Vera Maurer, Shravan Kumar Muppa, Jan Schween, Ilya Serikov, Holger Siebert, Clemens Simmer, Florian Späth, Sandra Steinke, Katja Träumner, Silke Trömel, Birgit Wehner, Andreas Wieser, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Xinxin Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4887–4914,Short summary
This article provides an overview of the instrumental setup and the main results obtained during the two HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiments HOPE-Jülich and HOPE-Melpitz conducted in Germany in April–May and Sept 2013, respectively. Goal of the field experiments was to provide high-resolution observational datasets for both, improving the understaning of boundary layer and cloud processes, as well as for the evaluation of the new ICON model that is run at 156 m horizontal resolution.
C. Flamant, J.-P. Chaboureau, P. Chazette, P. Di Girolamo, T. Bourrianne, J. Totems, and M. Cacciani
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12231–12249,Short summary
We analyze the direct radiative impact of an intense African dust plume on orographic precipitation in the western Mediterranean in the fall of 2012 using high-resolution simulations from a convection permitting mesoscale model validated against measurements acquired during the first special observation period of HyMeX. We show that the dust's direct radiative effect in such a dynamical environment is not sufficient to impact 24h of accumulated rainfall over the Cevennes in the dust simulation.
A. Foth, H. Baars, P. Di Girolamo, and B. Pospichal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7753–7763,Short summary
We present a method to derive water vapour profiles from Raman lidar measurements calibrated by the integrated water vapour from a collocated microwave radiometer. These simultaneous observations provide an operational and continuous measurement of water vapour profiles. The stability of the calibration factor allows for the calibration of the lidar even in the presence of clouds. Based on this approach, water vapour profiles can be retrieved during all non-precipitating conditions.
M. Barrera-Verdejo, S. Crewell, U. Löhnert, E. Orlandi, and P. Di Girolamo
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
S. Steinke, S. Eikenberg, U. Löhnert, G. Dick, D. Klocke, P. Di Girolamo, and S. Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2675–2692,
I. V. Gorodetskaya, S. Kneifel, M. Maahn, K. Van Tricht, W. Thiery, J. H. Schween, A. Mangold, S. Crewell, and N. P. M. Van Lipzig
The Cryosphere, 9, 285–304,Short summary
Our paper presents a new cloud-precipitation-meteorological observatory established in the escarpment zone of Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. The site is characterised by bimodal cloud occurrence (clear sky or overcast) with liquid-containing clouds occurring 20% of the cloudy periods. Local surface mass balance strongly depends on rare intense snowfall events. A substantial part of the accumulated snow is removed by surface and drifting snow sublimation and wind-driven snow erosion.
M. Mech, E. Orlandi, S. Crewell, F. Ament, L. Hirsch, M. Hagen, G. Peters, and B. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4539–4553,Short summary
Here the High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft Microwave Package (HAMP) is introduced. The package consists of three passive radiometer modules with 26 channels between 22 and 183 GHz and a 36 GHz Doppler cloud radar. The manuscript describes the instrument specifications, the installation in the aircraft, and the operation. Furthermore, results from simulation and retrieval studies, as well as measurements from a first test campaign, are shown.
J. H. Schween, A. Hirsikko, U. Löhnert, and S. Crewell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3685–3704,Short summary
Two different methods for the determination of the mixing layer height (MLH) are investigated with a one-year data set from central Europe: (i) based on a significant gradient of backscatter and (ii) on the vertical velocity. The aerosol-based method shows significant over-estimation in the morning hours when the ML grows into the residual layer and late afternoon hours when turbulent mixing decays. This results in systematic over-estimation of average characteristcs as e.g. maximum MLH.
A. Battaglia, C. D. Westbrook, S. Kneifel, P. Kollias, N. Humpage, U. Löhnert, J. Tyynelä, and G. W. Petty
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1527–1546,
G. Maschwitz, U. Löhnert, S. Crewell, T. Rose, and D. D. Turner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2641–2658,
V. Meunier, U. Löhnert, P. Kollias, and S. Crewell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1171–1187,
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Subject: Gases | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalDARCLOS: a cloud shadow detection algorithm for TROPOMICombined UV and IR ozone profile retrieval from TROPOMI and CrIS measurementsImproved ozone monitoring by ground-based FTIR spectrometryOn the consistency of methane retrievals using the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and multiple spectroscopic databasesThe MOPITT Version 9 CO product: sampling enhancements and validationRetrieving H2O/HDO columns over cloudy and clear-sky scenes from the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)Sentinel-5P TROPOMI NO2 retrieval: impact of version v2.2 improvements and comparisons with OMI and ground-based dataLevel 2 processor and auxiliary data for ESA Version 8 final full mission analysis of MIPAS measurements on ENVISATOptimized Umkehr profile algorithm for ozone trend analysesMapping methane plumes at very high spatial resolution with the WorldView-3 satelliteMapping the spatial distribution of NO2 with in situ and remote sensing instruments during the Munich NO2 imaging campaignRetrieval of greenhouse gases from GOSAT and greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide from GOSAT-2 using the FOCAL algorithmImproved monitoring of shipping NO2 with TROPOMI: decreasing NOx emissions in European seas during the COVID-19 pandemicSimulated multispectral temperature and atmospheric composition retrievals for the JPL GEO-IR SounderTruth and uncertainty. A critical discussion of the error concept versus the uncertainty conceptCalculating the vertical column density of O4 during daytime from surface values of pressure, temperature, and relative humidityAutomated detection of atmospheric NO2 plumes from satellite data: a tool to help infer anthropogenic combustion emissionsThe FORUM end-to-end simulator project: architecture and resultsOMI Collection 4: establishing a 17-year long series of detrended L1b dataNew sampling strategy mitigates a solar-geometry-induced bias in sub-kilometre vapour scaling statistics derived from imaging spectroscopyRemote sensing of methane plumes: instrument tradeoff analysis for detecting and quantifying local sources at global scaleThe ESA MIPAS/Envisat level2-v8 dataset: 10 years of measurements retrieved with ORM v8.22Phosgene distribution derived from MIPAS ESA v8 data: intercomparisons and trendsGlyoxal tropospheric column retrievals from TROPOMI – multi-satellite intercomparison and ground-based validationRetrieval algorithm for OClO from TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) by differential optical absorption spectroscopyTracking aerosols and SO2 clouds from the Raikoke eruption: 3D view from satellite observationsA minimum curvature algorithm for tomographic reconstruction of atmospheric chemicals based on optical remote sensingAn improved TROPOMI tropospheric NO2 research product over EuropeNeural-network-based estimation of regional-scale anthropogenic CO2 emissions using an Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) dataset over East and West AsiaSynergy of Using Nadir and Limb Instruments for Tropospheric Ozone MonitoringAre elevated moist layers a blind spot for hyperspectral infrared sounders? A model studyImpact of 3D Cloud Structures on the Atmospheric Trace Gas Products from UV-VIS Sounders – Part III: bias estimate using synthetic and observational dataGFIT3: a full physics retrieval algorithm for remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the presence of aerosolsImpact of 3D radiative transfer on airborne NO2 imaging remote sensing over cities with buildingsA global ozone profile climatology for satellite retrieval algorithms based on Aura MLS measurements and the MERRA-2 GMI simulationTropospheric and stratospheric NO retrieved from ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurementsOzone profile retrieval from nadir TROPOMI measurements in the UV rangeFirst ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer observations of HFC-23 at Rikubetsu, Japan, and Syowa Station, AntarcticaImprovement of Odin/SMR water vapour and temperature measurements and validation of the obtained data setsEstimation of ship emission rates at a major shipping lane by long-path DOAS measurementsTotal ozone column from Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Nadir Mapper (OMPS-NM) measurements using the broadband weighting function fitting approach (WFFA)A simulation-experiment-based assessment of retrievals of above-cloud temperature and water vapor using a hyperspectral infrared sounderReduced-cost construction of Jacobian matrices for high-resolution inversions of satellite observations of atmospheric compositionMeasurements of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 total columns in the atmosphere at the St. Petersburg site in 2009–2019The Adaptable 4A Inversion (5AI): description and first XCO2 retrievals from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) observationsAssessing sub-grid variability within satellite pixels over urban regions using airborne mapping spectrometer measurementsDirectionally dependent Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (DLER) of the Earth's surface measured by the GOME-2 satellite instrumentsRetrieval algorithm for the column CO2 mixing ratio from pulsed multi-wavelength lidar measurementsXCO2 retrieval for GOSAT and GOSAT-2 based on the FOCAL algorithmVolcanic SO2 effective layer height retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using a machine-learning approach
Victor J. H. Trees, Ping Wang, Piet Stammes, Lieuwe G. Tilstra, David P. Donovan, and A. Pier Siebesma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3121–3140,Short summary
Cloud shadows are observed by the TROPOMI satellite instrument as a result of its high spatial resolution. These shadows contaminate TROPOMI's air quality measurements, because shadows are generally not taken into account in the models that are used for aerosol and trace gas retrievals. We present the Detection AlgoRithm for CLOud Shadows (DARCLOS) for TROPOMI, which is the first cloud shadow detection algorithm for a satellite spectrometer.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Thierry Leblanc, Gerard Ancellet, Michael J. Newchurch, Shi Kuang, Rigel Kivi, Matthew B. Tully, Roeland Van Malderen, Ankie Piters, Bogumil Kois, René Stübi, and Pavla Skrivankova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2955–2978,Short summary
Vertical ozone profiles from combined spectral measurements in the UV and IR spectral ranges were retrieved by using data from TROPOMI/S5P and CrIS/Suomi-NPP. The vertical resolution and accuracy of the ozone profiles are improved by combining both wavelength ranges compared to retrievals limited to UV or IR spectral data only. The advancement of our TOPAS algorithm for combined measurements is required because in the UV-only retrieval the vertical resolution in the troposphere is very limited.
Omaira Elena García, Esther Sanromá, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Sergio Fabián León-Luis, Thomas Blumenstock, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Alberto Redondas, Virgilio Carreño, Carlos Torres, and Natalia Prats
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2557–2577,Short summary
Accurate observations of atmospheric ozone (O3) are essential to monitor in detail its key role in atmospheric chemistry. In this context, this paper has assessed the effect of using different retrieval strategies on the quality of O3 products from ground-based NDACC FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometry, with the aim of providing an improved O3 retrieval that could be applied at any NDACC FTIR station.
Edward Malina, Ben Veihelmann, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, and Isamu Morino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2377–2406,Short summary
Methane retrievals from remote sensing instruments are fundamentally based on spectroscopic parameters, which indicate spectral-line positions, and their characteristics. These parameters are stored in several databases that vary in their make-up. Here we assess how concentrations of methane isotopologues measured from the same Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) instruments vary across a range of spectral windows using different spectroscopic databases and comment on the implications.
Merritt Deeter, Gene Francis, John Gille, Debbie Mao, Sara Martínez-Alonso, Helen Worden, Dan Ziskin, James Drummond, Róisín Commane, Glenn Diskin, and Kathryn McKain
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2325–2344,Short summary
The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite instrument uses remote sensing to obtain retrievals (measurements) of carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere. This paper describes the latest MOPITT data product, Version 9. Globally, the number of daytime MOPITT retrievals over land has increased by 30 %–40 % compared to the previous product. The reported improvements in the MOPITT product should benefit a wide variety of applications including studies of pollution sources.
Andreas Schneider, Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Alba Lorente, Franziska Aemisegger, David Noone, Dean Henze, Rigel Kivi, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2251–2275,Short summary
This paper presents an extended H₂O/HDO total column dataset from short-wave infrared measurements by TROPOMI including cloudy and clear-sky scenes. Coverage is tremendously increased compared to previous TROPOMI HDO datasets. The new dataset is validated against recent ground-based FTIR measurements from TCCON and against aircraft measurements over the ocean. The use of the new dataset is demonstrated with a case study of a cold air outbreak in January 2020.
Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Tijl Verhoelst, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Maarten Sneep, Mark ter Linden, Antje Ludewig, K. Folkert Boersma, and J. Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2037–2060,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the main data products measured by the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite. This study describes improvements in the TROPOMI NO2 retrieval leading to version v2.2, operational since 1 July 2021. It compares results with previous versions v1.2–v1.4 and with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and ground-based measurements.
Piera Raspollini, Enrico Arnone, Flavio Barbara, Massimo Bianchini, Bruno Carli, Simone Ceccherini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Angelika Dehn, Stefano Della Fera, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Anu Dudhia, Jean-Marie Flaud, Marco Gai, Michael Kiefer, Manuel López-Puertas, David P. Moore, Alessandro Piro, John J. Remedios, Marco Ridolfi, Harjinder Sembhi, Luca Sgheri, and Nicola Zoppetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1871–1901,Short summary
The MIPAS instrument onboard the ENVISAT satellite provided 10 years of measurements of the atmospheric emission al limb that allow for the retrieval of latitude- and altitude-resolved atmospheric composition. We describe the improvements implemented in the retrieval algorithm used for the full mission reanalysis, which allows for the generation of the global distributions of 21 atmospheric constituents plus temperature with increased accuracy with respect to previously generated data.
Irina Petropavlovskikh, Koji Miyagawa, Audra McClure-Beegle, Bryan Johnson, Jeannette Wild, Susan Strahan, Krzysztof Wargan, Richard Querel, Lawrence Flynn, Eric Beach, Gerard Ancellet, and Sophie Godin-Beekmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1849–1870,Short summary
The Montreal Protocol and its amendments assure the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer that protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. To monitor ozone recovery, multiple satellites and ground-based observational platforms collect ozone data. The changes in instruments can influence the continuation of the ozone data. We discuss a method to remove instrumental artifacts from ozone records to improve the internal consistency among multiple observational records.
Elena Sánchez-García, Javier Gorroño, Itziar Irakulis-Loitxate, Daniel J. Varon, and Luis Guanter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1657–1674,Short summary
This study seeks to present the as-yet-unknown potential use of WorldView-3 for the mapping of methane point source emissions. The proposed retrieval methodology is based on the idea that the spectral channels not affected by methane can be used to predict the methane-affected band through regression analysis. The results show the precise location of 26 independent point emissions over different methane hotspot regions worldwide, which prove the game-changing potential that this mission entails.
Gerrit Kuhlmann, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Ying Zhu, Marc Schwaerzel, Steffen Dörner, Jia Chen, Andreas Hueni, Duc Hai Nguyen, Alexander Damm, Annette Schütt, Florian Dietrich, Dominik Brunner, Cheng Liu, Brigitte Buchmann, Thomas Wagner, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1609–1629,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an air pollutant whose concentration often exceeds air quality guideline values, especially in urban areas. To map the spatial distribution of NO2 in Munich, we conducted the Munich NO2 Imaging Campaign (MuNIC), where NO2 was measured with stationary, mobile, and airborne in situ and remote sensing instruments. The campaign provides a unique dataset that has been used to compare the different instruments and to study the spatial variability of NO2 and its sources.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Oliver Schneising, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Robert J. Parker, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Coleen M. Roehl, Constantina Rousogenous, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We present a new version (v3) of the GOSAT and GOSAT-2 FOCAL products. In addition to an increased number of XCO2 data, v3 also includes products for XCH4 (full physics and proxy), XH2O, and the relative ratio of HDO to H2O (δD). For GOSAT-2, we also present first XCO and XN2O results. All FOCAL data products show reasonable spatial distribution and temporal variations and agree well with TCCON. Global XN2O maps show a gradient from the tropics to higher latitudes in the order of 15 ppb.
Tobias Christoph Valentin Werner Riess, Klaas Folkert Boersma, Jasper van Vliet, Wouter Peters, Maarten Sneep, Henk Eskes, and Jos van Geffen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1415–1438,Short summary
This paper reports on improved monitoring of ship nitrogen oxide emissions by TROPOMI. With its fantastic resolution we can identify lanes of ship nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution not detected from space before. The quality of TROPOMI NO2 data over sea is improved further by recent upgrades in cloud retrievals and the use of sun glint scenes. Lastly, we study the impact of COVID-19 on ship NO2 in European seas and compare the found reductions to emission estimates gained from ship-specific data.
Vijay Natraj, Ming Luo, Jean-Francois Blavier, Vivienne H. Payne, Derek J. Posselt, Stanley P. Sander, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Jessica L. Neu, Denis Tremblay, Longtao Wu, Jacola A. Roman, Yen-Hung Wu, and Leonard I. Dorsky
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1251–1267,Short summary
High-fidelity monitoring and forecast of air quality and the hydrological cycle require understanding the vertical distribution of temperature, humidity, and trace gases at high spatiotemporal resolution. We describe a new instrument concept, called the JPL GEO-IR Sounder, that would provide this information for the first time from a single instrument platform. Simulations demonstrate the benefits of combining measurements from multiple wavelengths for this purpose from geostationary orbit.
Thomas von Clarmann, Steven Compernolle, and Frank Hase
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1145–1157,Short summary
Contrary to the claims put forward in
Evaluation of measurement data – Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurementissued by the JCGM, the error concept and the uncertainty concept are the same. Arguments in favor of the contrary were found not to be compelling. Neither was any evidence presented that
uncertaintiesdefine a different relation between the measured and true values, nor is a Bayesian concept beyond the mere subjective probability referred to.
Steffen Beirle, Christian Borger, Steffen Dörner, Vinod Kumar, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 987–1006,Short summary
We present a formalism that relates the vertical column density (VCD) of the oxygen collision complex O4 to surface values of temperature and pressure, based on physical laws. In addition, we propose an empirical modification which also accounts for surface relative humidity (RH). This allows for simple and quick but still accurate calculation of the O4 VCD without the need for constructing full vertical profiles, which is expected to be useful in particular for MAX-DOAS applications.
Douglas P. Finch, Paul I. Palmer, and Tianran Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 721–733,Short summary
We developed a machine learning model to detect plumes of nitrogen dioxide satellite observations over 2 years. We find over 310 000 plumes, mainly over cities, industrial regions, and areas of oil and gas production. Our model performs well in comparison to other datasets and in some cases finds emissions that are not included in other datasets. This method could be used to help locate and measure emission hotspots across the globe and help inform climate policies.
Luca Sgheri, Claudio Belotti, Maya Ben-Yami, Giovanni Bianchini, Bernardo Carnicero Dominguez, Ugo Cortesi, William Cossich, Samuele Del Bianco, Gianluca Di Natale, Tomás Guardabrazo, Dulce Lajas, Tiziano Maestri, Davide Magurno, Hilke Oetjen, Piera Raspollini, and Cristina Sgattoni
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 573–604,Short summary
The FORUM instrument will look at the Earth's atmosphere from a satellite, covering a spectral range responsible for about 95 % of the radiation lost by our planet. FORUM helps to measure the imbalance between incoming and outgoing radiation that is responsible for the increasing average temperatures on Earth. The end-to-end simulator is a chain of codes that simulates the FORUM measurement process. The goal of the project is to study how the instrument reacts to different retrieval conditions.
Quintus Kleipool, Nico Rozemeijer, Mirna van Hoek, Jonatan Leloux, Erwin Loots, Antje Ludewig, Emiel van der Plas, Daley Adrichem, Raoul Harel, Simon Spronk, Mark ter Linden, Glen Jaross, David Haffner, Pepijn Veefkind, and Pieternel Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
A new collection 4 dataset for the OMI mission has been established to supersede the current collection 3 Level 1b data series. This dataset is produced with a newly developed L01b data processor based on the TROPOMI L01b processor. The collection 4 L1b data has a similar output format as the TROPOMI L1b data, for easy connection of the two data series. Many insights of the TROPOMI algorithms were included, as well as insights learned from the usage of OMI collection 3 data.
Mark T. Richardson, David R. Thompson, Marcin J. Kurowski, and Matthew D. Lebsock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 117–129,Short summary
Sunlight can pass diagonally through the atmosphere, cutting through the 3-D water vapour field in a way that
smears2-D maps of imaging spectroscopy vapour retrievals. In simulations we show how this smearing is
away fromthe Sun, so calculating
across the solar direction allows sub-kilometre information about water vapour's spatial scaling to be calculated. This could be tested by airborne campaigns and used to obtain new information from upcoming spaceborne data products.
Siraput Jongaramrungruang, Georgios Matheou, Andrew K. Thorpe, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, and Christian Frankenberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7999–8017,Short summary
This study shows how precision error and bias in column methane retrieval change with different instrument specifications and the impact of spectrally complex surface albedos on retrievals. We show how surface interferences can be mitigated with an optimal spectral resolution and a higher polynomial degree in a retrieval process. The findings can inform future satellite instrument designs to have robust observations capable of separating real CH4 plume enhancements from surface interferences.
Bianca Maria Dinelli, Piera Raspollini, Marco Gai, Luca Sgheri, Marco Ridolfi, Simone Ceccherini, Flavio Barbara, Nicola Zoppetti, Elisa Castelli, Enzo Papandrea, Paolo Pettinari, Angelika Dehn, Anu Dudhia, Michael Kiefer, Alessandro Piro, Jean-Marie Flaud, Manuel López-Puertas, David Moore, John Remedios, and Massimo Bianchini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7975–7998,Short summary
The level-2 v8 database from the measurements of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), aboard the European Space Agency Envisat satellite, containing atmospheric fields of pressure, temperature, and volume mixing ratio of 21 trace gases, is described in this paper. The database covers all the measurements acquired by MIPAS (from July 2002 to April 2012). The number of species included makes it of particular importance for the studies of stratospheric chemistry.
Paolo Pettinari, Flavio Barbara, Simone Ceccherini, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Marco Gai, Piera Raspollini, Luca Sgheri, Massimo Valeri, Gerald Wetzel, Nicola Zoppetti, and Marco Ridolfi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7959–7974,Short summary
Phosgene (COCl2) is a toxic gas whose presence is a consequence of human activity. Besides its direct injection in the troposphere, stratospheric COCl2 is produced from the decomposition of CCl4, an anthropogenic gas regulated by the Montreal Protocol. As a consequence, COCl2 negative trends characterize the lower and part of the middle stratosphere. However, we find positive trends in the upper troposphere, demonstrating the non-negligible role of other Cl-containing species not yet regulated.
Christophe Lerot, François Hendrick, Michel Van Roozendael, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Andreas Richter, Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Huan Yu, Jeroen Van Gent, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Pieter Valks, Diego Loyola, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Thomas Wagner, Stefan F. Schreier, Vinayak Sinha, Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7775–7807,Short summary
Global measurements of glyoxal tropospheric columns from the satellite instrument TROPOMI are presented. Such measurements can contribute to the estimation of atmospheric emissions of volatile organic compounds. This new glyoxal product has been fully characterized with a comprehensive error budget, with comparison with other satellite data sets as well as with validation based on independent ground-based remote sensing glyoxal observations.
Jānis Puķīte, Christian Borger, Steffen Dörner, Myojeong Gu, Udo Frieß, Andreas Carlos Meier, Carl-Fredrik Enell, Uwe Raffalski, Andreas Richter, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7595–7625,Short summary
Chlorine dioxide (OClO) is used as an indicator for chlorine activation. We present a new differential optical absorption spectroscopy retrieval algorithm for OClO from measurements of TROPOMI on the Sentinel-5P satellite. To achieve a substantially improved accuracy for the weak absorber OClO, we consider several additional fit parameters accounting for various higher-order spectral effects. The retrieved OClO slant column densities are compared with ground-based zenith sky measurements.
Nick Gorkavyi, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Leslie Lait, Peter Colarco, Simon Carn, Matthew DeLand, Paul Newman, Mark Schoeberl, Ghassan Taha, Omar Torres, Alexander Vasilkov, and Joanna Joiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7545–7563,Short summary
The 21 June 2019 eruption of the Raikoke volcano produced significant amounts of volcanic aerosols (sulfate and ash) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas that penetrated into the lower stratosphere. We showed that the amount of SO2 decreases with a characteristic period of 8–18 d and the peak of sulfate aerosol lags the initial peak of SO2 by 1.5 months. We also examined the dynamics of an unusual stratospheric coherent circular cloud of SO2 and aerosol observed from 18 July to 22 September 2019.
Sheng Li and Ke Du
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7355–7368,Short summary
A new minimum curvature algorithm has been proposed for tomographic mapping of air chemicals using optical remote sensing based on the seminorms in variational interpolation. The algorithm was evaluated by using multiple test maps. It shows significant improvement compared with the nonsmoothed algorithm, requires only approximately 65 % computation time of the low third derivative algorithm, and is simple to implement by directly using high-resolution grids.
Song Liu, Pieter Valks, Gaia Pinardi, Jian Xu, Ka Lok Chan, Athina Argyrouli, Ronny Lutz, Steffen Beirle, Ehsan Khorsandi, Frank Baier, Vincent Huijnen, Alkiviadis Bais, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Myrto Gratsea, François Hendrick, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Kezia Lange, Ankie J. M. Piters, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, Mark Wenig, and Diego G. Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7297–7327,Short summary
In this work, an improved tropospheric NO2 retrieval algorithm from TROPOMI measurements over Europe is presented. The stratospheric estimation is implemented with correction for the dependency of the stratospheric NO2 on the viewing geometry. The AMF calculation is implemented using improved surface albedo, a priori NO2 profiles, and cloud correction. The improved tropospheric NO2 data show good correlations with ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements.
Farhan Mustafa, Lingbing Bu, Qin Wang, Na Yao, Muhammad Shahzaman, Muhammad Bilal, Rana Waqar Aslam, and Rashid Iqbal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7277–7290,Short summary
A neural-network-based approach was suggested to estimate CO2 emissions using satellite-based net primary productivity (NPP) and XCO2 retrievals. XCO2 anomalies were calculated for each year using OCO-2 retrievals. A Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) model was then built; NPP, XCO2 anomalies, and ODIAC CO2 emissions from 2015 to 2018 were used as a training dataset; and, finally, CO2 emissions were predicted for 2019 based on the NPP and XCO2 anomalies calculated for the same year.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Risto Hänninen, Mikhail Sofiev, Monika Szelag, Hei Shing Lee, Johanna Tamminen, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We present tropospheric ozone column datasets that have been created using combination of total ozone column from OMI and TROPOMI with stratospheric ozone column dataset from several available limb-viewing instruments (MLS, OSIRIS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, OMPS-LP, GOMOS). The main results are (i) several methodological developments, (ii) new tropospheric ozone column datasets from OMI and TROPOMI, and (iii) new high-resolution dataset of ozone profiles from limb satellite instruments.
Marc Prange, Manfred Brath, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7025–7044,Short summary
We investigate the ability of the hyperspectral infrared satellite instrument IASI to resolve moist layers in the tropical free troposphere in a model framework. Previous observational results indicated major deficiencies of passive satellite instruments in resolving moist layers around the freezing level. We conduct a first systematic hyperspectral infrared retrieval analysis of such moist layers and conclude that no inherent satellite blind spot for moist layers exists.
Arve Kylling, Claudia Emde, Huan Yu, Michel van Roozendael, Kerstin Stebel, Ben Veihelmann, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Atmospheric trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) may be measured by satellite instruments sensitive to solar ultraviolet-visible radiation reflected from Earth and its atmosphere. For a single pixel, clouds in neighboring pixels may affect the radiation and hence the retrieved trace gas amount. We found that for a solar zenith angle less than about 40° this cloud related NO2 bias is typically below 10 %, while for larger solar zenith angles the NO2 bias is on the order of tens of %.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Vijay Natraj, Feng Xu, Sihe Chen, Fang-Ying Gong, Thomas J. Pongetti, Keeyoon Sung, Geoffrey Toon, Stanley P. Sander, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6483–6507,Short summary
Large carbon source regions such as megacities are also typically associated with heavy aerosol loading, which introduces uncertainties in the retrieval of greenhouse gases from reflected and scattered sunlight measurements. In this study, we developed a full physics algorithm to retrieve greenhouse gases in the presence of aerosols and demonstrated its performance by retrieving CO2 and CH4 columns from remote sensing measurements in the Los Angeles megacity.
Marc Schwaerzel, Dominik Brunner, Fabian Jakub, Claudia Emde, Brigitte Buchmann, Alexis Berne, and Gerrit Kuhlmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6469–6482,Short summary
NO2 maps from airborne imaging remote sensing often appear much smoother than one would expect from high-resolution model simulations of NO2 over cities, despite the small ground-pixel size of the sensors. Our case study over Zurich, using the newly implemented building module of the MYSTIC radiative transfer solver, shows that the 3D effect can explain part of the smearing and that building shadows cause a noticeable underestimation and noise in the measured NO2 columns.
Jerald R. Ziemke, Gordon J. Labow, Natalya A. Kramarova, Richard D. McPeters, Pawan K. Bhartia, Luke D. Oman, Stacey M. Frith, and David P. Haffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6407–6418,Short summary
Seasonal and interannual ozone profile climatologies are produced from combined MLS and MERRA-2 GMI ozone for the general public. Both climatologies extend from pole to pole at altitudes of 0–80 km (1 km spacing) for the time record from 1970 to 2018. These climatologies are important for use as a priori information in satellite ozone retrieval algorithms, as validation of other measured and model-simulated ozone, and in radiative transfer studies of the atmosphere.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Bart Dils, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Weidong Nan, Jean-Marc Metzger, Emmanuel Mahieu, Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6233–6247,Short summary
NO is a key active trace gas in the atmosphere, which affects the atmospheric environment and human health. In this study, we show that the tropospheric and stratospheric NO partial columns can be observed from the ground-based FTIR measurements at a polluted site (Xianghe, China), but only stratospheric NO partial columns can be observed at a background site (Maïdo, Reunion Island). The variations in the NO observed by the FTIR measurements at the two sites are analyzed and discussed.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Richard Querel, Thierry Leblanc, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Rigel Kivi, and Matthew B. Tully
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6057–6082,Short summary
TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing satellite that has observed global atmospheric trace gases at unprecedented spatial resolution since 2017. The retrieval of ozone profiles with high accuracy has been demonstrated using the TOPAS (Tikhonov regularised Ozone Profile retrievAl with SCIATRAN) algorithm and applying appropriate spectral corrections to TROPOMI UV data. Ozone profiles from TROPOMI were compared to ozonesonde and lidar profiles, showing an agreement to within 5 % in the stratosphere.
Masanori Takeda, Hideaki Nakajima, Isao Murata, Tomoo Nagahama, Isamu Morino, Geoffrey C. Toon, Ray F. Weiss, Jens Mühle, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, and Hsiang-Jui Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5955–5976,Short summary
This paper presents the first observations of atmospheric HFC-23 abundances with a ground-based remote sensing technique. The increasing trend of the HFC-23 abundances analyzed by this study agrees with that derived from other existing in situ measurements. This study indicates that ground-based FTIR observation has the capability to monitor the trend of atmospheric HFC-23 and could allow for monitoring the distribution of global atmospheric HFC-23 abundances in more detail.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Michael Kiefer, Maya Garcia-Comas, Alyn Lambert, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5823–5857,Short summary
We present improved Odin/SMR mesospheric H2O concentration and temperature data sets, reprocessed assuming a bigger sideband leakage of the instrument. The validation study shows how the improved SMR data sets agree better with other instruments' observations than the old SMR version did. Given their unique time extension and geographical coverage, and H2O being a good tracer of mesospheric circulation, the new data sets are valuable for the study of dynamical processes and multi-year trends.
Kai Krause, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Andreas Weigelt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5791–5807,Short summary
Ships are an important source of key pollutants. Usually, these are measured aboard the ship or on the coast using in situ instruments. This study shows how active optical remote sensing can be used to measure ship emissions and how to determine emission rates of individual ships out of those measurements. These emission rates are valuable input for the assessment of the influence of shipping emissions in regions close to the shipping lanes.
Andrea Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Annette Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5771–5789,Short summary
OMPS/NPP (2012–present) allows obtaining the tropospheric ozone column by combining ozone data from limb and nadir observations from the same instrument platform. In a first step, the retrieval of the total ozone column from the OMPS Nadir Mapper using the weighting function fitting approach (WFFA) is described here. The OMPS total ozone was compared with ground-based and other satellite measurements, showing agreement within 2.5 %.
Jing Feng, Yi Huang, and Zhipeng Qu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5717–5734,Short summary
It is challenging to measure the atmospheric conditions above convective storms. In this study, a method of retrieving thermodynamic variables above convective storms using a combination of satellite-based observations from a hyperspectral infrared sounder and active sensors is developed. We find that this method captures the spatial distributions of thermodynamic anomalies above convective clouds well. This method is potentially applicable to observations from current and future satellites.
Hannah Nesser, Daniel J. Jacob, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Tia R. Scarpelli, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Yuzhong Zhang, and Chris H. Rycroft
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5521–5534,Short summary
Analytical inversions of satellite observations of atmospheric composition can improve emissions estimates and quantify errors but are computationally expensive at high resolutions. We propose two methods to decrease this cost. The methods reproduce a high-resolution inversion at a quarter of the cost. The reduced-dimension method creates a multiscale grid. The reduced-rank method solves the inversion where information content is highest.
Alexander Polyakov, Anatoly Poberovsky, Maria Makarova, Yana Virolainen, Yuri Timofeyev, and Anastasiia Nikulina
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5349–5368,Short summary
The photolysis of CFCs, and to a lesser extent of HCFCs, in the stratosphere leads to the appearance of so-called ozone holes. We improve the retrieval strategies for deriving CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 from ground–based IR solar radiation spectra measured by a Bruker FS125HR spectrometer, analyze the time series at the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) site in St. Petersburg, Russia, and compare them to the independent data.
Matthieu Dogniaux, Cyril Crevoisier, Raymond Armante, Virginie Capelle, Thibault Delahaye, Vincent Cassé, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, David F. Pollard, Coleen M. Roehl, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4689–4706,Short summary
We present the Adaptable 4A Inversion (5AI), an implementation of the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm, relying on the Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A/OP) radiative transfer model, that enables the retrieval of greenhouse gas atmospheric weighted columns from infrared measurements. It is tested on a sample of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 observations, and its results satisfactorily compare to several reference products, thus showing the reliability of 5AI OE implementation.
Wenfu Tang, David P. Edwards, Louisa K. Emmons, Helen M. Worden, Laura M. Judd, Lok N. Lamsal, Jassim A. Al-Saadi, Scott J. Janz, James H. Crawford, Merritt N. Deeter, Gabriele Pfister, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Benjamin Gaubert, and Caroline R. Nowlan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4639–4655,Short summary
We use high-resolution airborne mapping spectrometer measurements to assess sub-grid variability within satellite pixels over urban regions. The sub-grid variability within satellite pixels increases with increasing satellite pixel sizes. Temporal variability within satellite pixels decreases with increasing satellite pixel sizes. This work is particularly relevant and useful for future satellite design, satellite data interpretation, and point-grid data comparisons.
Lieuwe G. Tilstra, Olaf N. E. Tuinder, Ping Wang, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4219–4238,Short summary
In this paper we introduce the new concept of directionally dependent Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (DLER) of the Earth's surface retrieved from satellite observations. We apply this concept to data of the GOME-2 satellite instruments to create a global database of the reflectivity of the Earth's surface, providing surface DLER for 26 wavelength bands between 328 and 772 nm as a function of the satellite viewing angle via a second-degree polynomial parameterisation.
Xiaoli Sun, James B. Abshire, Anand Ramanathan, Stephan R. Kawa, and Jianping Mao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3909–3922,Short summary
This paper gives a detailed and complete description of the retrieval algorithm used in the multi-wavelength lidar for average column carbon dioxide mixing ratio measurements. The algorithm is similar to that used in passive trace-gas sounding and simultaneously solves for several parameters and provides the associated averaging kernel. The algorithm has been successfully used with the airborne lidar measurements. It can also be used with similar lidar for other trace-gas measurements.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, James R. Podolske, David F. Pollard, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3837–3869,Short summary
We present the first GOSAT and GOSAT-2 XCO2 data derived with the FOCAL retrieval algorithm. Comparisons of the GOSAT-FOCAL product with other data reveal long-term agreement within about 1 ppm over 1 decade, differences in seasonal variations of about 0.5 ppm, and a mean regional bias to ground-based TCCON data of 0.56 ppm with a mean scatter of 1.89 ppm. GOSAT-2-FOCAL data are preliminary only, but first comparisons show that they compare well with the GOSAT-FOCAL results and TCCON.
Nikita M. Fedkin, Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Pascal Hedelt, Diego G. Loyola, Russell R. Dickerson, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3673–3691,Short summary
This study presents a new volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) layer height retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We generated a large spectral dataset with a radiative transfer model and used it to train neural networks to predict SO2 height from OMI radiance data. The algorithm is fast and takes less than 10 min for a single orbit. Retrievals were tested on four eruption cases, and results had reasonable agreement (within 2 km) with other retrievals and previous studies.
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