Articles | Volume 16, issue 2
Research article
30 Jan 2023
Research article |  | 30 Jan 2023

In situ ground-based mobile measurement of lightning events above central Europe

Jakub Kákona, Jan Mikeš, Iva Ambrožová, Ondřej Ploc, Olena Velychko, Lembit Sihver, and Martin Kákona

Related authors

Continental thunderstorm ground enhancement observed at an exceptionally low altitude
Ivana Kolmašová, Ondřej Santolík, Jakub Šlegl, Jana Popová, Zbyněk Sokol, Petr Zacharov, Ondřej Ploc, Gerhard Diendorfer, Ronald Langer, Radek Lán, and Igor Strhárský
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7959–7973,,, 2022
Short summary

Related subject area

Subject: Clouds | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and Platforms
A comparative analysis of in situ measurements of high-altitude cirrus in the tropics
Francesco Cairo, Martina Krämer, Armin Afchine, Guido Di Donfrancesco, Luca Di Liberto, Sergey Khaykin, Lorenza Lucaferri, Valentin Mitev, Max Port, Christian Rolf, Marcel Snels, Nicole Spelten, Ralf Weigel, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4899–4925,,, 2023
Short summary
Design and Rocket Deployment of a Trackable Pseudo-Lagrangian Drifter based Meteorological Probe into the Lawrence/Linwood EF4 Tornado and Mesocyclone on 28 May 2019
Reed Timmer, Mark Simpson, Sean Schofer, and Curtis Brooks
EGUsphere,,, 2023
Short summary
A phase separation inlet for droplets, ice residuals, and interstitial aerosol particles
Libby Koolik, Michael Roesch, Carmen Dameto de Espana, Christopher Nathan Rapp, Lesly J. Franco Deloya, Chuanyang Shen, A. Gannet Hallar, Ian B. McCubbin, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3213–3222,,, 2022
Short summary
Simulation and field campaign evaluation of an optical particle counter on a fixed-wing UAV
Joseph Girdwood, Warren Stanley, Chris Stopford, and David Brus
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2061–2076,,, 2022
Short summary
Cloud microphysical measurements at a mountain observatory: comparison between shadowgraph imaging and phase Doppler interferometry
Moein Mohammadi, Jakub L. Nowak, Guus Bertens, Jan Moláček, Wojciech Kumala, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 965–985,,, 2022
Short summary

Cited articles

Abbasi, R. U., Abu-Zayyad, T., Allen, M., Barcikowski, E., Belz, J. W., Bergman, D. R., Blake, S. A., Byrne, M., Cady, R., Cheon, B. G., Chiba, J., Chikawa, M., Fujii, T., Fukushima, M., Furlich, G., Goto, T., Hanlon, W., Hayashi, Y., Hayashida, N., Hibino, K., and Zundel, Z.: Gamma ray showers observed at ground level in coincidence with downward lightning leaders, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 123, 6864–6879,, 2018. a
Belz, J. W., Krehbiel, P. R., Remington, J., Stanley, M. A., Abbasi, R. U., LeVon, R., Rison, W., Rodeheffer, D., Abu-Zayyad, T., Allen, M., Barcikowski, E., Bergman, D. R., Blake, S. A., Byrne, M., Cady, R., Cheon, B. G., Chikawa, M., di Matteo, A., Fujii, T., Fujita, K., Fujiwara, R., Fukushima, M., Furlich, G., Hanlon, W., Hayashi, M., Hayashi, Y., Hayashida, N., Hibino, K., Honda, K., Ikeda, D., Inadomi, T., Inoue, N., Ishii, T., Ito, H., Ivanov, D., Iwakura, H., Jeong, H. M., Jeong, S., Jui, C. C. H., Kadota, K., Kakimoto, F., Kalashev, O., Kasahara, K., Kasami, S., Kawai, H., Kawakami, S., Kawata, K., Kido, E., Kim, H. B., Kim, J. H., Kim, J. H., Kuzmin†, V., Kuznetsov, M., Kwon, Y. J., Lee, K. H., Lubsandorzhiev, B., Lundquist, J. P., Machida, K., Matsumiya, H., Matthews, J. N., Matuyama, T., Mayta, R., Minamino, M., Mukai, K., Myers, I., Nagataki, S., Nakai, K., Nakamura, R., Nakamura, T., Nakamura, Y., Nonaka, T., Oda, H., Ogio, S., Ohnishi, M., Ohoka, H., Oku, Y., Okuda, T., Omura, Y., Ono, M., Oshima, A., Ozawa, S., Park, I. H., Potts, M., Pshirkov, M. S., Rodriguez, D. C., Rubtsov, G., Ryu, D., Sagawa, H., Sahara, R., Saito, K., Saito, Y., Sakaki, N., Sako, T., Sakurai, N., Sano, K., Seki, T., Sekino, K., Shibata, F., Shibata, T., Shimodaira, H., Shin, B. K., Shin, H. S., Smith, J. D., Sokolsky, P., Sone, N., Stokes, B. T., Stroman, T. A., Takagi, Y., Takahashi, Y., Takeda, M., Takeishi, R., Taketa, A., Takita, M., Tameda, Y., Tanaka, K., Tanaka, M., Tanoue, Y., Thomas, S. B., Thomson, G. B., Tinyakov, P., Tkachev, I., Tokuno, H., Tomida, T., Troitsky, S., Tsunesada, Y., Uchihori, Y., Udo, S., Uehama, T., Urban, F., Wallace, M., Wong, T., Yamamoto, M., Yamaoka, H., Yamazaki, K., Yashiro, K., Yosei, M., Yoshii, H., Zhezher, Y., and Zundel, Z.: Observations of the Origin of Downward Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 125, e2019JD031940,, 2020. a
Chilingarian, A.: Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) – New High-Energy Phenomenon Originated in the Terrestrial Atmosphere, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 409, 012019,, 2013. a
Chilingarian, A., Hovsepyan, G., and Hovhannisyan, A.: Particle bursts from thunderclouds: Natural particle accelerators above our heads, Phys. Rev. D, 83, 062001,, 2011. a
Chum, J., Langer, R., Baše, J., Kollárik, M., Strhárský, I., Diendorfer, G., and Rusz, J.: Significant enhancements of secondary cosmic rays and electric field at the high mountain peak of Lomnický Štít in High Tatras during thunderstorms, Earth Planets Space, 72, 28,, 2020. a
Short summary
Storm activity is sometimes associated with the generation of ionizing radiation. Our motivation for performing this research was to understand its origin. Using measuring cars fitted with new instruments, it was found that the duration of lightning is longer than generally thought. In most cases, lightning occurs only inside the cloud; however, rarely, it is also visible outside the cloud. In such cases, the course of emission over time can be used to assume what it looks like inside the cloud.