Articles | Volume 10, issue 12
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4845–4863, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
13 Dec 2017
Research article | 13 Dec 2017
Quality aspects of the Wegener Center multi-satellite GPS radio occultation record OPSv5.6
Barbara Angerer et al.
No articles found.
Ying Li, Gottfried Kirchengast, Marc Schwaerz, and Yunbin Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1259–1284,Short summary
We develop a new approach to monitor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events since 1980 and develop a 42-year SSW event climatology. Detection and evaluation results suggest that the new method is robust for SSW monitoring. We also found an increase in the duration of SSW main-phase warmings of about 5(±2) d over the three decades from the 1980s to the 2010s, raising the average duration from about 10 to 15 d, and the warming strength is also found increased.
Thomas Pliemon, Ulrich Foelsche, Christian Rohr, and Christian Pfister
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Climate of the Past (CP).Short summary
Louis Morin consistently recorded precipitation intensity and duration between 1665 and 1713. We use these records to reconstruct precipitation totals. This reconstruction is validated by several methods and then presented using precipitation indexes. Exceptional about this dataset is the availability of a subdaily resolution and the few missing data points over the entire measurement/observation period.
Karina von Schuckmann, Audrey Minère, Flora Gues, Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Gottfried Kirchengast, Susheel Adusumilli, Fiammetta Straneo, Richard Allan, Paul M. Barker, Hugo Beltrami, Tim Boyer, Lijing Cheng, John Church, Damien Desbruyeres, Han Dolman, Catia M. Domingues, Almudena García-García, Donata Giglio, John E. Gilson, Maximilian Gorfer, Leopold Haimberger, Stefan Hendricks, Shigeki Hosoda, Gregory C. Johnson, Rachel Killick, Brian King, Nikolas Kolodziejczyk, Anton Korosov, Gerhard Krinner, Mikael Kuusela, Moritz Langer, Thomas Lavergne, Isobel Lawrence, Yuehua Li, John Lyman, Ben Marzeion, Michael Mayer, Andrew H. MacDougall, Trevor McDougall, Didier Paolo Monselesan, Jan Nitzbon, Inès Otosaka, Jian Peng, Sarah Purkey, Dean Roemmich, Kanako Sato, Katsunari Sato, Abhishek Savita, Axel Schweiger, Andrew Shepherd, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Leon Simons, Donald A. Slater, Thomas Slater, Noah Smith, Andrea Steiner, Toshio Suga, Tanguy Szekely, Wim Thiery, Mary-Louise Timmermans, Inne Vanderkelen, Susan E. Wjiffels, Tonghua Wu, and Michael Zemp
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Earth climate is out of energy balance and this study quantifies how much heat has consequently accumulated over the past decades (89 %: ocean, 6 %: land, 4 %: cryosphere, 1 %: atmosphere). Since 1971, this accumulated heat reached record values at an increasing pace. The Earth heat inventory provides a comprehensive view on the status and expectation of global warming, and we call for an implementation of this global climate indicator into the Paris agreement’s global stocktake.
Thomas Pliemon, Ulrich Foelsche, Christian Rohr, and Christian Pfister
Clim. Past, 18, 1685–1707,Short summary
We have digitized and analyzed meteorological variables (temperature, direction of the movement of the clouds, and cloud cover), which were noted by Louis Morin in the period 1665–1713 in Paris. This time period is characterized by cold winters and autumns and moderate springs and summers. A low frequency of westerlies in the winter months leads to a cooling. Morin's measurements seem to be trustworthy. Only cloud cover in quantitative terms should be taken with caution.
Wouter Dorigo, Irene Himmelbauer, Daniel Aberer, Lukas Schremmer, Ivana Petrakovic, Luca Zappa, Wolfgang Preimesberger, Angelika Xaver, Frank Annor, Jonas Ardö, Dennis Baldocchi, Marco Bitelli, Günter Blöschl, Heye Bogena, Luca Brocca, Jean-Christophe Calvet, J. Julio Camarero, Giorgio Capello, Minha Choi, Michael C. Cosh, Nick van de Giesen, Istvan Hajdu, Jaakko Ikonen, Karsten H. Jensen, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Ileen de Kat, Gottfried Kirchengast, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Jenni Kyrouac, Kristine Larson, Suxia Liu, Alexander Loew, Mahta Moghaddam, José Martínez Fernández, Cristian Mattar Bader, Renato Morbidelli, Jan P. Musial, Elise Osenga, Michael A. Palecki, Thierry Pellarin, George P. Petropoulos, Isabella Pfeil, Jarrett Powers, Alan Robock, Christoph Rüdiger, Udo Rummel, Michael Strobel, Zhongbo Su, Ryan Sullivan, Torbern Tagesson, Andrej Varlagin, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Jeffrey Walker, Jun Wen, Fred Wenger, Jean Pierre Wigneron, Mel Woods, Kun Yang, Yijian Zeng, Xiang Zhang, Marek Zreda, Stephan Dietrich, Alexander Gruber, Peter van Oevelen, Wolfgang Wagner, Klaus Scipal, Matthias Drusch, and Roberto Sabia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5749–5804,Short summary
The International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) is a community-based open-access data portal for soil water measurements taken at the ground and is accessible at https://ismn.earth. Over 1000 scientific publications and thousands of users have made use of the ISMN. The scope of this paper is to inform readers about the data and functionality of the ISMN and to provide a review of the scientific progress facilitated through the ISMN with the scope to shape future research and operations.
Matthieu Plu, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, Delia Arnold Arias, Rocio Baro, Guillaume Bigeard, Luca Bugliaro, Ana Carvalho, Laaziz El Amraoui, Kurt Eschbacher, Marcus Hirtl, Christian Maurer, Marie D. Mulder, Dennis Piontek, Lennart Robertson, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Fritz Zobl, and Raimund Zopp
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2973–2992,Short summary
Past volcanic eruptions that spread out ash over large areas, like Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, forced the cancellation of thousands of flights and had huge economic consequences. In this article, an international team in the H2020 EU-funded EUNADICS-AV project has designed a probabilistic model approach to quantify ash concentrations. This approach is evaluated against measurements, and its potential use to mitigate the impact of future large-scale eruptions is discussed.
Martin Stangl and Ulrich Foelsche
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
We selected the Maunder Minimum (1645–1715), an astrophysically defined section of the Little Ice Age, and compared the historical data from the Grand Duchy of Transylvania with those from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. For a larger period (1500–1950), we examined on a decadal basis the extent to which an influence on the climate through long-term fluctuations in solar activity, as was inferred from isotope reconstructions from ice cores, can be seen.
Esmail Ghaemi, Ulrich Foelsche, Alexander Kann, and Jürgen Fuchsberger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4335–4356,Short summary
We assess an operational merged gauge–radar precipitation product over a period of 12 years, using gridded precipitation fields from a dense gauge network (WegenerNet) in southeastern Austria. We analyze annual data, seasonal data, and extremes using different metrics. We identify individual events using a simple threshold based on the interval between two consecutive events and evaluate the events' characteristics in both datasets.
Ying Li, Gottfried Kirchengast, Marc Schwärz, Florian Ladstädter, and Yunbin Yuan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2327–2343,Short summary
We introduce a new method to detect and monitor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) data at high northern latitudes and demonstrate it for the well-known Jan.–Feb. 2009 event. We found that RO data are capable of SSW monitoring. Based on our method, a SSW event can be detected and tracked, and the duration and the strength of the event can be recorded. The results are consistent with other research on the 2009 event.
Jürgen Fuchsberger, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Thomas Kabas
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1307–1334,Short summary
The paper describes the most recent weather and climate data from the WegenerNet station networks, providing hydrometeorological measurements since 2007 at very high spatial and temporal resolution for long-term observation in two regions in southeastern Austria: the WegenerNet Feldbach Region, in the Alpine forelands, comprising 155 stations with 1 station about every 2 km2, and the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal, in a mountainous region, with 14 stations at altitudes from about 600 m to 2200 m.
Michael Gorbunov, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Kent B. Lauritsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 853–867,Short summary
Currently, the canonical transform (CT) approach to the processing of radio occultation observations is widely used. For the spherically symmetric atmosphere, the applicability of this method can be strictly proven. However, in the presence of horizontal gradients, this approach may not work. Here we introduce a generalization of the CT method in order to reduce the errors due to horizontal gradients.
Pierre-Yves Tournigand, Valeria Cigala, Elzbieta Lasota, Mohammed Hammouti, Lieven Clarisse, Hugues Brenot, Fred Prata, Gottfried Kirchengast, Andrea K. Steiner, and Riccardo Biondi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3139–3159,Short summary
The detection and monitoring of volcanic clouds are important for aviation management, climate and weather forecasts. We present in this paper the first comprehensive archive collecting spatial and temporal information about volcanic clouds generated by the 11 largest eruptions of this century. We provide a complete set of state-of-the-art data allowing the development and testing of new algorithms contributing to improve the accuracy of the estimation of fundamental volcanic cloud parameters.
Marcus Hirtl, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, Martin Stuefer, Delia Arnold, Rocio Baro, Christian Maurer, and Marie D. Mulder
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3099–3115,Short summary
The paper shows the application of a new volcanic emission preprocessor for the chemical transport model WRF-Chem. The model is evaluated with different observational data sets for the eruption of the Grimsvötn volcano 2011.
Elżbieta Lasota, Andrea K. Steiner, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Riccardo Biondi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2679–2693,Short summary
In this work, we provide a comprehensive archive of tropical cyclone vertical structure for the period 2001–2018. The tropical cyclone best tracks are co-located in time and space with high-vertical-resolution atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, humidity and refractivity) from radio occultations and with climatological profiles. This dataset can be used to analyze the inner vertical thermodynamic structure of tropical cyclones and the pre-cyclone environment.
Clara Hohmann, Gottfried Kirchengast, Sungmin O, Wolfgang Rieger, and Ulrich Foelsche
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Heavy precipitation events are still feeding with a large uncertainty into hydrological models. Based on the highly dense station network WegenerNet (one station per 2 km2) we analyzed the sensitivity of runoff simulations to different rain network densities and interpolation methods in small catchments. We find, and quantify relevant characteristics, that runoff curves especially from short-duration convective rainfall events are strongly influenced by gauge station density and distribution.
Karina von Schuckmann, Lijing Cheng, Matthew D. Palmer, James Hansen, Caterina Tassone, Valentin Aich, Susheel Adusumilli, Hugo Beltrami, Tim Boyer, Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Damien Desbruyères, Catia Domingues, Almudena García-García, Pierre Gentine, John Gilson, Maximilian Gorfer, Leopold Haimberger, Masayoshi Ishii, Gregory C. Johnson, Rachel Killick, Brian A. King, Gottfried Kirchengast, Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, John Lyman, Ben Marzeion, Michael Mayer, Maeva Monier, Didier Paolo Monselesan, Sarah Purkey, Dean Roemmich, Axel Schweiger, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Andrew Shepherd, Donald A. Slater, Andrea K. Steiner, Fiammetta Straneo, Mary-Louise Timmermans, and Susan E. Wijffels
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2013–2041,Short summary
Understanding how much and where the heat is distributed in the Earth system is fundamental to understanding how this affects warming oceans, atmosphere and land, rising temperatures and sea level, and loss of grounded and floating ice, which are fundamental concerns for society. This study is a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) concerted international effort to obtain the Earth heat inventory over the period 1960–2018.
Marcus Hirtl, Delia Arnold, Rocio Baro, Hugues Brenot, Mauro Coltelli, Kurt Eschbacher, Helmut Hard-Stremayer, Florian Lipok, Christian Maurer, Dieter Meinhard, Lucia Mona, Marie D. Mulder, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Michael Pernsteiner, Matthieu Plu, Lennart Robertson, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, Klaus Sievers, Mikhail Sofiev, Wim Som de Cerff, Martin Steinheimer, Martin Stuefer, Nicolas Theys, Andreas Uppstu, Saskia Wagenaar, Roland Winkler, Gerhard Wotawa, Fritz Zobl, and Raimund Zopp
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1719–1739,Short summary
The paper summarizes the set-up and outcome of a volcanic-hazard demonstration exercise, with the goals of assessing and mitigating the impacts of volcanic ash clouds on civil and military aviation. Experts in the field simulated the sequence of procedures for an artificial eruption of the Etna volcano in Italy. The scope of the exercise ranged from the detection of the assumed event to the issuance of early warnings and optimized rerouting of flights.
Andrea K. Steiner, Florian Ladstädter, Chi O. Ao, Hans Gleisner, Shu-Peng Ho, Doug Hunt, Torsten Schmidt, Ulrich Foelsche, Gottfried Kirchengast, Ying-Hwa Kuo, Kent B. Lauritsen, Anthony J. Mannucci, Johannes K. Nielsen, William Schreiner, Marc Schwärz, Sergey Sokolovskiy, Stig Syndergaard, and Jens Wickert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2547–2575,Short summary
High-quality observations are critically important for monitoring the Earth’s changing climate. We provide information on the consistency and long-term stability of observations from GPS radio occultation (RO). We assess, for the first time, RO records from multiple RO missions and all major RO data providers. Our results quantify where RO can be used for reliable trend assessment and confirm its climate quality.
Martin Lasser, Sungmin O, and Ulrich Foelsche
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5055–5070,Short summary
This paper evaluates the rain rate estimates from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's radar instrument by comparing them to the data of the WegenerNet, a local-scale high-resolution network of meteorological stations. Our results show that the GPM-DPR estimates basically match with the WegenerNet measurements, but absolute quantities are biased.
Christoph Schlager, Gottfried Kirchengast, Juergen Fuchsberger, Alexander Kann, and Heimo Truhetz
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2855–2873,Short summary
Empirical high-resolution surface wind fields from two study areas, automatically generated by a weather diagnostic application, were intercompared with wind fields of different modeling approaches. The focus is on evaluating spatial differences and displacements between the different datasets. In general, the spatial verification indicates a better statistical agreement for the first study area (hilly WegenerNet Feldbach Region), than for the second one (mountainous WegenerNet Johnsbachtal).
Sungmin O and Ulrich Foelsche
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2863–2875,Short summary
We analyze heavy local rainfall to address questions regarding the spatial uncertainty due to the approximation of areal rainfall using point measurements. Ten years of rainfall data from a dense network of 150 rain gauges in southeastern Austria are employed, which permits robust examination of small-scale rainfall at various horizontal resolutions. Quantitative uncertainty information from the study can guide both data users and producers to estimate uncertainty in their own rainfall dataset.
Yueqiang Sun, Weihua Bai, Congliang Liu, Yan Liu, Qifei Du, Xianyi Wang, Guanglin Yang, Mi Liao, Zhongdong Yang, Xiaoxin Zhang, Xiangguang Meng, Danyang Zhao, Junming Xia, Yuerong Cai, and Gottfried Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5797–5811,Short summary
The GNSS Occultation Sounder (GNOS) is one of the new-generation payloads on board the Chinese FengYun 3 (FY-3) series of operational meteorological satellites for sounding the Earth’s neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. FY-3C GNOS, on board the FY-3 series C satellite launched in September 2013, was designed to acquire setting and rising radio occultation (RO) data by using GNSS signals from both the Chinese BDS and the US GPS. This paper reviews the FY-3C GNOS mission.
Christoph Schlager, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Juergen Fuchsberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5607–5627,Short summary
In this work we further developed and evaluated an operational weather diagnostic application, the WegenerNet Wind Product Generator (WPG), and applied it to the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal (JBT), a dense meteorological station network located in a mountainous Alpine region. The WPG automatically generates gridded high-resolution wind fields in near-real time with a temporal resolution of 30 min and a spatial resolution of 100 m x 100 m.
Julia Danzer, Marc Schwärz, Veronika Proschek, Ulrich Foelsche, and Hans Gleisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4867–4882,Short summary
Recently a new approach for the production of RO climatologies has been proposed. The idea is to propagate mean bending angle profiles through processing and retrieve directly climatological products of refractivity, density, pressure, and temperature. The averaging suppresses noise in the data, allowing the bending angles to be used up to 80 km without the need for background information. This work focuses on the comparison of the new climatologies between two processing centers.
Rodrigo Hierro, Andrea K. Steiner, Alejandro de la Torre, Peter Alexander, Pablo Llamedo, and Pablo Cremades
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3523–3539,Short summary
This paper analyzed the collocated GPS radio occultation profiles near the convective systems identified from ISCCP over two orographic regions of the Alps and Andes. Gravity wave (GW) analysis over both selected regions was also carried out. The gravity wave signature from the two case studies were investigated using mesoscale WRF simulations, ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and measured RO temperature profiles. The absence of fronts or jets during both case studies reveals similar relevant GWs.
Therese Rieckh, Richard Anthes, William Randel, Shu-Peng Ho, and Ulrich Foelsche
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3091–3109,Short summary
Water vapor is the most important tropospheric greenhouse gas and is also highly variable in space and time. We study the vertical structure and variability of tropospheric humidity using various observing techniques (GPS radio occultation, radiosondes, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) and models. Time–height cross sections reveal seasonal biases for different pressure layers. We find that radio occultation humidity has high accuracy and can contribute valuable information in data assimilation.
Jakob Schwarz, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Marc Schwaerz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2601–2631,Short summary
We process global navigation satellite system radio occultation (RO) observations in a new way with integrated uncertainty propagation; in this study we focus on retrieving atmospheric bending angles from RO excess phase profiles. We find that this new approach within our novel Reference Occultation Processing System (rOPS) exploits the strengths of RO such as its high accuracy and long-term stability in a reliable manner for global climate monitoring and other weather and climate uses.
Congliang Liu, Gottfried Kirchengast, Yueqiang Sun, Kefei Zhang, Robert Norman, Marc Schwaerz, Weihua Bai, Qifei Du, and Ying Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2427–2440,Short summary
In this study, we focused on investigating the causes of the higher-order residual ionospheric error (RIE) in the GNSS RO events, by employing detailed along-ray-path analyses of atmospheric and ionospheric refractivities, impact parameter changes, and bending angles and RIEs under asymmetric and symmetric ionospheric structures. We found that the main causes of the high RIEs are a combination of physics-based effects, where asymmetric ionospheric conditions play the primary role.
Andrea K. Steiner, Bettina C. Lackner, and Mark A. Ringer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4657–4672,Short summary
We evaluate the representation of tropical convection regimes in atmospheric climate models with satellite-based observations from GPS radio occultation. We find that models have large temperature biases in the tropopause region. In moist convection regions, models underestimate moisture up to 40 % over oceans whereas in dry regions they overestimate it by 100 %. Our findings show that RO observations are a valuable data source for the evaluation and development of next generation climate models.
Hallgeir Wilhelmsen, Florian Ladstädter, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, and Andrea K. Steiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1333–1346,Short summary
Tropical atmospheric variability is often described using proxy indices of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. We introduce new proxies derived from GNSS radio occultation (RO) satellite measurements. Using the high vertical resolution of the RO temperature fields we obtain altitude-resolved indices which can improve the description of atmospheric variability patterns and can be used in climate studies where a detailed knowledge of these patterns is required.
Weihua Bai, Congliang Liu, Xiangguang Meng, Yueqiang Sun, Gottfried Kirchengast, Qifei Du, Xianyi Wang, Guanglin Yang, Mi Liao, Zhongdong Yang, Danyang Zhao, Junming Xia, Yuerong Cai, Lijun Liu, and Dongwei Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 819–833,Short summary
In this study we focus on evaluating zero-difference processing of BDS RO data vs. single-difference processing. From the statistics, average bias (and standard deviation) of the bending angle and refractivity profiles were found to be as small as about 0.05–0.2 % (and 0.7–1.6 %) over the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, including for the GEO, IGSO, and MEO subsets. Zero differencing was found to perform slightly better, as may be expected from its lower vulnerability to noise.
Petr Pisoft, Petr Sacha, Jiri Miksovsky, Peter Huszar, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, and Ulrich Foelsche
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 515–527,Short summary
We revise selected findings regarding utilization of Global Positioning System radio occultation density profiles for analysis of internal gravity waves. The results show that previously published results are valid only for one specific data version only. Using radiosonde profiles, we also analyze a nonhydrostatic component in temperature profiles. The last part presents detailed study on the utilization of density profiles for characterization of the wave field stability.
Michael E. Gorbunov and Gottfried Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 111–125,Short summary
We study the systematic discreapancies between atmospheric refractivity derived from radio occulation (RO) sounding of the Earth's atmosphere and the reanalyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. We construct a regression-based bias model. The model can be used for the RO data propagation in the new reference occultation processing system (rOPS) including the uncertainty propagation through the retrieval chain.
Sungmin O, Ulrich Foelsche, Gottfried Kirchengast, Juergen Fuchsberger, Jackson Tan, and Walter A. Petersen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6559–6572,Short summary
We evaluate gridded satellite rainfall estimates, from GPM IMERG, through a direct grid-to-grid comparison with gauge data from the WegenerNet Feldbach (WEGN) network in southeastern Austria. As the WEGN data are independent of the IMERG gauge adjustment process, we could analyze the IMERG estimates across its three different runs. Our results show the effects of additional retrieval processes on the final rainfall estimates, and consequently provide IMERG accuracy information for data users.
Lukas Brunner and Andrea K. Steiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4727–4745,Short summary
Atmospheric blocking is a weather pattern where a stable high pressure system blocks the westerly flow at mid-latitudes. We provide, for the first time, a global perspective on blocking and related impacts, based on satellite observations from GPS radio occultation for 2006–2016. We find strong direct and remote effects on the vertical atmospheric structure revealing significant temperature and humidity anomalies up to 15 km. The observations will help for a better insight into blocking impacts.
Therese Rieckh, Richard Anthes, William Randel, Shu-Peng Ho, and Ulrich Foelsche
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1093–1110,Short summary
We use GPS radio occultation (RO) data to investigate the structure and temporal behavior of extremely dry, high-ozone tropospheric air in the tropical western Pacific and compare them to various data sets (research aircraft, radiosonde, infrared sounder, and model reanalyses). All these data sets have limitations. We show that the RO data contribute significant information on the water vapor content. Our results also verify the quality of the reanalyses.
Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, William J. Randel, and Joowan Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 793–806,Short summary
Tropical temperature variability and associated Kelvin-wave activity are investigated from 10 km to 30 km using 13 years of high-resolution observational data. Strongest temperature variability is found in the tropical tropopause region between about 16 km and 20 km, where peaks of Kelvin-wave activity are irregularly distributed in time. Detailed knowledge of dynamical processes in the tropical tropopause region is an essential part of better understanding climate variability and change.
Lukas Brunner, Andrea K. Steiner, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, and Martin W. Jury
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4593–4604,Short summary
Atmospheric blocking refers to persistent high-pressure systems which block the climatological flow at midlatitudes. We explore blocking with observations from GPS radio occultation (RO), a satellite-based remote-sensing system. Using two example cases, we find that RO data robustly capture blocking, highlighting the potential of RO observations to complement models and reanalysis as a basis for blocking research.
Marc Olefs, Dietmar J. Baumgartner, Friedrich Obleitner, Christoph Bichler, Ulrich Foelsche, Helga Pietsch, Harald E. Rieder, Philipp Weihs, Florian Geyer, Thomas Haiden, and Wolfgang Schöner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1513–1531,Short summary
We present the Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) that has been established to advance national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and solar energy techniques' development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods and strategies.
Riccardo Biondi, Andrea Steiner, Gottfried Kirchengast, Hugues Brenot, and Therese Rieckh
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Cloud structure and cloud top height are key parameters for the monitoring of volcanic cloud movement and for characterizing eruptive processes and understanding the impact on short-term climate variability. We have studied the eruption of Nabro volcano, which has been recognized as the largest stratospheric sulfur injection since Pinatubo (1991) and we have found a clear warming signature after the eruption of Nabro persisting for a few months.
Y. Li, G. Kirchengast, B. Scherllin-Pirscher, R. Norman, Y. B. Yuan, J. Fritzer, M. Schwaerz, and K. Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3447–3465,Short summary
We introduce a new dynamic statistical optimization algorithm to initialize ionosphere-corrected bending angles of Global Navigation Satellite System-based radio occultation measurements. The new algorithm is evaluated against the OPSv5.6 algorithm developed by the Wegener Center using both simulated and real observed data. It is found that the algorithm can significantly reduce the random errors of optimized bending angles. The retrieved refractivity and temperature profiles are also benefited.
V. Proschek, G. Kirchengast, S. Schweitzer, J. S. A. Brooke, P. F. Bernath, C. B. Thomas, J.-G. Wang, K. A. Tereszchuk, G. González Abad, R. J. Hargreaves, C. A. Beale, J. J. Harrison, P. A. Martin, V. L. Kasyutich, C. Gerbig, O. Kolle, and A. Loescher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3315–3336,
C. L. Liu, G. Kirchengast, K. Zhang, R. Norman, Y. Li, S. C. Zhang, J. Fritzer, M. Schwaerz, S. Q. Wu, and Z. X. Tan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2999–3019,
A. Plach, V. Proschek, and G. Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2813–2825,Short summary
This paper discusses simulation results of a newly developed line-of-sight wind retrieval algorithm expanding an existing simulation framework that includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and greenhouse gases in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region. The underlying mission concept further develops the radio occultation technique (i.e. satellite remote sensing technique scanning the atmosphere with high vertical resolution) employing microwave and infrared-laser signals.
R. Biondi, A. K. Steiner, G. Kirchengast, and T. Rieckh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5181–5193,
F. Ladstädter, A. K. Steiner, M. Schwärz, and G. Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1819–1834,
A. Kann, I. Meirold-Mautner, F. Schmid, G. Kirchengast, J. Fuchsberger, V. Meyer, L. Tüchler, and B. Bica
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1547–1559,Short summary
The paper introduces a high resolution precipitation analysis system which operates on 1 km x 1 km resolution with high frequency updates of 5 minutes. The ability of such a system to adequately assess the convective precipitation distribution is evaluated by means of an independant, high resolution station network. This dense station network allows for a thorough evaluation of the analyses under different convective situations and of the representativeness error of raingaue measurements.
B. Scherllin-Pirscher, S. Syndergaard, U. Foelsche, and K. B. Lauritsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 109–124,
P. Šácha, U. Foelsche, and P. Pišoft
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4123–4132,Short summary
In the presented paper, we introduce a method for the density background separation and a methodology for internal gravity waves analysis using the GPS RO density profiles. Various background choices are discussed, and the correspondence between analytical forms of the density and dry temperature background profiles is examined. Finally the advantages of the density instead of dry temperature GPS RO data utilization are listed (e.g. inclusion of non-hydrostatic waves).
T. Rieckh, B. Scherllin-Pirscher, F. Ladstädter, and U. Foelsche
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3947–3958,Short summary
Radio Occultation (RO) observations featuring high vertical resolution, global availability, and high accuracy were used to investigate global characteristics of the lapse rate tropopause. Climatological tropopause characteristics for the RO record from 2001 to 2013 extend previous studies on tropopause structure and its temporal variability. Latitudinal and longitudinal variations as well as the annual cycle and inter-annual variability were analyzed for the tropopause altitude and temperature.
J. Danzer, U. Foelsche, B. Scherllin-Pirscher, and M. Schwärz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2883–2896,
J. Danzer, B. Scherllin-Pirscher, and U. Foelsche
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2169–2179,
A. K. Steiner, D. Hunt, S.-P. Ho, G. Kirchengast, A. J. Mannucci, B. Scherllin-Pirscher, H. Gleisner, A. von Engeln, T. Schmidt, C. Ao, S. S. Leroy, E. R. Kursinski, U. Foelsche, M. Gorbunov, S. Heise, Y.-H. Kuo, K. B. Lauritsen, C. Marquardt, C. Rocken, W. Schreiner, S. Sokolovskiy, S. Syndergaard, and J. Wickert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1469–1484,
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalAtmospheric boundary layer height from ground-based remote sensing: a review of capabilities and limitationsAssessing and mitigating the radar–radar interference in the German C-band weather radar networkSpectral replacement using machine learning methods for continuous mapping of the Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS)Doppler spectra from DWD's operational C-band radar birdbath scan: sampling strategy, spectral postprocessing, and multimodal analysis for the retrieval of precipitation processesHigh-fidelity retrieval from instantaneous line-of-sight returns of nacelle-mounted lidar including supervised machine learningHorizontal small-scale variability of water vapor in the atmosphere: implications for intercomparison of data from different measuring systemsSatellite observations of gravity wave momentum flux in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT): feasibility and requirementsAn improved near-real-time precipitation retrieval for BrazilRadio frequency interference detection and mitigation in the DWD C-band weather radar networkQuality control and error assessment of the Aeolus L2B wind results from the Joint Aeolus Tropical Atlantic CampaignLong-distance propagation of 162 MHz shipping information links associated with sporadic EEstimation of refractivity uncertainties and vertical error correlations in collocated radio occultations, radiosondes, and model forecastsDeepPrecip: a deep neural network for precipitation retrievalsMachine learning-based prediction of Alpine foehn events using GNSS troposphere products: first results for Altdorf, SwitzerlandMeteor radar vertical wind observation biases and mathematical debiasing strategies including the 3DVAR+DIV algorithmAdaptive thermal image velocimetry of spatial wind movement on landscapes using near-target infrared camerasImage muting of mixed precipitation to improve identification of regions of heavy snow in radar dataExtending water vapor measurement capability of photon-limited differential absorption lidars through simultaneous denoising and inversionValidation of Aeolus wind profiles using ground-based lidar and radiosonde observations at La Réunion Island and the Observatoire de Haute ProvenceGPROF-NN: a neural-network-based implementation of the Goddard Profiling AlgorithmSensitivity analysis of DSD retrievals from polarimetric radar in stratiform rain based on the μ–Λ relationshipOn the use of high-frequency surface wave oceanographic research radars as bistatic single-frequency oblique ionospheric soundersHigh Resolution 3D Winds Derived from a Newly Developed WISSDOM Synthesis Scheme using Multiple Doppler Lidars and ObservationsDual-frequency spectral radar retrieval of snowfall microphysics: a physically constrained deep learning approachA statistically optimal analysis of systematic differences between Aeolus horizontal line-of-sight winds and NOAA's Global Forecast SystemHierarchical deconvolution for incoherent scatter radar dataAn alternative cloud index for estimating downwelling surface solar irradiance from various satellite imagers in the framework of a Heliosat-V methodERUO: a spectral processing routine for the Micro Rain Radar PRO (MRR-PRO)On the derivation of zonal and meridional wind components from Aeolus horizontal line-of-sight windQuantification of lightning-produced NOx over the Pyrenees and the Ebro Valley by using different TROPOMI-NO2 and cloud research productsSensitivity analysis of attenuation in convective rainfall at X-band frequency using the mountain reference techniqueA new scanning scheme and flexible retrieval for mean winds and gusts from Doppler lidar measurementsAirborne measurements of directional reflectivity over the Arctic marginal sea ice zoneHigh-resolution typhoon precipitation integrations using satellite infrared observations and multisource dataContinuous temperature soundings at the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with a ground-based radiometer considering the Zeeman effectRetrieval of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from satellite measurements: comparison of SIF between TanSat and OCO-2Identification of tropical cyclones via deep convolutional neural network based on satellite cloud imagesTime evolution of temperature profiles retrieved from 13 years of infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer (IASI) data using an artificial neural networkEmissivity retrievals with FORUM's end-to-end simulator: challenges and recommendationsDetecting wave features in Doppler radial velocity radar observationsRemote sensing of solar surface radiation – a reflection of concepts, applications and input data based on experience with the effective cloud albedoSnow microphysical retrieval from the NASA D3R radar during ICE-POP 2018Retrieval improvements for the ALADIN Airborne Demonstrator in support of the Aeolus wind product validationCloud-probability-based estimation of black-sky surface albedo from AVHRR dataA high-resolution monitoring approach of canopy urban heat island using a random forest model and multi-platform observationsDifferential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor by the High Altitude Lidar Observatory (HALO): retrieval framework and first resultsImproving thermodynamic profile retrievals from microwave radiometers by including radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) observationsCalibration of radar differential reflectivity using quasi-vertical profilesImprovement in algorithms for quality control of weather radar data (RADVOL-QC system)Support vector machine tropical wind speed retrieval in the presence of rain for Ku-band wind scatterometry
Simone Kotthaus, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Martine Collaud Coen, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Maria João Costa, Domenico Cimini, Ewan J. O'Connor, Maxime Hervo, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, María Jiménez-Portaz, Lucia Mona, Dominique Ruffieux, Anthony Illingworth, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 433–479,Short summary
Profile observations of the atmospheric boundary layer now allow for layer heights and characteristics to be derived at high temporal and vertical resolution. With novel high-density ground-based remote-sensing measurement networks emerging, horizontal information content is also increasing. This review summarises the capabilities and limitations of various sensors and retrieval algorithms which need to be considered during the harmonisation of data products for high-impact applications.
Michael Frech, Cornelius Hald, Maximilian Schaper, Bertram Lange, and Benjamin Rohrdantz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 295–309,Short summary
Weather radar data are the backbone of a lot of meteorological products. In order to obtain a better low-level coverage with radar data, additional systems have to be included. The frequency range in which radars are allowed to operate is limited. A potential radar-to-radar interference has to be avoided. The paper derives guidelines on how additional radars can be included into a C-band weather radar network and how interferences can be avoided.
Yeeun Lee, Myoung-Hwan Ahn, Mina Kang, and Mijin Eo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 153–168,Short summary
This study aims to verify that a partly defective hyperspectral measurement can be successfully reproduced with concise machine learning models coupled with principal component analysis. Evaluation of the approach is performed with radiances and retrieval results of ozone and cloud properties. Considering that GEMS is the first geostationary UV–VIS hyperspectral spectrometer, we expect our findings can be introduced further to similar geostationary environmental instruments to be launched soon.
Mathias Gergely, Maximilian Schaper, Matthias Toussaint, and Michael Frech
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7315–7335,Short summary
This study presents the new vertically pointing birdbath scan of the German C-band radar network, which provides high-resolution profiles of precipitating clouds above all DWD weather radars since the spring of 2021. Our AI-based postprocessing method for filtering and analyzing the recorded radar data offers a unique quantitative view into a wide range of precipitation events from snowfall over stratiform rain to intense frontal showers and will be used to complement DWD's operational services.
Kenneth A. Brown and Thomas G. Herges
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7211–7234,Short summary
The character of the airflow around and within wind farms has a significant impact on the energy output and longevity of the wind turbines in the farm. For both research and control purposes, accurate measurements of the wind speed are required, and these are often accomplished with remote sensing devices. This article pertains to a field experiment of a lidar mounted to a wind turbine and demonstrates three data post-processing techniques with efficacy at extracting useful airflow information.
Xavier Calbet, Cintia Carbajal Henken, Sergio DeSouza-Machado, Bomin Sun, and Tony Reale
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7105–7118,Short summary
Water vapor concentration in the atmosphere at small scales (< 6 km) is considered. The measurements show Gaussian random field behavior following Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence two-thirds law. These properties can be useful when estimating the water vapor variability within a given observed satellite scene or when different water vapor measurements have to be merged consistently.
Qiuyu Chen, Konstantin Ntokas, Björn Linder, Lukas Krasauskas, Manfred Ern, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Erich Becker, Martin Kaufmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7071–7103,Short summary
Observations of phase speed and direction spectra as well as zonal mean net gravity wave momentum flux are required to understand how gravity waves reach the mesosphere–lower thermosphere and how they there interact with background flow. To this end we propose flying two CubeSats, each deploying a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for limb observation of the airglow. End-to-end simulations demonstrate that individual gravity waves are retrieved faithfully for the expected instrument performance.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Ingrid Ingemarsson, Patrick Eriksson, Daniel A. Vila, and Alan J. P. Calheiros
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6907–6933,Short summary
We used methods from the field of artificial intelligence to train an algorithm to estimate rain from satellite observations. In contrast to other methods, our algorithm not only estimates rain, but also the uncertainty of the estimate. Using independent measurements from rain gauges, we show that our method performs better than currently available methods and that the provided uncertainty estimates are reliable. Our method makes satellite-based measurements of rain more accurate and reliable.
Maximilian Schaper, Michael Frech, David Michaelis, Cornelius Hald, and Benjamin Rohrdantz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6625–6642,Short summary
C-band weather radar data are commonly compromised by radio frequency interference (RFI) from external sources. It is not possible to separate a superimposed interference signal from the radar data. Therefore, the best course of action is to shut down RFI sources as quickly as possible. An automated RFI detection algorithm has been developed. Since its implementation, persistent RFI sources are eliminated much more quickly, while the number of short-lived RFI sources keeps steadily increasing.
Oliver Lux, Benjamin Witschas, Alexander Geiß, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Uwe Marksteiner, Stephan Rahm, Andreas Schäfler, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6467–6488,Short summary
We discuss the influence of different quality control schemes on the results of Aeolus wind product validation and present statistical tools for ensuring consistency and comparability among diverse validation studies with regard to the specific error characteristics of the Rayleigh-clear and Mie-cloudy winds. The developed methods are applied for the validation of Aeolus winds against an ECMWF model background and airborne wind lidar data from the Joint Aeolus Tropical Atlantic Campaign.
Alex T. Chartier, Thomas R. Hanley, and Daniel J. Emmons
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6387–6393,Short summary
This is a study of anomalous long-distance (>1000 km) radio propagation that was identified in United States Coast Guard monitors of automatic identification system (AIS) shipping transmissions at 162 MHz. Our results indicate this long-distance propagation is caused by dense sporadic E layers in the daytime ionosphere, which were observed by nearby ionosondes at the same time. This finding is surprising because it indicates these sporadic E layers may be far more dense than previously thought.
Johannes K. Nielsen, Hans Gleisner, Stig Syndergaard, and Kent B. Lauritsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6243–6256,Short summary
This paper provides a new way to estimate uncertainties and error correlations. The method is a generalization of a known method called the
three-cornered hat: Instead of calculating uncertainties from assumed knowledge about the observation method, uncertainties and error correlations are estimated statistically from tree independent observation series, measuring the same variable. The results are useful for future estimation of atmospheric-specific humidity from the bending of radio waves.
Fraser King, George Duffy, Lisa Milani, Christopher G. Fletcher, Claire Pettersen, and Kerstin Ebell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6035–6050,Short summary
Under warmer global temperatures, precipitation patterns are expected to shift substantially, with critical impact on the global water-energy budget. In this work, we develop a deep learning model for predicting snow and rain accumulation based on surface radar observations of the lower atmosphere. Our model demonstrates improved skill over traditional methods and provides new insights into the regions of the atmosphere that provide the most significant contributions to high model accuracy.
Matthias Aichinger-Rosenberger, Elmar Brockmann, Laura Crocetti, Benedikt Soja, and Gregor Moeller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5821–5839,Short summary
This study develops an innovative approach for the detection and prediction of foehn winds. The approach uses products generated from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) in combination with machine learning-based classification algorithms to detect and predict foehn winds at Altdorf, Switzerland. Results are encouraging and comparable to similar studies using meteorological data, which might qualify the method as an additional tool for short-term foehn forecasting in the future.
Gunter Stober, Alan Liu, Alexander Kozlovsky, Zishun Qiao, Ales Kuchar, Christoph Jacobi, Chris Meek, Diego Janches, Guiping Liu, Masaki Tsutsumi, Njål Gulbrandsen, Satonori Nozawa, Mark Lester, Evgenia Belova, Johan Kero, and Nicholas Mitchell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5769–5792,Short summary
Precise and accurate measurements of vertical winds at the mesosphere and lower thermosphere are rare. Although meteor radars have been used for decades to observe horizontal winds, their ability to derive reliable vertical wind measurements was always questioned. In this article, we provide mathematical concepts to retrieve mathematically and physically consistent solutions, which are compared to the state-of-the-art non-hydrostatic model UA-ICON.
Benjamin Schumacher, Marwan Katurji, Jiawei Zhang, Peyman Zawar-Reza, Benjamin Adams, and Matthias Zeeman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5681–5700,Short summary
This investigation presents adaptive thermal image velocimetry (A-TIV), a newly developed algorithm to spatially measure near-surface atmospheric velocities using an infrared camera mounted on uncrewed aerial vehicles. A validation and accuracy assessment of the retrieved velocity fields shows the successful application of the algorithm over short-cut grass and turf surfaces in dry conditions. This provides new opportunities for atmospheric scientists to study surface–atmosphere interactions.
Laura M. Tomkins, Sandra E. Yuter, Matthew A. Miller, and Luke R. Allen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5515–5525,Short summary
Locally higher radar reflectivity values in winter storms can mean more snowfall or a transition from snow to mixtures of snow, partially melted snow, and/or rain. We use the correlation coefficient to de-emphasize regions of mixed precipitation. Visual muting is valuable for analyzing and monitoring evolving weather conditions during winter storm events.
Willem J. Marais and Matthew Hayman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5159–5180,Short summary
For atmospheric science and weather prediction, it is important to make water vapor measurements in real time. A low-cost lidar instrument has been developed by Montana State University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. We developed an advanced signal-processing method to extend the scientific capability of the lidar instrument. With the new method we show that the maximum altitude at which the MPD can make water vapor measurements can be extended up to 8 km.
Mathieu Ratynski, Sergey Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, Robin Wing, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Yann Hello, and Philippe Keckhut
Aeolus is the first space-borne wind lidar providing global wind measurements since 2018. This study offers a comprehensive of analysis of Aeolus instrument performance, using ground-based wind lidars and meteorological radiosondes, at tropical and mid-latitudes sites. The analysis allows assessing the long-term evolution of the satellite's performance for more than 3 years. The results will help further elaborate the understanding of the error sources and the behavior of the Doppler wind lidar.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Paula J. Brown, Christian D. Kummerow, Patrick Eriksson, and Teodor Norrestad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5033–5060,Short summary
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission is an international satellite mission providing regular global rain measurements. We present two newly developed machine-learning-based implementations of one of the algorithms responsible for turning the satellite observations into rain measurements. We show that replacing the current algorithm with a neural network improves the accuracy of the measurements. A neural network that also makes use of spatial information unlocks further improvements.
Christos Gatidis, Marc Schleiss, and Christine Unal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4951–4969,Short summary
Knowledge of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) is crucial for understanding rainfall microphysics and quantifying uncertainty in quantitative precipitation estimates. In this study a general overview of the DSD retrieval approach from a polarimetric radar is discussed, highlighting sensitivity to potential sources of errors, either directly linked to the radar measurements or indirectly through the critical modeling assumptions behind the method such as the shape–size (μ–Λ) relationship.
Stephen R. Kaeppler, Ethan S. Miller, Daniel Cole, and Teresa Updyke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4531–4545,Short summary
This investigation demonstrates how useful ionospheric parameters can be extracted from existing high-frequency radars that are used for oceanographic research. The methodology presented can be used by scientists and radio amateurs to understand ionospheric dynamics.
Chia-Lun Tsai, Kwonil Kim, Yu-Chieng Liou, and Gyuwon Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Since the winds in clear-air conditions usually play an important role in the initiations of various weather systems and phenomena. A modified WISSDOM synthesis scheme was developed to derive high-quality and high-spatial resolution of 3D winds under clear-air conditions. The performance and accuracy of derived 3D winds from this newly developed scheme were be well evaluated associated with an extreme strong wind event over complex terrain in Pyeongchang, South Korea.
Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, Gionata Ghiggi, Louis Jaffeux, Audrey Martini, Nicolas Viltard, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Better understanding and modeling snowfall properties and processes is relevant to many fields, ranging from weather forecasting to aircraft safety. Remote sensing, and especially weather radars, can be used to gain insights into the microphysics of snowfall. In this work, we propose a new method to retrieve snowfall properties from radar measurements. It relies on an original deep learning framework, which is constrained with knowledge of the underlying physics i.e. electromagnetic scattering.
Hui Liu, Kevin Garrett, Kayo Ide, Ross N. Hoffman, and Katherine E. Lukens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3925–3940,Short summary
A total least squares (TLS) regression is used to optimally estimate linear speed-dependent biases between Aeolus Level-2B winds and short-term (6 h) forecasts of NOAA’s FV3GFS. The winds for 1–7 September 2019 are examined. Clear speed-dependent biases for both Mie and Rayleigh winds are found, particularly in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Use of the TLS correction improves the forecast of the 26–28 November 2019 winter storm over the USA.
Snizhana Ross, Arttu Arjas, Ilkka I. Virtanen, Mikko J. Sillanpää, Lassi Roininen, and Andreas Hauptmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3843–3857,Short summary
Radar measurements of thermal fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere produce weak signals, and tuning to specific altitudes results in suboptimal resolution for other regions, making an accurate analysis of these changes difficult. A novel approach to improve the resolution and remove measurement noise is considered. The method can capture variable characteristics, making it ideal for the study of a large range of data. Synthetically generated examples and two measured datasets were considered.
Benoît Tournadre, Benoît Gschwind, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Xuemei Chen, Rodrigo Amaro E Silva, and Philippe Blanc
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3683–3704,Short summary
Solar radiation received by the Earth's surface is valuable information for various fields like the photovoltaic industry or climate research. Pictures taken from satellites can be used to estimate the solar radiation from cloud reflectivity. Two issues for a good estimation are different instrumentations and orbits. We modify a widely used method that is today only used on geostationary satellites, so it can be applied on instruments on different orbits and with different sensitivities.
Alfonso Ferrone, Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3569–3592,Short summary
The Micro Rain Radar PRO (MRR-PRO) is a meteorological radar, with a relevant set of features for deployment in remote locations. We developed an algorithm, named ERUO, for the processing of its measurements of snowfall. The algorithm addresses typical issues of the raw spectral data, such as interference lines, but also improves the quality and sensitivity of the radar variables. ERUO has been evaluated over four different datasets collected in Antarctica and in the Swiss Jura.
Isabell Krisch, Neil P. Hindley, Oliver Reitebuch, and Corwin J. Wright
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3465–3479,Short summary
The Aeolus satellite measures global height resolved profiles of wind along a certain line-of-sight. However, for atmospheric dynamics research, wind measurements along the three cardinal axes are most useful. This paper presents methods to convert the measurements into zonal and meridional wind components. By combining the measurements during ascending and descending orbits, we achieve good derivation of zonal wind (equatorward of 80° latitude) and meridional wind (poleward of 70° latitude).
Francisco J. Pérez-Invernón, Heidi Huntrieser, Thilo Erbertseder, Diego Loyola, Pieter Valks, Song Liu, Dale J. Allen, Kenneth E. Pickering, Eric J. Bucsela, Patrick Jöckel, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, Sergio Soler, Francisco J. Gordillo-Vázquez, and Jeff Lapierre
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3329–3351,Short summary
Lightning, one of the major sources of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, contributes to the tropospheric concentration of ozone and to the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. In this work, we contribute to improving the estimation of lightning-produced nitrogen oxides in the Ebro Valley and the Pyrenees by using two different TROPOMI products and comparing the results.
Guy Delrieu, Anil Kumar Khanal, Frédéric Cazenave, and Brice Boudevillain
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3297–3314,Short summary
The RadAlp experiment aims at improving quantitative precipitation estimation in the Alps thanks to X-band polarimetric radars and in situ measurements deployed in Grenoble, France. We revisit the physics of propagation and attenuation of microwaves in rain. We perform a generalized sensitivity analysis in order to establish useful parameterization for attenuation corrections. Originality lies in the use of otherwise undesired mountain returns for constraining the considered physical model.
Julian Steinheuer, Carola Detring, Frank Beyrich, Ulrich Löhnert, Petra Friederichs, and Stephanie Fiedler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3243–3260,Short summary
Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) allow the determination of wind profiles with high vertical resolution and thus provide an alternative to meteorological towers. We address the question of whether wind gusts can be derived since they are short-lived phenomena. Therefore, we compare different DWL configurations and develop a new method applicable to all of them. A fast continuous scanning mode that completes a full observation cycle within 3.4 s is found to be the best-performing configuration.
Sebastian Becker, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Tim Carlsen, Michael Schäfer, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2939–2953,Short summary
Airborne radiation measurements are used to characterize the solar directional reflection of a mixture of Arctic sea ice and open-ocean surfaces in the transition zone between both surface types. The mixture reveals reflection properties of both surface types. It is shown that the directional reflection of the mixture can be reconstructed from the directional reflection of the individual surfaces, accounting for the special conditions present in the transition zone.
You Zhao, Chao Liu, Di Di, Ziqiang Ma, and Shihao Tang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2791–2805,Short summary
A typhoon is a high-impact atmospheric phenomenon that causes most significant socioeconomic damage, and its precipitation observation is always needed for typhoon characteristics and disaster prevention. This study developed a typhoon precipitation fusion method to combine observations from satellite radiometers, rain gauges and reanalysis to provide much improved typhoon precipitation datasets.
Witali Krochin, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, David Kuhl, Axel Murk, and Gunter Stober
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2231–2249,Short summary
This study leverages atmospheric temperature measurements performed with a ground-based radiometer making use of data that was collected during a 4-year observational campaign applying a new retrieval algorithm that improves the maximal altitude range from 45 to 55 km. The measurements are validated against two independent data sets, MERRA2 reanalysis data and the meteorological analysis of NAVGEM-HA.
Lu Yao, Yi Liu, Dongxu Yang, Zhaonan Cai, Jing Wang, Chao Lin, Naimeng Lu, Daren Lyu, Longfei Tian, Maohua Wang, Zengshan Yin, Yuquan Zheng, and Sisi Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2125–2137,Short summary
A physics-based SIF retrieval algorithm, IAPCAS/SIF, is introduced and applied to OCO-2 and TanSat measurements. The strong linear relationship between OCO-2 SIF retrieved by IAPCAS/SIF and the official product indicates the algorithm's reliability. The good consistency in the spatiotemporal patterns and magnitude of the OCO-2 and TanSat SIF products suggests that the combinative usage of multi-satellite products has potential and that such work would contribute to further research.
Biao Tong, Xiangfei Sun, Jiyang Fu, Yuncheng He, and Pakwai Chan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1829–1848,Short summary
In recent years, there has been numerous research on tropical cyclone (TC) observation based on satellite cloud images (SCIs), but most methods are limited by low efficiency and subjectivity. To overcome subjectivity and improve efficiency of traditional methods, this paper uses deep learning technology to do further research on fingerprint identification of TCs. Results provide an automatic and objective method to distinguish TCs from SCIs and are convenient for subsequent research.
Marie Bouillon, Sarah Safieddine, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Filipe Aires, Victor Pellet, Olivier Lezeaux, Noëlle A. Scott, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1779–1793,Short summary
The IASI instruments have been observing Earth since 2007. We use a neural network to retrieve atmospheric temperatures. This new temperature data record is validated against other datasets and shows good agreement. We use this new dataset to compute trends over the 2008–2020 period. We found a warming of the troposphere, more important at the poles. In the stratosphere, we found that temperatures decrease everywhere except at the South Pole. The cooling is more pronounced at the South pole.
Maya Ben-Yami, Hilke Oetjen, Helen Brindley, William Cossich, Dulce Lajas, Tiziano Maestri, Davide Magurno, Piera Raspollini, Luca Sgheri, and Laura Warwick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1755–1777,Short summary
Spectral emissivity is a key property of the Earth's surface. Few measurements exist in the far-infrared, despite recent work showing that its contribution is important for accurate modelling of global climate. In preparation for ESA’s EE9 FORUM mission (launch in 2026), this study takes the first steps towards the development of an operational emissivity retrieval for FORUM by investigating the sensitivity of the emissivity product to different physical and operational parameters.
Matthew A. Miller, Sandra E. Yuter, Nicole P. Hoban, Laura M. Tomkins, and Brian A. Colle
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1689–1702,Short summary
Apparent waves in the atmosphere and similar features in storm winds can be detected by taking the difference between successive Doppler weather radar scans measuring radar-relative storm air motions. Applying image filtering to the difference data better isolates the detected signal. This technique is a useful tool in weather research and forecasting since such waves can trigger or enhance precipitation.
Richard Müller and Uwe Pfeifroth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1537–1561,Short summary
The great works of physics teach us that a central paradigm of science should be to make methods and theories as easy as possible and as complex as needed. This paper provides a brief review of remote sensing of solar surface irradiance based on this paradigm.
S. Joseph Munchak, Robert S. Schrom, Charles N. Helms, and Ali Tokay
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1439–1464,Short summary
The ability to measure snowfall with weather radar has greatly advanced with the development of techniques that utilize dual-polarization measurements, which provide information about the snow particle shape and orientation, and multi-frequency measurements, which provide information about size and density. This study combines these techniques with the NASA D3R radar, which provides dual-frequency polarimetric measurements, with data that were observed during the 2018 Winter Olympics.
Oliver Lux, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Uwe Marksteiner, Benjamin Witschas, Stephan Rahm, Alexander Geiß, Andreas Schäfler, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1303–1331,Short summary
The article discusses modifications in the wind retrieval of the ALADIN Airborne Demonstrator (A2D) – one of the key instruments for the validation of Aeolus. Thanks to the retrieval refinements, which are demonstrated in the context of two airborne campaigns in 2019, the systematic and random wind errors of the A2D were significantly reduced, thereby enhancing its validation capabilities. Finally, wind comparisons between A2D and Aeolus for the validation of the satellite data are presented.
Terhikki Manninen, Emmihenna Jääskeläinen, Niilo Siljamo, Aku Riihelä, and Karl-Göran Karlsson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 879–893,Short summary
A new method for cloud-correcting observations of surface albedo is presented for AVHRR data. Instead of a binary cloud mask, it applies cloud probability values smaller than 20% of the A3 edition of the CLARA (CM SAF cLoud, Albedo and surface Radiation dataset from AVHRR data) record provided by the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) project of EUMETSAT. According to simulations, the 90% quantile was 1.1% for the absolute albedo error and 2.2% for the relative error.
Shihan Chen, Yuanjian Yang, Fei Deng, Yanhao Zhang, Duanyang Liu, Chao Liu, and Zhiqiu Gao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 735–756,Short summary
This paper proposes a method for evaluating canopy UHI intensity (CUHII) at high resolution by using remote sensing data and machine learning with a random forest (RF) model. The spatial distribution of CUHII was evaluated at 30 m resolution based on the output of the RF model. The present RF model framework for real-time monitoring and assessment of high-resolution CUHII provides scientific support for studying the changes and causes of CUHII.
Brian J. Carroll, Amin R. Nehrir, Susan A. Kooi, James E. Collins, Rory A. Barton-Grimley, Anthony Notari, David B. Harper, and Joseph Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 605–626,Short summary
HALO is a recently developed lidar system that demonstrates new technologies and advanced algorithms for profiling water vapor as well as aerosol and cloud properties. The high-resolution, high-accuracy measurements have unique advantages within the suite of atmospheric instrumentation, such as directly trading water vapor measurement resolution for precision. This paper provides the methodology and first water vapor results, showing agreement with in situ and spaceborne sounder measurements.
Irina V. Djalalova, David D. Turner, Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak, James Duncan, Bianca Adler, and Daniel Gottas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 521–537,Short summary
In this paper we investigate the synergy obtained by combining active (radio acoustic sounding system – RASS) and passive (microwave radiometer) remote sensing observations to obtain temperature vertical profiles through a radiative transfer model. Inclusion of the RASS observations leads to more accurate temperature profiles from the surface to 5 km above ground, well above the maximum height of the RASS observations themselves (2000 m), when compared to the microwave radiometer used alone.
Daniel Sanchez-Rivas and Miguel A. Rico-Ramirez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 503–520,Short summary
In this work, we review the use of quasi-vertical profiles for monitoring the calibration of the radar differential reflectivity ZDR. We validate the proposed method by comparing its results against the traditional approach based on measurements taken at 90°; we observed good agreement as the errors are within 0.2 dB. Additionally, we compare the results of the proposed method with ZDR derived from disdrometers; the errors are reasonable considering factors discussed in the paper.
Katarzyna Ośródka and Jan Szturc
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 261–277,Short summary
Weather radar data are used in weather monitoring and forecasting, but they are affected by numerous errors and require advanced corrections. Different systems are designed and implemented to suit specific local conditions, like the RADVOL-QC system. The radar errors are divided into several groups: disturbance by non-meteorological echoes (from the mountains, RLAN signals, wind turbines, etc.), beam blockage, attenuation, etc. Each of them has different properties and is corrected differently.
Xingou Xu and Ad Stoffelen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7435–7451,Short summary
The support vector machine can effectively represent the increasing effect of rain affecting wind speeds. This research provides a correction of deviations that are skew- to Gaussian-like features caused by rain in Ku-band scatterometer wind. It demonstrates the effectiveness of a machine learning method when used based on elaborate analysis of the model establishment and result validation procedures. The corrected winds provide information previously lacking, which is vital for nowcasting.
Anthes, R. A.: Exploring Earth's atmosphere with radio occultation: contributions to weather, climate and space weather, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1077–1103, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-1077-2011, 2011.
Anthes, R. A., Bernhardt, P. A., Chen, Y., Cucurull, L., Dymond, K. F., Ector, D., Healy, S. B., Ho, S.-P., Hunt, D. C., Kuo, Y.-H., Liu, H., Manning, K., McCormick, C., Meehan, T. K., Randel, W. J., Rocken, C., Schreiner, W. S., Sokolovskiy, S. V., Syndergaard, S., Thompson, D. C., Trenberth, K. E., Wee, T.-K., Yen, N. L., and Zeng, Z.: The COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 mission: Early results, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 89, 313–333, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-89-3-313, 2008.
Ao, C. O., Hajj, G. A., Meehan, T. K., Dong, D., Iijima, B. A., Mannucci, A. J., and Kursinski, E. R.: Rising and setting GPS occultations by the use of open-loop tracking, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D04101, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010483, 2009.
Bai, W., Liu, C., Meng, X., Sun, Y., Kirchengast, G., Du, Q., Wang, X., Yang, G., Liao, M., Yang, Z., Zhao, D., Xia, J., Cai, Y., Liu, L., and Wang, D.: Evaluation of atmospheric profiles derived from single- and zero-difference excess phase processing of BeiDou System radio occultation data of the FY-3C GNOS mission, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2017-177, in review, 2017.
Bates, J. J. and Privette, J. L.: A maturity model for assessing the completeness of climate data records, Eos, 93, 441–441, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012EO440006, 2012.
Beyerle, G., Schmidt, T., Michalak, G., Heise, S., Wickert, J., and Reigber, C.: GPS radio occultation with GRACE: Atmospheric profiling utilizing the zero difference technique, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L13806, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023109, 2005.
Cucurull, L. and Derber, J. C.: Operational implementation of COSMIC observations into NCEP's global data assimilation system, Weather Forecast., 23, 702–711, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008WAF2007070.1, 2008.
Danzer, J., Scherllin-Pirscher, B., and Foelsche, U.: Systematic residual ionospheric errors in radio occultation data and a potential way to minimize them, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2169–2179, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-2169-2013, 2013.
de la Beaujardière, O., Jeong, L., Basu, B., Basu, S., Beach, T., Bernhardt, P., Burke, W., Groves, K., Heelis, R., Holzworth, R., Huang, C., Hunton, D., Kelley, M., Pfaff, R., Retterer, J., Rich, F., Starks, M., Straus, P., and Valladares, C.: C/NOFS: a mission to forecast scintillations, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phy., 66, 1573–1591, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2004.07.030, 2004.
European Centre for Medium-RangeWeather Forecasts (ECMWF): ECMWF analyses and short-range forecasts, available at: https://www.ecmwf.int/en/forecasts/datasets, last access: 28 February 2017.
Foelsche, U., Borsche, M., Steiner, A. K., Gobiet, A., Pirscher, B., Kirchengast, G., Wickert, J., and Schmidt, T.: Observing upper troposphere–lower stratosphere climate with radio occultation data from the CHAMP satellite, Clim. Dynam., 31, 49–65, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-007-0337-7, 2008.
Foelsche, U., Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Ladstädter, F., Steiner, A. K., and Kirchengast, G.: Refractivity and temperature climate records from multiple radio occultation satellites consistent within 0.05 %, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2007–2018, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-2007-2011, 2011.
GCOS: Implementation plan for the global observing system for climate in support of the UNFCCC (2010 update), GCOS-138, update to GCOS-92, WMO-TD/No. 1523, WMO, Geneva, available at: http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/Publications/gcos-138.pdf, 2010a.
GCOS: Guideline for the Generation of Datasets and Products Meeting GCOS Requirements, GCOS-143, update to GCOS-128, WMO-TD/No. 1530, WMO, Geneva, available at: http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/Publications/gcos-143.pdf, 2010b.
GCOS: Systematic Observation Requirements for Satellite-based Products for Climate (2011 Update), GCOS-154, supplement to GCOS-138, update to GCOS-107, WMO, Geneva, available at: http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/Publications/gcos-154.pdf, 2011.
Gobiet, A. and Kirchengast, G.: Advancements of Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation retrieval in the upper stratosphere for optimal climate monitoring utility, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D24110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005117, 2004.
Gobiet, A., Kirchengast, G., Manney, G. L., Borsche, M., Retscher, C., and Stiller, G.: Retrieval of temperature profiles from CHAMP for climate monitoring: intercomparison with Envisat MIPAS and GOMOS and different atmospheric analyses, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 3519–3536, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-3519-2007, 2007.
Gorbunov, M. E.: Canonical transform method for processing radio occultation data in the lower troposphere, Radio Sci., 37, 1076, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000RS002592, 2002.
Gorbunov, M. E. and Lauritsen, K. B.: Analysis of wave fields by Fourier integral operators and their application for radio occultations, Radio Sci., 39, RS4010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003RS002971, 2004.
Hajj, G. A., Ao, C. O., Iijima, B. A., Kuang, D., Kursinski, E. R., Mannucci, A. J., Meehan, T. K., Romans, L. J., de la Torre Juarez, M., and Yunck, T. P.: CHAMP and SAC-C atmospheric occultation results and intercomparisons, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D06109, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003909, 2004.
Healy, S. B. and Thépaut, J. N.: Assimilation experiments with CHAMP GPS radio occultation measurements, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132, 605–623, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.04.182, 2006.
Ho, S.-P., Hunt, D., Steiner, A. K., Mannucci, A. J., Kirchengast, G., Gleisner, H., Heise, S., von Engeln, A., Marquardt, C., Sokolovskiy, S., Schreiner, W., Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Ao, C., Wickert, J., Syndergaard, S., Lauritsen, K., Leroy, S., Kursinski, E. R., Kuo, Y.-H., Foelsche, U., Schmidt, T., and Gorbunov, M.: Reproducibility of GPS radio occultation data for climate monitoring: Profile-to-profile inter-comparison of CHAMP climate records 2002 to 2008 from six data centers, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D18111, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017665, 2012.
Kursinski, E. R., Hajj, G. A., Schofield, J. T., Linfield, R. P., and Hardy, K. R.: Observing Earth's atmosphere with radio occultation measurements using the Global Positioning System, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 23429–23465, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JD01569, 1997.
Leroy, S. S., Dykema, J. A., and Anderson, J. G.: Climate benchmarking using GNSS occultation, in: Atmosphere and Climate: Studies by Occultation Methods, edited by: Foelsche, U., Kirchengast, G., and Steiner, A. K., Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 287–301, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-34121-8_24, 2006.
Li, Y., Kirchengast, G., Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Norman, R., Yuan, Y. B., Fritzer, J., Schwaerz, M., and Zhang, K.: Dynamic statistical optimization of GNSS radio occultation bending angles: advanced algorithm and performance analysis, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3447–3465, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-3447-2015, 2015.
Liao, M., Zhang, P., Yang, G.-L., Bi, Y.-M., Liu, Y., Bai, W.-H., Meng, X.-G., Du, Q.-F., and Sun, Y.-Q.: Preliminary validation of the refractivity from the new radio occultation sounder GNOS/FY-3C, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 781–792, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-781-2016, 2016.
Liu, C. L., Kirchengast, G., Zhang, K., Norman, R., Li, Y., Zhang, S. C., Fritzer, J., Schwaerz, M., Wu, S. Q., and Tan, Z. X.: Quantifying residual ionospheric errors in GNSS radio occultation bending angles based on ensembles of profiles from end-to-end simulations, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2999–3019, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-2999-2015, 2015.
Luntama, J.-P., Kirchengast, G., Borsche, M., Foelsche, U., Steiner, A., Healy, S. B., von Engeln, A., O'Clerigh, E., and Marquardt, C.: Prospects of the EPS GRAS mission for operational atmospheric applications, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 89, 1863–1875, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008BAMS2399.1, 2008.
Melbourne, W. G., Davis, E. S., Duncan, C. B., Hajj, G. A., Hardy, K. R., Kursinski, E. R., Meehan, T. K., Young, L. E., and Yunck, T. P.: The application of spaceborne GPS to atmospheric limb sounding and global change monitoring, JPL Publication No. 94-18, 147 pp., 1994.
Ohring, G., Wielicki, B., Spencer, R., Emery, B., and Datla, R.: Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change: Report of a Workshop, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 1303–1313, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-86-9-1303, 2005.
Pirscher, B.: Multi-satellite climatologies of fundamental atmospheric variables from radio occultation and their validation, PhD thesis, Wegener Center Verlag Graz, Austria, Sci. Rep. 33-2010, 2010.
Pirscher, B., Foelsche, U., Borsche, M., Kirchengast, G., and Kuo, Y.-H.: Analysis of migrating diurnal tides detected in FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC temperature data, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D14108, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013008, 2010.
Rieder, M. J. and Kirchengast, G.: Error analysis and characterization of atmospheric profiles retrieved from GNSS occultation data, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 31755–31770, 2001.
Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Kirchengast, G., Steiner, A. K., Kuo, Y.-H., and Foelsche, U.: Quantifying uncertainty in climatological fields from GPS radio occultation: an empirical-analytical error model, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2019–2034, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-2019-2011, 2011a.
Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Steiner, A. K., Kirchengast, G., Kuo, Y.-H., and Foelsche, U.: Empirical analysis and modeling of errors of atmospheric profiles from GPS radio occultation, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1875–1890, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-1875-2011, 2011b.
Schreiner, W.: Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate/FORMOSAT-3 (COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3): Ten Years of Science Highlights, Presentation at the OPAC-IROWG 2016 Workshop, Leibnitz, Austria, 8–14 September, 2016.
Schreiner, W., Rocken, C., Sokolovskiy, S., Syndergaard, S., and Hunt, D.: Estimates of the precision of GPS radio occultations from the COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 mission, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L04808, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027557, 2007.
Schreiner, W., Kuo, Y.-H., Ho, S.-P., Sokolovskiy, S., and Hunt, D.: Use of GNSS Radio Occultation data for Climate Applications, World Climate Research Program Conference, Denver, Colorado, USA, 24–28 October 2011, available at: http://www.cosmic.ucar.edu/groupAct/references/WCRP-2011-Schreiner-Final.pdf,2011.
Schreiner, W. S., Rocken, C., Sokolovskiy, S., and Hunt, D.: Quality assessment of COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 GPS radio occultation data derived from single- and double-difference atmospheric excess phase processing, GPS Solut., 14, 13–22, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10291-009-0132-5, 2010.
Schwarz, J.: Potential Systematic Errors in Radio Occultation Climatologies due to Irregular Distributions of Apparent Outliers in the Retrieval Process, Wegener Center Verlag Graz, Austria, Sci. Rep. No. 54-2013, 2013.
Schwarz, J. C., Kirchengast, G., and Schwaerz, M.: Integrating uncertainty propagation in GNSS radio occultation retrieval: from bending angle to dry-air atmospheric profiles, Earth Space Sci., 4, 200–228, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016EA000234, 2017.
Schwärz, M., Kirchengast, G., Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Schwarz, J., Ladstädter, F., and Angerer, B.: Multi-Mission Validation by Satellite Radio Occultation – Extension Project, Final report for ESA/ESRIN No. 01/2016, WEGC, University of Graz, Austria, 2016.
Smith, E. and Weintraub, S.: The constants in the equation for atmospheric refractive index at radio frequencies, Proc. IRE, 41, 1035–1037, 1953.
Steiner, A. K. and Kirchengast, G.: Error analysis of GNSS radio occultation data based on ensembles of profiles from end-to-end simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15307, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005251, 2005.
Steiner, A. K., Lackner, B. C., Ladstädter, F., Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Foelsche, U., and Kirchengast, G.: GPS radio occultation for climate monitoring and change detection, Radio Sci., 46, RS0D24, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010RS004614, 2011.
Steiner, A. K., Hunt, D., Ho, S.-P., Kirchengast, G., Mannucci, A. J., Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Gleisner, H., von Engeln, A., Schmidt, T., Ao, C., Leroy, S. S., Kursinski, E. R., Foelsche, U., Gorbunov, M., Heise, S., Kuo, Y.-H., Lauritsen, K. B., Marquardt, C., Rocken, C., Schreiner, W., Sokolovskiy, S., Syndergaard, S., and Wickert, J.: Quantification of structural uncertainty in climate data records from GPS radio occultation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1469–1484, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-1469-2013, 2013.
University Corporation of Atmospheric Research/COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center (UCAR/CDAAC): Atmospheric excess phase and orbit data, available at: http://cdaac-www.cosmic.ucar.edu/cdaac/products.html, last access: 28 February 2017.
Vorob'ev, V. V. and Krasil'nikova, T. G.: Estimation of the accuracy of the atmospheric refractive index recovery from Doppler shift measurements at frequencies used in the NAVSTAR system, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 29, 602–609, 1994.
Wickert, J., Reigber, C., Beyerle, G., König, R., Marquardt, C., Schmidt, T., Grunwaldt, L., Galas, R., Meehan, T., Melbourne, W., and Hocke, K.: Atmosphere sounding by GPS radio occultation: First results from CHAMP, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3263–3266, 2001.
Wickert, J., Beyerle, G., König, R., Heise, S., Grunwaldt, L., Michalak, G., Reigber, Ch., and Schmidt, T.: GPS radio occultation with CHAMP and GRACE: A first look at a new and promising satellite configuration for global atmospheric sounding, Ann. Geophys., 23, 653-658, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-23-653-2005, 2005.
We present a detailed analysis of the latest Wegener Center GPS radio occultation reprocessing (OPSv5.6) output. Knowledge of differences in data quality, as well as of data consistency, is essential when combining data from different missions to a long-term climate record. We compare quality aspects of the various processed satellite missions and present satellite-dependent variations. Temperature data from various satellites are found to be highly consistent within 8 to 25 km.
We present a detailed analysis of the latest Wegener Center GPS radio occultation reprocessing...