Articles | Volume 15, issue 15
02 Aug 2022
Research article | 02 Aug 2022
Improvements of a low-cost CO2 commercial nondispersive near-infrared (NDIR) sensor for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) atmospheric mapping applications
Yunsong Liu et al.
No articles found.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 789–807,Short summary
The large uncertainties in OH simulated by atmospheric chemistry models hinder accurate estimates of CH4 chemical loss through the bottom-up method. This study presents a new approach based on OH precursor observations and a chemical box model to improve the tropospheric OH distributions simulated by atmospheric chemistry models. Through this approach, both the global OH burden and the corresponding methane chemical loss reach consistency with the top-down method based on MCF inversions.
Sophie Wittig, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Marielle Saunois, Joël Thanwerdas, Adrien Martinez, Jean-Daniel Paris, Tochinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, Douglas E. J. Worthy, Xin Lan, Rona L. Thompson, Espen Sollum, and Michael Arshinov
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Here, an inverse modeling approach is applied to estimate CH4 sources and sinks in the Arctic from 2008 to 2019. We study the magnitude, seasonal patterns and trends from different sources during recent years. We also assess how the current observation network helps constraining fluxes. We find that constraints are only significant for North America and in a lesser extent West Siberia, where the observation network is relatively dense. We find not clear trend over the period of inversion.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Isabelle Pison, Didier Hauglustaine, Antoine Berchet, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15489–15508,Short summary
Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations have been rising since 2007, resulting from an imbalance between CH4 sources and sinks. The CH4 budget is generally estimated through top-down approaches using CH4 and δ13C(CH4) observations as constraints. The oxidation by chlorine (Cl) contributes little to the total oxidation of CH4 but strongly influences δ13C(CH4). Here, we compare multiple recent Cl fields and quantify the influence of Cl concentrations on CH4, δ13C(CH4), and CH4 budget estimates.
Kun Qu, Xuesong Wang, Xuhui Cai, Yu Yan, Xipeng Jin, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jin Shen, Teng Xiao, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Basic understandings of ozone processes, especially transport and chemistry, are essential to reduce ozone pollution, but studies often have different views on their relative importance. To explore the causes, we developed a tool based on the WRF-CMAQ modelling results to quantify their contributions in the ozone mass and concentration budgets, and found that the difference between two budgets well explains these distinct views. Future studies should be careful with budget-type selections.
Adil Shah, Olivier Laurent, Luc Lienhardt, Grégoire Broquet, Rodrigo Rivera Martinez, Elisa Allegrini, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
As methane (CH4) contributes towards global warming, more CH4 measurements are required to better characterise source emissions. Hence, we tested a cheap CH4 sensor, for 338 days of landfill sampling. We derived an excellent CH4 response model in a stable environment. However, different types of air with the same CH4 level had diverse sensor responses. We characterised temperature and water vapour response but could not replicate field sampling. Thus, other species may cause sensor interactions.
Pantelis Kiriakidis, Antonis Gkikas, George Papangelis, Theodoros Christoudias, Jonilda Kushta, Emmanouil Proestakis, Anna Kampouri, Eleni Marinou, Eleni Drakaki, Angela Benedetti, Michael Rennie, Christian Retscher, Anne Grete Straume, Alexandru Dandocsi, Jean Sciare, and Vasilis Amiridis
With the launch of the Aeolus satellite higher accuracy wind products became available. The research was carried out to validate the assimilated wind products by testing their effect on the WRF-Chem model predictive ability of dust processes. This was carried out for the East Mediterranean and Middle East region for two, two-month long periods in autumn and spring 2020. The use of the assimilated products improved the dust forecasts both quantitatively and qualitatively for the autumn season.
Aliki Christodoulou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maximillien Desservettaz, Michael Pikridas, Elie Bimenyimana, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, Philippe Goloub, Konstantina Oikonomou, Roland Sarda-Estève, Chrysanthos Savvides, Charbel Afif, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stéphane Sauvage, and Jean Sciare
Our study presents, for the first time, a detailed source identification of aerosols at an urban background site in Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean); a region strongly impacted by climate change and air pollution. Here we identify unexpected high contribution of long-range transported pollution from fossil fuel sources in the Middle East, highlighting an urgent need to further characterize these fast-growing emissions and their impacts on regional atmospheric composition, climate, and health.
Clément Narbaud, Jean-Daniel Paris, Sophie Wittig, Antoine Berchet, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Nédelec, Boris D. Belan, Mikhail Y. Arshinov, Sergei B. Belan, Denis Davydov, Alexander Fofonov, and Artem Kozlov
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We reported aircraft measurements of methane and other greenhouse gases concentrations across Siberia and used a numerical model to determine the contributions of the different methane sources. We investigated 47 vertical profiles to better characterize methane emissions in this imperfectly known region that has a serious impact on global carbon budget. Methane emissions in western regions were mostly induced by human activities, while emissions in the east were dominated by natural sources.
Joshua L. Laughner, Sébastien Roche, Matthäus Kiel, Geoffrey C. Toon, Debra Wunch, Bianca C. Baier, Sébastien Biraud, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Thomas Laemmel, Kathryn McKain, Pierre-Yves Quéhé, Constantina Rousogenous, Britton B. Stephens, Kaley Walker, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Observations using sunlight to measure surface-to-space total column of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere need an initial guess of the vertical distribution of those gases to start from. We have developed an approach to provide those initial guess profiles that uses readily available meteorological data as input. This lets us make these guesses without simulating them with a global model. The profiles generated this way match independent observations well.
Charlotte M. Beall, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Tobias Köneman, Michael Pikridas, Frank Drewnick, Hartwig Harder, Christopher Pöhlker, Jos Lelieveld, Bettina Weber, Minas Iakovides, Roman Prokeš, Jean Sciare, Meinrat O. Andreae, M. Dale Stokes, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12607–12627,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are rare aerosols that can trigger ice formation in clouds and affect climate-relevant cloud properties such as phase, reflectivity and lifetime. Dust is the dominant INP source, yet few measurements have been reported near major dust sources. We report INP observations within hundreds of kilometers of the biggest dust source regions globally: the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. Results show that at temperatures > −15 °C, INPs are dominated by organics.
Marta Via, Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Benjamin Chazeau, Hasna Chebaicheb, Jianhui Jiang, Hannes Keernik, Chunshui Lin, Nicolas Marchand, Cristina Marin, Colin O'Dowd, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Jean-Eudes Petit, Michael Pikridas, Véronique Riffault, Jean Sciare, Jay G. Slowik, Leïla Simon, Jeni Vasilescu, Yunjiang Zhang, Olivier Favez, André S. H. Prévôt, Andrés Alastuey, and María Cruz Minguillón
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5479–5495,Short summary
This work presents the differences resulting from two techniques (rolling and seasonal) of the positive matrix factorisation model that can be run for organic aerosol source apportionment. The current state of the art suggests that the rolling technique is more accurate, but no proof of its effectiveness has been provided yet. This paper tackles this issue in the context of a synthetic dataset and a multi-site real-world comparison.
Anthony Rey-Pommier, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Grégoire Broquet, Theodoros Christoudias, Jonilda Kushta, Didier Hauglustaine, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11505–11527,Short summary
Emission inventories for air pollutants can be uncertain in developing countries. In order to overcome these uncertainties, we model nitrogen oxide emissions in Egypt using satellite retrievals. We detect a weekly cycle reflecting Egyptian social norms, an annual cycle consistent with electricity consumption and an activity drop due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, discrepancies with inventories remain high, illustrating the needs for additional data to improve the potential of our method.
Marios Chatziparaschos, Nikos Daskalakis, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Nikos Kalivitis, Athanasios Nenes, Maria Gonçalves Ageitos, Montserrat Costa-Surós, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Medea Zanoli, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Maria Kanakidou
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Ice formation is enabled by Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) at higher temperatures than homogeneous formation and can profoundly affect the properties of clouds. Our global model results show that additionally to k-feldspar dust mineral that is globally the most important INP precursor, quartz, which is abundant in mineral dust, can be regionally significant, affecting different cloud level regimes (low-level clouds) than K-feldspar (mid-level clouds).
Eric Förster, Harald Bönisch, Marco Neumaier, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Andreas Hilboll, Anna Beata Kalisz Hedegaard, Nikos Daskalakis, Alexandros Panagiotis Poulidis, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Michael Lichtenstern, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The airborne megacity campaign EMeRGe provided an unprecedented amount of trace gas measurements. We combine measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with trajectory-modelled emission uptakes to identify potential source regions of pollution. We also characterise the chemical fingerprints (e.g. biomass burning and anthropogenic signatures) of the probed air-masses to corroborate the contributing source regions. Our approach is the first large-scale study of VOCs originating from megacities.
Brendan Byrne, David F. Baker, Sourish Basu, Michael Bertolacci, Kevin W. Bowman, Dustin Carroll, Abhishek Chatterjee, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Noel Cressie, David Crisp, Sean Crowell, Feng Deng, Zhu Deng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra Dubey, Sha Feng, Omaira García, David W. T. Griffith, Benedikt Herkommer, Lei Hu, Andrew R. Jacobson, Rajesh Janardanan, Sujong Jeong, Matthew S. Johnson, Dylan B. A. Jones, Rigel Kivi, Junjie Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Shamil Maksyutov, John B. Miller, Scot M. Miller, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Tomohiro Oda, Christopher W. O’Dell, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Prabir K. Patra, Hélène Peiro, Christof Petri, Sajeev Philip, David F. Pollard, Benjamin Poulter, Marine Remaud, Andrew Schuh, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Colm Sweeney, Yao Té, Hanqin Tian, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Thorsten Warneke, John R. Worden, Debra Wunch, Yuanzhi Yao, Jeongmin Yun, Andrew Zammit-Mangion, and Ning Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Changes in the carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems result in emissions and removals of CO2. These can be driven by anthropogenic activities (e.g., deforestation), natural processes (e.g., fires) or in response to rising CO2 (e.g., CO2 fertilization). This paper describes a dataset of CO2 emissions and removals derived from atmospheric CO2 observations. This pilot dataset informs current capabilities and future developments towards top-down monitoring and verification systems.
Rodrigo Andres Rivera Martinez, Diego Santaren, Olivier Laurent, Gregoire Broquet, Ford Cropley, Cécile Mallet, Michel Ramonet, Adil Shah, Leonard Rivier, Caroline Bouchet, Catherine Juery, Olivier Duclaux, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
A network of low cost sensors is a good alternative to improve the detection of fugitive CH4 emissions. In this study, we present the results of 4 tests conducted with 2 types of Figaro sensors, which were assembled on four chambers in a laboratory experiment: a comparison of five models to reconstruct the CH4 signal; a strategy to reduce the training set size; a detection of age effects in the sensors; and a test of the capability to transfer a model between chambers on the same type of sensor.
Boris D. Belan, Gerard Ancellet, Irina S. Andreeva, Pavel N. Antokhin, Viktoria G. Arshinova, Mikhail Y. Arshinov, Yurii S. Balin, Vladimir E. Barsuk, Sergei B. Belan, Dmitry G. Chernov, Denis K. Davydov, Alexander V. Fofonov, Georgii A. Ivlev, Sergei N. Kotel'nikov, Alexander S. Kozlov, Artem V. Kozlov, Katharine Law, Andrey V. Mikhal'chishin, Igor A. Moseikin, Sergei V. Nasonov, Philippe Nédélec, Olesya V. Okhlopkova, Sergei E. Ol'kin, Mikhail V. Panchenko, Jean-Daniel Paris, Iogannes E. Penner, Igor V. Ptashnik, Tatyana M. Rasskazchikova, Irina K. Reznikova, Oleg A. Romanovskii, Alexander S. Safatov, Denis E. Savkin, Denis V. Simonenkov, Tatyana K. Sklyadneva, Gennadii N. Tolmachev, Semyon V. Yakovlev, and Polina N. Zenkova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3941–3967,Short summary
The change of the global climate is most pronounced in the Arctic, where the air temperature increases faster than the global average. This is associated with an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is important to study how the air composition in the Arctic changes in the changing climate. Thus this integrated experiment was carried out to measure the composition of the troposphere in the Russian sector of the Arctic from on board the aircraft laboratory.
Karine Sartelet, Youngseob Kim, Florian Couvidat, Maik Merkel, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean Sciare, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8579–8596,Short summary
A methodology is defined to estimate number emissions from an inventory providing mass emissions. Number concentrations are simulated over Greater Paris using different nucleation parameterisations (binary, ternary involving sulfuric acid and ammonia, and heteromolecular involving sulfuric acid and extremely low-volatility organics, ELVOCs). The comparisons show that ternary nucleation may not be a dominant process for new particle formation in cities, but they stress the role of ELVOCs.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Bruce H. Vaughn, Sylvia Englund Michel, and Philippe Bousquet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4831–4851,Short summary
Estimating CH4 sources by exploiting observations within an inverse modeling framework is a powerful approach. Here, a new system designed to assimilate δ13C(CH4) observations together with CH4 observations is presented. By optimizing both the emissions and associated source signatures of multiple emission categories, this new system can efficiently differentiate the co-located emission categories and provide estimates of CH4 sources that are consistent with isotopic data.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Oliver Schneising, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Robert J. Parker, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Coleen Roehl, Constantina Rousogenous, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3401–3437,Short summary
We present a new version (v3) of the GOSAT and GOSAT-2 FOCAL products. In addition to an increased number of XCO2 data, v3 also includes products for XCH4 (full-physics and proxy), XH2O and the relative ratio of HDO to H2O (δD). For GOSAT-2, we also present first XCO and XN2O results. All FOCAL data products show reasonable spatial distribution and temporal variations and agree well with TCCON. Global XN2O maps show a gradient from the tropics to higher latitudes on the order of 15 ppb.
George K. Georgiou, Theodoros Christoudias, Yiannis Proestos, Jonilda Kushta, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Chrysanthos Savvides, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4129–4146,Short summary
We evaluate the skill of the WRF-Chem model to perform high-resolution air quality forecasts (including ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulate matter) over the Eastern Mediterranean, during winter and summer. We compare the forecast output to observational data from background and urban locations and the forecast output from CAMS. WRF-Chem was found to forecast the concentrations and diurnal profiles of gas-phase pollutants in urban areas with higher accuracy.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Harlass, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, José L. Gómez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5877–5924,Short summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport, and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vihma, Jouni Räisänen, Alexander Baklanov, Sergey Chalov, Igor Esau, Ekaterina Ezhova, Matti Leppäranta, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Jukka Pumpanen, Meinrat O. Andreae, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Jianhui Bai, Igor Bashmachnikov, Boris Belan, Federico Bianchi, Boris Biskaborn, Michael Boy, Jaana Bäck, Bin Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Jonathan Duplissy, Egor Dyukarev, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Martin Forsius, Martin Heimann, Sirkku Juhola, Vladimir Konovalov, Igor Konovalov, Pavel Konstantinov, Kajar Köster, Elena Lapshina, Anna Lintunen, Alexander Mahura, Risto Makkonen, Svetlana Malkhazova, Ivan Mammarella, Stefano Mammola, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Outi Meinander, Eugene Mikhailov, Victoria Miles, Stanislav Myslenkov, Dmitry Orlov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Roberta Pirazzini, Olga Popovicheva, Jouni Pulliainen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Torsten Sachs, Vladimir Shevchenko, Andrey Skorokhod, Andreas Stohl, Elli Suhonen, Erik S. Thomson, Marina Tsidilina, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Petteri Uotila, Aki Virkkula, Nadezhda Voropay, Tobias Wolf, Sayaka Yasunaka, Jiahua Zhang, Yubao Qiu, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Nikolay Kasimov, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4413–4469,Short summary
We summarize results during the last 5 years in the northern Eurasian region, especially from Russia, and introduce recent observations of the air quality in the urban environments in China. Although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate–Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures and integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis.
Nikos Daskalakis, Laura Gallardo, Maria Kanakidou, Johann Rasmus Nüß, Camilo Menares, Roberto Rondanelli, Anne M. Thompson, and Mihalis Vrekoussis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4075–4099,Short summary
Forest fires emit carbon monoxide (CO) that can be transported into the atmosphere far from the sources and reacts to produce ozone (O3) that affects climate, ecosystems and health. O3 is also produced in the stratosphere and can be transported downwards. Using a global numerical model, we found that forest fires can affect CO and O3 even in the South Pacific, the most pristine region of the global ocean, but transport from the stratosphere is a more important O3 source than fires in the region.
Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Akhiko Kuze, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Paul O. Wennberg, Abhishek Chatterjee, Michael Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, Brendan Fisher, Matthäus Kiel, Robert R. Nelson, Aronne Merrelli, Greg Osterman, Frédéric Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Martine De Mazière, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Matthias Schneider, Coleen M. Roehl, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 325–360,Short summary
We provide an analysis of an 11-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations derived using an optimal estimation retrieval algorithm on measurements made by the GOSAT satellite. The new product (version 9) shows improvement over the previous version (v7.3) as evaluated against independent estimates of CO2 from ground-based sensors and atmospheric inversion systems. We also compare the new GOSAT CO2 values to collocated estimates from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2.
Kai Tang, Beatriz Sánchez-Parra, Petya Yordanova, Jörn Wehking, Anna T. Backes, Daniel A. Pickersgill, Stefanie Maier, Jean Sciare, Ulrich Pöschl, Bettina Weber, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Biogeosciences, 19, 71–91,Short summary
Metagenomic sequencing and freezing experiments of aerosol samples collected on Cyprus revealed rain-related short-term changes of bioaerosol and ice nuclei composition. Filtration experiments showed a rain-related enhancement of biological ice nuclei > 5 µm and < 0.1 µm. The observed effects of rainfall on the composition of atmospheric bioaerosols and ice nuclei may influence the hydrological cycle as well as the health effects of air particulate matter (pathogens, allergens).
Dirk Dienhart, John N. Crowley, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Achim Edtbauer, Philipp G. Eger, Lisa Ernle, Hartwig Harder, Bettina Hottmann, Monica Martinez, Uwe Parchatka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Christof Stönner, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17373–17388,Short summary
We present the first ship-based in situ measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), hydroxyl radicals (OH) and the OH reactivity around the Arabian Peninsula. Regression analysis of the HCHO production rate and the related OH chemistry revealed the regional HCHO yield αeff, which represents the different chemical regimes encountered. Highest values were found for the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf), which highlights this region as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution.
Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean-Charles Dupont, Olivier Favez, Valérie Gros, Yunjiang Zhang, Jean Sciare, Leila Simon, François Truong, Nicolas Bonnaire, Tanguy Amodeo, Robert Vautard, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17167–17183,Short summary
The COVID-19 outbreak led to lockdowns at national scales in spring 2020. Large cuts in emissions occurred, but the quantitative assessment of their role from observations is hindered by weather and interannual variability. That is why we developed an innovative methodology in order to best characterize the impact of lockdown on atmospheric chemistry. We find that a local decrease in traffic-related pollutants triggered a decrease of secondary aerosols and an increase in ozone.
Mahesh Kumar Sha, Bavo Langerock, Jean-François L. Blavier, Thomas Blumenstock, Tobias Borsdorff, Matthias Buschmann, Angelika Dehn, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Frank Hase, Pauli Heikkinen, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Nicolas Kumps, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria V. Makarova, Johan Mellqvist, Jean-Marc Metzger, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Amelie N. Röhling, Constantina Rousogenous, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Corinne Vigouroux, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Pucai Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Tyler Wizenberg, Debra Wunch, Shoma Yamanouchi, Yang Yang, and Minqiang Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6249–6304,Short summary
This paper presents, for the first time, Sentinel-5 Precursor methane and carbon monoxide validation results covering a period from November 2017 to September 2020. For this study, we used global TCCON and NDACC-IRWG network data covering a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions across different terrains. We also show the influence of a priori alignment, smoothing uncertainties and the sensitivity of the validation results towards the application of advanced co-location criteria.
Pramod Kumar, Grégoire Broquet, Camille Yver-Kwok, Olivier Laurent, Susan Gichuki, Christopher Caldow, Ford Cropley, Thomas Lauvaux, Michel Ramonet, Guillaume Berthe, Frédéric Martin, Olivier Duclaux, Catherine Juery, Caroline Bouchet, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5987–6003,Short summary
This study presents a simple atmospheric inversion modeling framework for the localization and quantification of unknown CH4 and CO2 emissions from point sources based on near-surface mobile concentration measurements and a Gaussian plume dispersion model. It is applied for the estimate of a series of brief controlled releases of CH4 and CO2 with a wide range of rates during the TOTAL TADI-2018 experiment. Results indicate a ~10 %–40 % average error on the estimate of the release rates.
Malika Menoud, Carina van der Veen, Jaroslaw Necki, Jakub Bartyzel, Barbara Szénási, Mila Stanisavljević, Isabelle Pison, Philippe Bousquet, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13167–13185,Short summary
Using measurements of methane isotopes in ambient air and a 3D atmospheric transport model, in Krakow, Poland, we mainly detected fossil-fuel-related sources, coming from coal mining in Silesia and from the use of natural gas in the city. Emission inventories report large emissions from coal mine activity in Silesia, which is in agreement with our measurements. However, methane sources in the urban area of Krakow related to the use of fossil fuels might be underestimated in the inventories.
Yi Yin, Frederic Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Philippe Bousquet, Marielle Saunois, Bo Zheng, John Worden, A. Anthony Bloom, Robert J. Parker, Daniel J. Jacob, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Christian Frankenberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12631–12647,Short summary
The growth of methane, the second-most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, has been accelerating in recent years. Using an ensemble of multi-tracer atmospheric inversions constrained by surface or satellite observations, we show that global methane emissions increased by nearly 1 % per year from 2010–2017, with leading contributions from the tropics and East Asia.
Jean-Daniel Paris, Aurélie Riandet, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Marc Delmotte, Antoine Berchet, Jonathan Williams, Lisa Ernle, Ivan Tadic, Hartwig Harder, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12443–12462,Short summary
We measured atmospheric methane and CO2 by ship in the Middle East. We probe the origin of methane with a combination of light alkane measurements and modeling. We find strong influence from nearby oil and gas production over the Arabian Gulf. Comparing our data to inventories indicates that inventories overestimate sources from the upstream gas industry but underestimate emissions from oil extraction and processing. The Red Sea was under a complex mixture of sources due to human activity.
Stefan F. Schreier, Tim Bösch, Andreas Richter, Kezia Lange, Michael Revesz, Philipp Weihs, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Christoph Lotteraner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5299–5318,Short summary
This paper reports on the evaluation of aerosol profiling products retrieved from ground-based MAX-DOAS instruments using the BOREAS algorithm. Aerosol extinction profiles, near-surface aerosol extinction, and aerosol optical depth are compared to measurements collected with ceilometer, sun photometer, and in situ instruments. We show that these MAX-DOAS aerosol profiling products provide useful information to study spatial and temporal variations above the urban area of Vienna.
Sara M. Defratyka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Camille Yver-Kwok, Daniel Loeb, James France, Jon Helmore, Nigel Yarrow, Valérie Gros, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5049–5069,Short summary
We consider the possibility of using the CRDS Picarro G2201-i instrument, originally designed for isotopic CH4 and CO2, for measurements of ethane : methane in near-source conditions. The work involved laboratory tests, a controlled release experiment and mobile measurements. We show the potential of determining ethane : methane with 50 ppb ethane uncertainty. The instrument can correctly estimate the ratio in CH4 enhancements of 1 ppm and more, as can be found at strongly emitting sites.
Rima Baalbaki, Michael Pikridas, Tuija Jokinen, Tiia Laurila, Lubna Dada, Spyros Bezantakos, Lauri Ahonen, Kimmo Neitola, Anne Maisser, Elie Bimenyimana, Aliki Christodoulou, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, George Biskos, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jean Sciare, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9223–9251,Short summary
This study investigates new particle formation (NPF) in the less represented region of the Mediterranean basin using 1-year measurements of aerosol particles down to ~ 1 nm in diameter. We report a high frequency of NPF and give examples of interesting NPF features. We quantify the strength of NPF events by calculating formation rates and growth rates. We further unveil the atmospheric conditions and variables considered important for the intra-monthly and inter-monthly occurrence of NPF.
Vincent Michoud, Elise Hallemans, Laura Chiappini, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, Aurélie Colomb, Sébastien Dusanter, Isabelle Fronval, François Gheusi, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Thierry Léonardis, Nadine Locoge, Nicolas Marchand, Stéphane Sauvage, Jean Sciare, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8067–8088,Short summary
A multiphasic molecular characterization of oxygenated compounds has been carried out during the ChArMEx field campaign using offline analysis. It leads to the identification of 97 different compounds in the gas and aerosol phases and reveals the important contribution of organic acids to organic aerosol. In addition, comparison between experimental and theoretical partitioning coefficients revealed in most cases a large underestimation by the theory reaching 1 to 7 orders of magnitude.
Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Olivier Magand, Paolo Laj, Marcos Andrade, Isabel Moreno, Fernando Velarde, Grover Salvatierra, René Gutierrez, Luis Blacutt, Diego Aliaga, Thomas Reichler, Karine Sellegri, Olivier Laurent, Michel Ramonet, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3447–3472,Short summary
The environmental cycling of atmospheric mercury, a harmful global contaminant, is still not sufficiently constrained, partly due to missing data in remote regions. Here, we address this issue by presenting 20 months of atmospheric mercury measurements, sampled in the Bolivian Andes. We observe a significant seasonal pattern, whose key features we explore. Moreover, we deduce ratios to constrain South American biomass burning mercury emissions and the mercury uptake by the Amazon rainforest.
Cécile Debevec, Stéphane Sauvage, Valérie Gros, Thérèse Salameh, Jean Sciare, François Dulac, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1449–1484,Short summary
This study provides a better characterization of the seasonal variations in VOC sources impacting the western Mediterranean region, based on a comprehensive chemical composition measured over 25 months at a representative receptor site (Ersa) and by determining factors controlling their temporal variations. Some insights into dominant drivers for VOC concentration variations in Europe are also provided, built on comparisons of Ersa observations with the concomitant ones of 17 European sites.
Camille Yver-Kwok, Carole Philippon, Peter Bergamaschi, Tobias Biermann, Francescopiero Calzolari, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Paolo Cristofanelli, Marc Delmotte, Juha Hatakka, Michal Heliasz, Ove Hermansen, Kateřina Komínková, Dagmar Kubistin, Nicolas Kumps, Olivier Laurent, Tuomas Laurila, Irene Lehner, Janne Levula, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Per Marklund, Jean-Marc Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Stephen M. Platt, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Bert Scheeren, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Paul Smith, Martin Steinbacher, Gabriela Vítková, and Simon Wyss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 89–116,Short summary
The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a pan-European research infrastructure which provides harmonized and high-precision scientific data on the carbon cycle and the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. All stations have to undergo a rigorous assessment before being labeled, i.e., receiving approval to join the network. In this paper, we present the labeling process for the ICOS atmospheric network through the 23 stations that were labeled between November 2017 and November 2019.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Nikos Daskalakis, Angelos Gkouvousis, Andreas Hilboll, Twan van Noije, Jason E. Williams, Philippe Le Sager, Vincent Huijnen, Sander Houweling, Tommi Bergman, Johann Rasmus Nüß, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maria Kanakidou, and Maarten C. Krol
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5507–5548,Short summary
This work documents and evaluates the detailed tropospheric gas-phase chemical mechanism MOGUNTIA in the three-dimensional chemistry transport model TM5-MP. The Rosenbrock solver, as generated by the KPP software, is implemented in the chemistry code, which can successfully replace the classical Euler backward integration method. The MOGUNTIA scheme satisfactorily simulates a large suite of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are observed in the atmosphere at significant levels.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13011–13022,Short summary
Decadal trends and variations in OH are critical for understanding atmospheric CH4 evolution. We quantify the impacts of OH trends and variations on the CH4 budget by conducting CH4 inversions on a decadal scale with an ensemble of OH fields. We find the negative OH anomalies due to enhanced fires can reduce the optimized CH4 emissions by up to 10 Tg yr−1 during El Niño years and the positive OH trend from 1986 to 2010 results in a ∼ 23 Tg yr−1 additional increase in optimized CH4 emissions.
Lubna Dada, Ilona Ylivinkka, Rima Baalbaki, Chang Li, Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Lei Yao, Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Rujing Yin, Chenjuan Deng, Biwu Chu, Tuomo Nieminen, Yonghong Wang, Zhuohui Lin, Roseline C. Thakur, Jenni Kontkanen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Mikko Sipilä, Tareq Hussein, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Imre Salma, Tamás Weidinger, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11747–11766,Short summary
We rely on sulfuric acid measurements in four contrasting environments, Hyytiälä, Finland; Agia Marina, Cyprus; Budapest, Hungary; and Beijing, China, representing semi-pristine boreal forest, rural environment in the Mediterranean area, urban environment, and heavily polluted megacity, respectively, in order to define the sources and sinks of sulfuric acid in these environments and to derive a new sulfuric acid proxy to be utilized in locations and during periods when it is not measured.
Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Christof Stönner, Andrea Pozzer, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Lisa Ernle, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Horst Fischer, Jan Schuladen, John N. Crowley, Jean-Daniel Paris, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10807–10829,Short summary
Carbonyl compounds were measured on a ship travelling around the Arabian Peninsula in summer 2017, crossing both highly polluted and extremely clean regions of the marine boundary layer. We investigated the sources and sinks of carbonyls. The results from a global model showed a significant model underestimation for acetaldehyde, a molecule that can influence regional air chemistry. By adding a diurnal oceanic source, the model estimation was highly improved.
Martin Rigler, Luka Drinovec, Gašper Lavrič, Athanasia Vlachou, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Iasonas Stavroulas, Jean Sciare, Judita Burger, Irena Kranjc, Janja Turšič, Anthony D. A. Hansen, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4333–4351,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols are a large fraction of fine particulate matter. They are extremely diverse, and they directly impact air quality, visibility, cloud formation and public health. In this paper we present a new instrument and new method to measure carbon content in particulate matter in real time and at a high time resolution. The new method was validated in a 1-month winter field campaign in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Ray L. Langenfelds, Michel Ramonet, Doug Worthy, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9525–9546,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the dominant sink of methane (CH4), plays a key role in closing the global methane budget. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical can influence top-down estimates of CH4 emissions based on 4D Bayesian inversions with different OH fields and the same surface observations. We show that uncertainties in CH4 emissions driven by different OH fields are comparable to the uncertainties given by current bottom-up and top-down estimations.
Tuukka Petäjä, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ksenia Tabakova, Julia Schmale, Barbara Altstädter, Gerard Ancellet, Mikhail Arshinov, Yurii Balin, Urs Baltensperger, Jens Bange, Alison Beamish, Boris Belan, Antoine Berchet, Rossana Bossi, Warren R. L. Cairns, Ralf Ebinghaus, Imad El Haddad, Beatriz Ferreira-Araujo, Anna Franck, Lin Huang, Antti Hyvärinen, Angelika Humbert, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Pavel Konstantinov, Astrid Lampert, Matthew MacLeod, Olivier Magand, Alexander Mahura, Louis Marelle, Vladimir Masloboev, Dmitri Moisseev, Vaios Moschos, Niklas Neckel, Tatsuo Onishi, Stefan Osterwalder, Aino Ovaska, Pauli Paasonen, Mikhail Panchenko, Fidel Pankratov, Jakob B. Pernov, Andreas Platis, Olga Popovicheva, Jean-Christophe Raut, Aurélie Riandet, Torsten Sachs, Rosamaria Salvatori, Roberto Salzano, Ludwig Schröder, Martin Schön, Vladimir Shevchenko, Henrik Skov, Jeroen E. Sonke, Andrea Spolaor, Vasileios K. Stathopoulos, Mikko Strahlendorff, Jennie L. Thomas, Vito Vitale, Sterios Vratolis, Carlo Barbante, Sabine Chabrillat, Aurélien Dommergue, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jyri Heilimo, Kathy S. Law, Andreas Massling, Steffen M. Noe, Jean-Daniel Paris, André S. H. Prévôt, Ilona Riipinen, Birgit Wehner, Zhiyong Xie, and Hanna K. Lappalainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8551–8592,Short summary
The role of polar regions is increasing in terms of megatrends such as globalization, new transport routes, demography, and the use of natural resources with consequent effects on regional and transported pollutant concentrations. Here we summarize initial results from our integrative project exploring the Arctic environment and pollution to deliver data products, metrics, and indicators for stakeholders.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Luka Drinovec, Jean Sciare, Iasonas Stavroulas, Spiros Bezantakos, Michael Pikridas, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Bojana Višić, Maja Remškar, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3799–3813,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust influences Earth's radiative budget, has adverse health effects, and affects regulatory PM10 concentrations. We present a highly time resolved online technique for quantification of mineral dust concentration in ambient air. The technique uses a virtual impactor to concentrate coarse particles, where absorption is then measured using a filter photometer. The method was tested in the field at a regional background site on Cyprus.
Ivan Tadic, John N. Crowley, Dirk Dienhart, Philipp Eger, Hartwig Harder, Bettina Hottmann, Monica Martinez, Uwe Parchatka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Justin Shenolikar, Sebastian Tauer, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6769–6787,Short summary
We present shipborne observations of NO, NO2, O3, HCHO, OH, HO2, H2O and the actinic flux obtained in the marine boundary layer (MBL) around the Arabian Peninsula during the summer 2017 AQABA ship campaign. NOx (NO+NO2) and O3 observations clearly showed anthropogenic influence in the MBL around the Arabian Peninsula. The observations were also used to calculate net O3 production in the MBL around the Arabian Peninsula, which was greatest over the northern Red Sea, Oman Gulf and Arabian Gulf.
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Siddika Celik, Frank Drewnick, Friederike Fachinger, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Hugh Coe, Jean-Daniel Paris, Philipp G. Eger, Jan Schuladen, Ivan Tadic, Nils Friedrich, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Horst Fischer, John N. Crowley, Hartwig Harder, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4713–4734,Short summary
Analysis of 252 ship emission plumes in the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula examined particulate- and gas-phase characteristics. By identifying the corresponding ships, source features and plume age were determined. Emission factors (amount of pollutant per kilogram of fuel burned) were calculated and investigated for dependencies on source characteristics, atmospheric conditions, and transport time, providing insight into the most relevant influences on ship emissions.
Antonin Zabukovec, Gerard Ancellet, Iwan E. Penner, Mikhail Arshinov, Valery Kozlov, Jacques Pelon, Jean-Daniel Paris, Grigory Kokhanenko, Yuri S. Balin, Dmitry Chernov, and Boris D. Belan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Description of two aircraft campaigns results carried out over Siberia in 2013 and 2017 to characterize aerosol emission. A methodology is proposed to derive the aerosol types using transport model and satellite observations. The extinction to backscatter ratio for each aerosol types is reported as it is a key parameter to constrain their radiative impact. These results are compared to previous work conducted in other regions and to aerosol data products observed by spaceborne lidars.
Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Patrick M. Crill, Brett Thornton, Philippe Bousquet, Thibaud Thonat, Thomas Hocking, Joël Thanwerdas, Jean-Daniel Paris, and Marielle Saunois
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3987–3998,Short summary
Methane isotopes in the atmosphere can help us differentiate between emission processes. A large variety of natural and anthropogenic emission types are active in the Arctic and are unsatisfactorily understood and documented up to now. A ship-based campaign was carried out in summer 2014, providing a unique dataset of isotopic measurements in the Arctic Ocean. Using a chemistry-transport model, we link these measurements to circumpolar emissions and retrieve information about their signature.
Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Andreas Hilboll, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Oliver Schneising, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2057–2072,Short summary
We present CHOCHO and HCHO columns retrieved from measurements by TROPOMI. Elevated amounts of CHOCHO and HCHO are observed during the fire season in BC, Canada, where a large number of fires occurred in 2018. CHOCHO and HCHO plumes from individual fires are observed in air masses travelling over distances of up to 1500 km. Comparison with FLEXPART simulations with different lifetimes shows that effective lifetimes of 20 h and more are needed to explain the observations.
Albert Ansmann, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, Johannes Bühl, Patric Seifert, Ronny Engelmann, Julian Hofer, Argyro Nisantzi, James D. Atkinson, Zamin A. Kanji, Berko Sierau, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15087–15115,Short summary
For the first time, a closure study of the relationship between the ice-nucleating particle concentration (INPC) and ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) in altocumulus and cirrus layers, solely based on ground-based active remote sensing, is presented. The closure studies were conducted in Cyprus. A focus was on altocumulus and cirrus layers which developed in pronounced Saharan dust layers. The closure studies show that heterogeneous ice nucleation can play a dominant role in ice formation.
Michael Pikridas, Spiros Bezantakos, Griša Močnik, Christos Keleshis, Fred Brechtel, Iasonas Stavroulas, Gregoris Demetriades, Panayiota Antoniou, Panagiotis Vouterakos, Marios Argyrides, Eleni Liakakou, Luka Drinovec, Eleni Marinou, Vassilis Amiridis, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6425–6447,Short summary
This work evaluates the performance of three sensors that monitor black carbon (soot). These sensors exhibit similar behavior to their rack-mounted counterparts and are therefore promising for more extended use. A reconstruction of the black carbon mass vertical distribution above Athens, Greece, is shown using drones, similar to those acquired by remote-sensing techniques. The potential of combining miniature sensors with drones for at least the lower part of the atmosphere is exhibited.
Yunjiang Zhang, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Francesco Canonaco, Francois Truong, Nicolas Bonnaire, Vincent Crenn, Tanguy Amodeo, Andre S. H. Prévôt, Jean Sciare, Valerie Gros, and Alexandre Albinet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14755–14776,Short summary
We present 6-year source apportionment of organic aerosol (OA) achieved with near-continuous online measurements and subsequent receptor model analysis in the Paris region, France. The OA factors presented distinct seasonal patterns, associated with different atmospheric formation processes and roles in air pollution. Limited year-round trends for two primary anthropogenic factors and a biogenic-like secondary factor were observed, while a more oxidized secondary OA showed a decreasing feature.
Sébastien Conil, Julie Helle, Laurent Langrene, Olivier Laurent, Marc Delmotte, and Michel Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6361–6383,Short summary
Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases using high-precision spectrometers started in 2011 on a tall tower with three sampling inlets at 10 m, 50 m and 120 m above the ground at the OPE station, in the eastern part of France. The measurement strategy for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) follows the ICOS recommendations. Over the 2011–2018 period, the CO2 and CH4 data show trends with annual growth rates of 2.4 ppm yr−1 and 8.8 ppb yr−1 at the 120 m level.
Marie Boichu, Olivier Favez, Véronique Riffault, Jean-Eudes Petit, Yunjiang Zhang, Colette Brogniez, Jean Sciare, Isabelle Chiapello, Lieven Clarisse, Shouwen Zhang, Nathalie Pujol-Söhne, Emmanuel Tison, Hervé Delbarre, and Philippe Goloub
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14253–14287,Short summary
This study, benefiting especially from recently developed mass spectrometry observations of aerosols, highlights unknown properties of volcanic sulfates in the troposphere. It shows their specific chemical fingerprint, distinct from those of freshly emitted industrial sulfates and background aerosols. We also demonstrate the large-scale persistence of the volcanic sulfate pollution over weeks. Hence, these results cast light on the impact of tropospheric eruptions on air quality and climate.
Radiance Calmer, Gregory C. Roberts, Kevin J. Sanchez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, David Picard, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Michael Pikridas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13989–14007,Short summary
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bring new opportunities to study clouds and better represent these in models. This analysis presents a comparison between direct observations in clouds from a UAV flight and results of a one-dimension model. The experiment is part of the European BACCHUS project, and took place in Cyprus, considered as a polluted environment. The study shows the importance of taking into account mixing air at cloud top to better match the model results with the UAV observations.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Sophie Szopa, Ann R. Stavert, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alex T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Virginie Marécal, Fiona M. O'Connor, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13701–13723,Short summary
The role of hydroxyl radical changes in methane trends is debated, hindering our understanding of the methane cycle. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical may influence methane abundance in the atmosphere based on the inter-model comparison of hydroxyl radical fields and model simulations of CH4 abundance with different hydroxyl radical scenarios during 2000–2016. We show that hydroxyl radical changes could contribute up to 54 % of model-simulated methane biases.
Christoph Zellweger, Rainer Steinbrecher, Olivier Laurent, Haeyoung Lee, Sumin Kim, Lukas Emmenegger, Martin Steinbacher, and Brigitte Buchmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5863–5878,Short summary
We analysed results obtained through CO and N2O performance audits conducted within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) quality management system of the World Meteorology Organization (WMO). The results reveal that current spectroscopic measurement techniques have clear advantages with respect to data quality objectives compared to more traditional methods. Further, they allow for a smooth continuation of historic CO and N2O time series.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Didier Hauglustaine, Michel Ramonet, Cyril Crevoisier, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) is the dominant atmospheric sink for methane, contributing to approximately 90 % of the total methane loss. Chemical losses by reaction with atomic oxygen (O1D) and chlorine radicals (Cl) in the stratosphere are other sinks, contributing about 3 % to the total methane destruction. We assess here the impact of atomic Cl on atmospheric methane mixing ratios, methane atmospheric loss and atmospheric isotopic δ13C-CH4 values.
Thibaud Thonat, Marielle Saunois, Isabelle Pison, Antoine Berchet, Thomas Hocking, Brett F. Thornton, Patrick M. Crill, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12141–12161,Short summary
This paper discusses the methane isotopic signals that could be detected at instrumental surface sites in the northern high latitudes using a 3–D chemistry transport model. Isotopic signals may be used in atmospheric inverse systems to better characterize methane emissions and changes. We show that depending on the source magnitude and the location of the site, detecting isotopic signals of specific individual sources may be challenging for the new generation of methane isotope instruments.
Philipp G. Eger, Nils Friedrich, Jan Schuladen, Justin Shenolikar, Horst Fischer, Ivan Tadic, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Sebastian Tauer, Frank Drewnick, Friederike Fachinger, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12121–12140,Short summary
Shipborne measurements of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) were made during the AQABA (Air Quality and climate change in the Arabian BAsin) ship campaign in summer 2017. The dataset includes measurements over the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula with observed mixing ratios ranging from the limit of detection to 600 pptv. We examined the regional variability in the generation of ClNO2 and its importance for Cl atom generation in a marine boundary layer influenced by ships and industry.
Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, John N. Crowley, Dirk Dienhart, Philipp G. Eger, Lisa Ernle, Horst Fischer, Bettina Hottmann, Jean-Daniel Paris, Christof Stönner, Ivan Tadic, David Walter, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11501–11523,Short summary
The Arabian Peninsula is a global hot spot of ozone pollution. Our measurements, made on a ship in summer 2017, indicate underlying reasons. Despite being at sea, we observed ozone-forming reactive trace gases (measured as so-called total OH reactivity) comparable to highly populated urban regions in amount and composition. This is due to strong emissions from oil extraction and ship traffic. These emissions were quickly converted to ozone due to intense solar irradiation and high temperatures.
Eleni Marinou, Matthias Tesche, Athanasios Nenes, Albert Ansmann, Jann Schrod, Dimitra Mamali, Alexandra Tsekeri, Michael Pikridas, Holger Baars, Ronny Engelmann, Kalliopi-Artemis Voudouri, Stavros Solomos, Jean Sciare, Silke Groß, Florian Ewald, and Vassilis Amiridis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11315–11342,Short summary
We assess the feasibility of ground-based and spaceborne lidars to retrieve profiles of cloud-relevant aerosol concentrations and ice-nucleating particles. The retrieved profiles are in good agreement with airborne in situ measurements. Our methodology will be applied to satellite observations in the future so as to provide a global 3D product of cloud-relevant properties.
Marc D. Mallet, Barbara D'Anna, Aurélie Même, Maria Chiara Bove, Federico Cassola, Giandomenico Pace, Karine Desboeufs, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Michel Maille, Dario Massabò, Jean Sciare, Pascal Zapf, Alcide Giorgio di Sarra, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11123–11142,Short summary
We present findings from a summertime field campaign at the remote island of Lampedusa in the central Mediterranean Sea. We show that the aerosol loading is similar to coastal sites around the Mediterranean. We observe higher loadings of sulfate and aged organic aerosol from air masses transported over the central and eastern Mediterranean in comparison to those from the western Mediterranean. These results highlight the rarity of pristine air masses, even in remote marine environments.
Lisa K. Behrens, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Folkard Wittrock, John P. Burrows, and Mihalis Vrekoussis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10257–10278,Short summary
MAX-DOAS measurements were conducted on the research vessel Maria S. Merian during a cruise from the Azores to South Africa in October 2016. The measurements indicate enhanced levels of HCHO and CHOCHO over the remote Atlantic Ocean, which is unexpected due to their short lifetime. Precursors of these gases or gas–aerosol combinations might be transported. Model simulations indicate potential source regions over the African continent, probably related to biomass burning or biogenic emissions.
Enno Peters, Mareike Ostendorf, Tim Bösch, André Seyler, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4171–4190,Short summary
A novel imaging-DOAS instrument (IMPACT) is presented for measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument combines full-azimuthal pointing (360°) with a large vertical coverage (40°). Complete panoramic scans and vertical NO2 profiles around the measurement site are acquired at a temporal resolution of 15 min. In addition, information about the aerosol phase function is retrieved from O4 slant columns along multiple almucantar scans measured simultaneously by IMPACT.
Jenny P. S. Wong, Maria Tsagkaraki, Irini Tsiodra, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Kalliopi Violaki, Maria Kanakidou, Jean Sciare, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7319–7334,Short summary
Biomass burning is a major source of light-absorbing organic species in atmospheric aerosols, and it can play an important role in climate and atmospheric chemistry. Through a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations, this work demonstrated that the light absorption properties of aged biomass burning organic aerosols are dominated by high-molecular-weight compounds. In addition, we found that total hydrated sugars may be a robust tracer for aged biomass burning aerosols.
Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Lisa Ernle, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, Jean-Daniel Paris, Andrea Pozzer, David Walter, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7209–7232,Short summary
We report on results that demonstrate the utility of non-methane hydrocarbons as source/sink identification tracers while providing their mixing ratios around the Arabian Peninsula. By introducing novel data-analysis approaches, we establish a new method for separating associated and non-associated (with liquids) gases. We formulate a relationship between hydrocarbon oxidative pairs that can be used to evaluate the relative abundance of the hydroxyl and chlorine radicals in the troposphere.
Emmanuel Arzoumanian, Felix R. Vogel, Ana Bastos, Bakhram Gaynullin, Olivier Laurent, Michel Ramonet, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2665–2677,Short summary
We tested commercial lower-cost CO2 sensors in laboratory and field studies to see if they can measure atmospheric CO2 mole fractions with less than 1 ppm bias (with monthly calibration), to allow continuous urban CO2 monitoring. We find that the sensors' CO2 readings are influenced by temperature, atmospheric pressure and water vapour content, but this can be corrected for by adding sensors (T, p, RH) and carefully calibrating each sensor against a high-precision instrument.
Mounir Chrit, Karine Sartelet, Jean Sciare, Marwa Majdi, José Nicolas, Jean-Eudes Petit, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18079–18100,
Marine Remaud, Frédéric Chevallier, Anne Cozic, Xin Lin, and Philippe Bousquet
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4489–4513,Short summary
We compare several versions of a global atmospheric transport model for the simulation of CO2. The representation of subgrid-scale processes modulates the interhemispheric gradient and the amplitude of the seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere. It has the largest impact over Brazil. Refining the horizontal resolution improves the simulation near emission hotspots or along the coastlines. The sensitivities to the land surface model and to the increase in vertical resolution are marginal.
Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Stephan Henne, Rona L. Thompson, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Toshinobu Machida, Jean-Daniel Paris, Motoki Sasakawa, Arjo Segers, Colm Sweeney, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4469–4487,Short summary
A Lagrangian particle dispersion model is used to simulate global fields of methane, constrained by observations through nudging. We show that this rather simple and computationally inexpensive method can give results similar to or as good as a computationally expensive Eulerian chemistry transport model with a data assimilation scheme. The three-dimensional methane fields are of interest to applications such as inverse modelling and satellite retrievals.
Igor B. Konovalov, Daria A. Lvova, Matthias Beekmann, Hiren Jethva, Eugene F. Mikhailov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Boris D. Belan, Valerii S. Kozlov, Philippe Ciais, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14889–14924,Short summary
A good knowledge of black carbon (BC) emissions from open biomass burning (BB) is an important prerequisite for reliable climate predictions, especially in the Arctic. This paper introduces a method to constrain a regional budget of BB BC emissions using satellite measurements of the absorption and extinction optical depths and evaluates its potential application in a large Siberian region.
Cécile Debevec, Stéphane Sauvage, Valérie Gros, Karine Sellegri, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Iasonas Stavroulas, Thierry Leonardis, Vincent Gaudion, Laurence Depelchin, Isabelle Fronval, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Dominique Baisnée, Bernard Bonsang, Chrysanthos Savvides, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14297–14325,Short summary
This work focuses on the study of the sources and fates of BVOCs and new particle formation (NPF) events in the eastern Mediterranean. NPF events were found on 14 out of 20 days of the campaign. NPF occurred at various condensational sinks and both under polluted and clean atmospheric conditions. Analysis of specific NPF periods of the mixed influence type highlighted that BVOC interactions with anthropogenic compounds enhanced nucleation formation and growth of new particles.
Maarten Krol, Marco de Bruine, Lars Killaars, Huug Ouwersloot, Andrea Pozzer, Yi Yin, Frederic Chevallier, Philippe Bousquet, Prabir Patra, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3109–3130,Short summary
The TransCom inter-comparison project regularly carries out studies to quantify errors in simulated atmospheric transport. This paper presents the first results of an age of air (AoA) inter-comparison of six global transport models. Following a protocol, six models simulated five tracers from which atmospheric transport times can easily be deduced. Results highlight that inter-model differences associated with atmospheric transport are still large and require further analysis.
Mounir Chrit, Karine Sartelet, Jean Sciare, Jorge Pey, José B. Nicolas, Nicolas Marchand, Evelyn Freney, Karine Sellegri, Matthias Beekmann, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9631–9659,Short summary
Fine particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is of concern due to its effects on health, climate, ecosystems and biological cycles, and visibility. These effects are especially important in the Mediterranean region. In this study, the air quality model Polyphemus is used to understand the sources of inorganic and organic particles in the western Mediterranean and evaluate the uncertainties linked to the model parameters and hypotheses related to condensation/evaporation in the model.
Xin Lin, Philippe Ciais, Philippe Bousquet, Michel Ramonet, Yi Yin, Yves Balkanski, Anne Cozic, Marc Delmotte, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Nuggehalli K. Indira, Robin Locatelli, Shushi Peng, Shilong Piao, Marielle Saunois, Panangady S. Swathi, Rong Wang, Camille Yver-Kwok, Yogesh K. Tiwari, and Lingxi Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9475–9497,Short summary
We simulate CH4 and CO2 using a zoomed global transport model with a horizontal resolution of ~50 km over South and East Asia, as well as a standard model version for comparison. Model performance is evaluated for both gases and versions at multiple timescales against a new collection of surface stations over this key GHG-emitting region. The evaluation at different timescales and comparisons between gases and model versions have implications for possible model improvements and inversions.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Dimitra Mamali, Eleni Marinou, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Panagiotis Kokkalis, Michael Kottas, Ioannis Binietoglou, Alexandra Tsekeri, Christos Keleshis, Ronny Engelmann, Holger Baars, Albert Ansmann, Vassilis Amiridis, Herman Russchenberg, and George Biskos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2897–2910,Short summary
The paper's scope is to evaluate the performance of in situ atmospheric aerosol instrumentation on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and the performance of algorithms used to calculate the aerosol mass from remote sensing instruments by comparing the two independent techniques to each other. Our results indicate that UAV-based aerosol measurements (using specific in situ and remote sensing instrumentation) can provide reliable ways to determine the aerosol mass throughout the atmosphere.
Isabelle Pison, Antoine Berchet, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Grégoire Broquet, Sébastien Conil, Marc Delmotte, Anita Ganesan, Olivier Laurent, Damien Martin, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, T. Gerard Spain, Alex Vermeulen, and Camille Yver Kwok
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3779–3798,Short summary
Methane emissions on the national scale in France in 2012 are inferred by assimilating continuous atmospheric mixing ratio measurements from nine stations of the European network ICOS. Two complementary inversion set-ups are computed and analysed: (i) a regional run correcting for the spatial distribution of fluxes in France and (ii) a sectorial run correcting fluxes for activity sectors on the national scale. The results are compared with existing inventories and other regional inversions.
Magnus Gålfalk, Martin Karlson, Patrick Crill, Philippe Bousquet, and David Bastviken
Biogeosciences, 15, 1549–1557,Short summary
We describe a quick in situ method for mapping ground surface cover, calculating areas of each surface type in a 10 x 10 m plot for each measurement. The method is robust, weather-independent, easily carried out, and uses wide-field imaging with a standard remote-controlled camera mounted on a very long extendible monopod from a height of 3–4.5 m. The method enables collection of detailed field reference data, critical in many remote sensing applications, such as wetland mapping.
Sébastien Ars, Grégoire Broquet, Camille Yver Kwok, Yelva Roustan, Lin Wu, Emmanuel Arzoumanian, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 5017–5037,Short summary
This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site combining the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a practical implementation based on a series of inversions of controlled methane and tracer point sources in different spatial configurations to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison with the classic tracer method.
Yunjiang Zhang, Lili Tang, Philip L. Croteau, Olivier Favez, Yele Sun, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Zhuang Wang, Florian Couvidat, Alexandre Albinet, Hongliang Zhang, Jean Sciare, André S. H. Prévôt, John T. Jayne, and Douglas R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14501–14517,Short summary
We conducted the first field measurements of non-refractory fine aerosols (NR-PM2.5) in a megacity of eastern China using a PM2.5-ACSM along with a PM1-ACSM measurement. Inter-comparisons demonstrated that the NR-PM2.5 components can be characterized. Substantial mass fractions of aerosol species were observed in the size range of 1–2.5 μm, with sulfate and SOA being the two largest contributors. The impacts of aerosol water driven by secondary inorganic aerosols on SOA formation were explored.
Mounir Chrit, Karine Sartelet, Jean Sciare, Jorge Pey, Nicolas Marchand, Florian Couvidat, Karine Sellegri, and Matthias Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12509–12531,
Cécile Debevec, Stéphane Sauvage, Valérie Gros, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Iasonas Stavroulas, Thérèse Salameh, Thierry Leonardis, Vincent Gaudion, Laurence Depelchin, Isabelle Fronval, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Dominique Baisnée, Bernard Bonsang, Chrysanthos Savvides, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11355–11388,Short summary
An intensive field campaign was conducted in March 2015 in the Eastern Mediterranean region, at a background site of Cyprus. We performed a detailed analysis of the chemical composition of air masses in gas and aerosol phase, and we applied a source apportionment analysis in order to identify the various origins of VOCs. The results suggest that VOCs are mainly of biogenic and regional background origins.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Vincent Michoud, Jean Sciare, Stéphane Sauvage, Sébastien Dusanter, Thierry Léonardis, Valérie Gros, Cerise Kalogridis, Nora Zannoni, Anaïs Féron, Jean-Eudes Petit, Vincent Crenn, Dominique Baisnée, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicolas Bonnaire, Nicolas Marchand, H. Langley DeWitt, Jorge Pey, Aurélie Colomb, François Gheusi, Sonke Szidat, Iasonas Stavroulas, Agnès Borbon, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8837–8865,Short summary
The ChArMEx SOP2 field campaign took place from 15 July to 5 August 2013 in the western Mediterranean Basin at Ersa, a remote site in Cape Corse. Exhaustive descriptions of the chemical composition of air masses in gas and aerosol phase were performed. An analysis of these measurements was performed using various source-receptor approaches. This led to the identification of several factors linked to primary sources but also to secondary processes of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin.
Thibaud Thonat, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Isabelle Pison, Zeli Tan, Qianlai Zhuang, Patrick M. Crill, Brett F. Thornton, David Bastviken, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Nikita Zimov, Tuomas Laurila, Juha Hatakka, Ove Hermansen, and Doug E. J. Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8371–8394,Short summary
Atmospheric methane simulations in the Arctic have been made for 2012 and compared to continuous observations at six measurement sites. All methane sources significantly affect the measurements at all stations, at least at the synoptic scale, except for biomass burning. An appropriate modelling framework combined with continuous observations of atmospheric methane enables us to gain knowledge on regional methane sources, including those which are usually poorly represented, such as freshwater.
Pierre Tulet, Andréa Di Muro, Aurélie Colomb, Cyrielle Denjean, Valentin Duflot, Santiago Arellano, Brice Foucart, Jérome Brioude, Karine Sellegri, Aline Peltier, Alessandro Aiuppa, Christelle Barthe, Chatrapatty Bhugwant, Soline Bielli, Patrice Boissier, Guillaume Boudoire, Thierry Bourrianne, Christophe Brunet, Fréderic Burnet, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Franck Gabarrot, Bo Galle, Gaetano Giudice, Christian Guadagno, Fréderic Jeamblu, Philippe Kowalski, Jimmy Leclair de Bellevue, Nicolas Marquestaut, Dominique Mékies, Jean-Marc Metzger, Joris Pianezze, Thierry Portafaix, Jean Sciare, Arnaud Tournigand, and Nicolas Villeneuve
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5355–5378,Short summary
The STRAP campaign was conducted in 2015 to investigate the volcanic plumes of Piton de La Fournaise (La Réunion, France). For the first time, measurements were conducted at the local (near the vent) and regional scales around the island. The STRAP 2015 campaign gave a unique set of multi-disciplinary data that can now be used by modellers to improve the numerical parameterisations of the physical and chemical evolution of the volcanic plumes.
Jann Schrod, Daniel Weber, Jaqueline Drücke, Christos Keleshis, Michael Pikridas, Martin Ebert, Bojan Cvetković, Slobodan Nickovic, Eleni Marinou, Holger Baars, Albert Ansmann, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Jean Sciare, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4817–4835,Short summary
In this paper we present data of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) from a 1-month campaign in the Eastern Mediterranean using unmanned aircraft systems (UASs, drones) and offline sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first time INPs were measured onboard a UAS. We find that INP concentrations were 1 magnitude higher aloft than at the ground, highlighting that surface-based measurement of INP may only be of limited significance for the situation at cloud level.
Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Peter Zotter, Robert Wolf, Emily Anne Bruns, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Jean Sciare, Ian J. Arnold, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Agnes Filep, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1043–1059,Short summary
Black carbon measurements are usually conducted with absorption filter photometers, which are prone to the filter-loading effect – a saturation of the instrumental response due to the accumulation of the sample in the filter matrix. In this paper, we conducted several field campaigns to investigate the hypothesis that this filter-loading effect depends on the optical properties of particles present in the filter matrix, especially on the coating of black carbon particles.
Saehee Lim, Xavier Faïn, Patrick Ginot, Vladimir Mikhalenko, Stanislav Kutuzov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Anna Kozachek, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3489–3505,Short summary
A record of light-absorbing refractory black carbon (rBC), emitted by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, was reconstructed from the ice cores drilled at a high-altitude eastern European site in Mt. Elbrus. This record reports for the first time the high-resolution rBC mass concentrations in the European outflows over the past 189 years. Our study suggests that the past changes in BC emissions of eastern Europe need to be considered in assessing ongoing air quality regulations.
Ruixiong Zhang, Yuhang Wang, Qiusheng He, Laiguo Chen, Yuzhong Zhang, Hang Qu, Charles Smeltzer, Jianfeng Li, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3083–3095,Short summary
We use short-lived reactive aromatics as proxies to diagnose transport of pollutants to Tibet. In situ observations of short-lived reactive aromatics across the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed using a regional chemistry and transport model. Our results suggest that the cut-off low system is a major pathway for long-range transport of pollutants such as black carbon. The modeling analysis reveals that even the state-of-the-science reanalysis cannot simulate this cut-off system accurately.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Shushi Peng, Shilong Piao, Philippe Bousquet, Philippe Ciais, Bengang Li, Xin Lin, Shu Tao, Zhiping Wang, Yuan Zhang, and Feng Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14545–14562,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, which accounts for about 20 % of the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases since 1750. Anthropogenic methane emissions from China may have been growing rapidly in the past decades because of increased coal mining and fast growing livestock. A good long-term methane emissions dataset is still lacking. Here, we produced a detailed bottom-up inventory of anthropogenic methane emissions from the eight major source sectors in China during 1980–2010.
Hannah Meusel, Uwe Kuhn, Andreas Reiffs, Chinmay Mallik, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Jan Schuladen, Birger Bohn, Uwe Parchatka, John N. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Laura Tomsche, Anna Novelli, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Oscar Hartogensis, Michael Pikridas, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Bettina Weber, Jos Lelieveld, Jonathan Williams, Ulrich Pöschl, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14475–14493,Short summary
There are many studies which show discrepancies between modeled and measured nitrous acid (HONO, precursor of OH radical) in the troposphere but with no satisfactory explanation. Ideal conditions to study the unknown sources of HONO were found on Cyprus, a remote Mediterranean island. Budget analysis of trace gas measurements indicates a common source of NO and HONO, which is not related to anthropogenic activity and is most likely derived from biologic activity in soils and subsequent emission.
Andreas Ostler, Ralf Sussmann, Prabir K. Patra, Sander Houweling, Marko De Bruine, Gabriele P. Stiller, Florian J. Haenel, Johannes Plieninger, Philippe Bousquet, Yi Yin, Marielle Saunois, Kaley A. Walker, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Thorsten Warneke, Zhiting Wang, Rigel Kivi, and John Robinson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4843–4859,Short summary
Our evaluation of column-averaged methane (XCH4) in models and TCCON reveals latitudinal biases between 0.4 % and 2.1 % originating from an inter-model spread in stratospheric CH4. Substituting model stratospheric CH4 fields by satellite data significantly reduces the large XCH4 bias observed for one model. For other models, showing only minor biases, the impact is ambiguous; i.e., the satellite uncertainty range hinders a more accurate model evaluation needed to improve inverse modeling.
Lynn Hazan, Jérôme Tarniewicz, Michel Ramonet, Olivier Laurent, and Amara Abbaris
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4719–4736,Short summary
The ATC automatically processes atmospheric greenhouse gases mole fractions of data sent daily by the ICOS network, this includes calibration and water vapor corrections. Data are stored in a database which has been developed with an emphasis on traceability. Instrument calibration and manual quality control lead to automatic revaluation of the mole fractions calculated in near-real time. Calibration corrections avoid artificial gradients between sites that could lead to error in flux estimates.
Cindy Cressot, Isabelle Pison, Peter J. Rayner, Philippe Bousquet, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9089–9108,Short summary
Several hypothesis have been made to attribute current trends in atmospheric methane to particular regions. In this context, this work aims at evaluating how well anomalies in methane emissions can be detected at the regional scale with currently available observing systems: two space-borne instruments and a surface network. Our results show that inter-annual analyses of methane emissions inferred by atmospheric inversions should always include an uncertainty assessment.
Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Wenche Aas, Franco Lucarelli, Noemí Pérez, Teresa Moreno, Fabrizia Cavalli, Hans Areskoug, Violeta Balan, Maria Catrambone, Darius Ceburnis, José C. Cerro, Sébastien Conil, Lusine Gevorgyan, Christoph Hueglin, Kornelia Imre, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sarah R. Leeson, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Marta Mitosinkova, Colin D. O'Dowd, Jorge Pey, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Véronique Riffault, Anna Ripoll, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Gerald Spindler, and Karl Espen Yttri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6107–6129,Short summary
Mineral dust content in PM10 was analysed at 20 regional background sites across Europe. Higher dust loadings were observed at most sites in summer, with the most elevated concentrations in the southern- and easternmost countries, due to external and regional sources. Saharan dust outbreaks impacted western and central European in summer and eastern Mediterranean sites in winter. The spatial distribution of some metals reveals the influence of specific anthropogenic sources on a regional scale.
Antoine Berchet, Philippe Bousquet, Isabelle Pison, Robin Locatelli, Frédéric Chevallier, Jean-Daniel Paris, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Tuomas Laurila, Juha Hatakka, Yrjo Viisanen, Doug E. J. Worthy, Euan Nisbet, Rebecca Fisher, James France, David Lowry, Viktor Ivakhov, and Ove Hermansen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4147–4157,Short summary
We propose insights based on atmospheric observations around the Arctic circle to evaluate estimates of methane emissions to the atmosphere from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of the observations and of high-resolution transport simulations, annual methane emissions from ESAS are estimated to range from 0.0 to 4.5 TgCH4 yr−1, with a maximum in summer and very low emissions in winter.
Benjamin Lebegue, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Benoit Wastine, Camille Yver Kwok, Olivier Laurent, Sauveur Belviso, Ali Guemri, Carole Philippon, Jeremiah Smith, and Sebastien Conil
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1221–1238,Short summary
In this study, we tested seven N2O analyzers from five different companies and compared the results with established techniques. The test protocols included the characterization of the short-term and long-term repeatability, drift, temperature dependence, linearity and sensitivity to water vapor. All of the analyzers showed a standard deviation better than 0.1 ppb for the 10-min averages. Some analyzers would benefit from improvements in temperature stability and water vapour correction.
V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. L. Croteau, S. Verlhac, R. Fröhlich, C. A. Belis, W. Aas, M. Äijälä, A. Alastuey, B. Artiñano, D. Baisnée, N. Bonnaire, M. Bressi, M. Canagaratna, F. Canonaco, C. Carbone, F. Cavalli, E. Coz, M. J. Cubison, J. K. Esser-Gietl, D. C. Green, V. Gros, L. Heikkinen, H. Herrmann, C. Lunder, M. C. Minguillón, G. Močnik, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, J.-E. Petit, E. Petralia, L. Poulain, M. Priestman, V. Riffault, A. Ripoll, R. Sarda-Estève, J. G. Slowik, A. Setyan, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. T. Jayne, and O. Favez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5063–5087,Short summary
A large intercomparison study of 13 Q-ACSM was conducted for a 3-week period in the region of Paris to evaluate the performance of this instrument and to monitor the major NR-PM1 chemical components. Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were found to be 9, 15, 19, 28, and 36% for NR-PM1, NO3, OM, SO4, and NH4, respectively. Some recommendations regarding best calibration practices, standardized data processing and data treatment are also provided.
C. Yver Kwok, O. Laurent, A. Guemri, C. Philippon, B. Wastine, C. W. Rella, C. Vuillemin, F. Truong, M. Delmotte, V. Kazan, M. Darding, B. Lebègue, C. Kaiser, I. Xueref-Rémy, and M. Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3867–3892,Short summary
We present the results of tests of CRDS instruments in the laboratory (47 instruments) and in the field (15 instruments). We demonstrate that, thanks to rigorous testing, newer models generally perform better than older models, especially in terms of reproducibility between instruments. In the field, we see the importance of individual diagnostics during the installation phase, and we show the value of calibration and target gases that assess the quality of the data.
A. Berchet, I. Pison, F. Chevallier, J.-D. Paris, P. Bousquet, J.-L. Bonne, M. Y. Arshinov, B. D. Belan, C. Cressot, D. K. Davydov, E. J. Dlugokencky, A. V. Fofonov, A. Galanin, J. Lavrič, T. Machida, R. Parker, M. Sasakawa, R. Spahni, B. D. Stocker, and J. Winderlich
Biogeosciences, 12, 5393–5414,
R. Locatelli, P. Bousquet, M. Saunois, F. Chevallier, and C. Cressot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9765–9780,
A. Inness, A.-M. Blechschmidt, I. Bouarar, S. Chabrillat, M. Crepulja, R. J. Engelen, H. Eskes, J. Flemming, A. Gaudel, F. Hendrick, V. Huijnen, L. Jones, J. Kapsomenakis, E. Katragkou, A. Keppens, B. Langerock, M. de Mazière, D. Melas, M. Parrington, V. H. Peuch, M. Razinger, A. Richter, M. G. Schultz, M. Suttie, V. Thouret, M. Vrekoussis, A. Wagner, and C. Zerefos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5275–5303,Short summary
The paper presents results from data assimilation studies with the new Composition-IFS model developed in the MACC project. This system was used in MACC to produce daily analyses and 5-day forecasts of atmospheric composition and is now run daily in the EU’s Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. The paper looks at the quality of the CO, O3 and NO2 analysis fields obtained with this system, comparing them against observations, a control run and an older version of the model.
R. Locatelli, P. Bousquet, F. Hourdin, M. Saunois, A. Cozic, F. Couvreux, J.-Y. Grandpeix, M.-P. Lefebvre, C. Rio, P. Bergamaschi, S. D. Chambers, U. Karstens, V. Kazan, S. van der Laan, H. A. J. Meijer, J. Moncrieff, M. Ramonet, H. A. Scheeren, C. Schlosser, M. Schmidt, A. Vermeulen, and A. G. Williams
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 129–150,
L. M. A. Alvarado, A. Richter, M. Vrekoussis, F. Wittrock, A. Hilboll, S. F. Schreier, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4133–4150,Short summary
An improved glyoxal retrieval for OMI measurements using the DOAS method has been developed. The retrieval is based on sensitivity tests for the selection of most appropriate retrieval parameters. Also, corrections for reduction of interferences with other species have been applied. In addition, the link between pyrogenic emissions and glyoxal over regions with large wildfires have been investigated, and showed that fires are an important source of glyoxal.
R. L. Thompson, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, P. K. Patra, P. Bergamaschi, F. Chevallier, E. Dlugokencky, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, A. Vermeulen, Y. Tohjima, A. Jordan, L. Haszpra, M. Steinbacher, S. Van der Laan, T. Aalto, F. Meinhardt, M. E. Popa, J. Moncrieff, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6177–6194,
R. L. Thompson, P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, C. Wilson, P. Bergamaschi, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, M. Saunois, M. Chipperfield, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4349–4368,
C. Cressot, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, C. Crevoisier, E. J. Dlugokencky, A. Fortems-Cheiney, C. Frankenberg, R. Parker, I. Pison, R. A. Scheepmaker, S. A. Montzka, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, and R. L. Langenfelds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 577–592,
L. K. Whalley, M. A. Blitz, M. Desservettaz, P. W. Seakins, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3425–3440,
I. Pison, B. Ringeval, P. Bousquet, C. Prigent, and F. Papa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11609–11623,
R. Locatelli, P. Bousquet, F. Chevallier, A. Fortems-Cheney, S. Szopa, M. Saunois, A. Agusti-Panareda, D. Bergmann, H. Bian, P. Cameron-Smith, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Gloor, S. Houweling, S. R. Kawa, M. Krol, P. K. Patra, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, R. Saito, and C. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9917–9937,
M. Lopez, M. Schmidt, M. Delmotte, A. Colomb, V. Gros, C. Janssen, S. J. Lehman, D. Mondelain, O. Perrussel, M. Ramonet, I. Xueref-Remy, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7343–7358,
A. Berchet, I. Pison, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, S. Conil, M. Geever, T. Laurila, J. Lavrič, M. Lopez, J. Moncrieff, J. Necki, M. Ramonet, M. Schmidt, M. Steinbacher, and J. Tarniewicz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7115–7132,
S. Hammer, G. Konrad, A. T. Vermeulen, O. Laurent, M. Delmotte, A. Jordan, L. Hazan, S. Conil, and I. Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1201–1216,
G. Pinardi, M. Van Roozendael, N. Abuhassan, C. Adams, A. Cede, K. Clémer, C. Fayt, U. Frieß, M. Gil, J. Herman, C. Hermans, F. Hendrick, H. Irie, A. Merlaud, M. Navarro Comas, E. Peters, A. J. M. Piters, O. Puentedura, A. Richter, A. Schönhardt, R. Shaiganfar, E. Spinei, K. Strong, H. Takashima, M. Vrekoussis, T. Wagner, F. Wittrock, and S. Yilmaz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 167–185,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsField comparison of two novel open-path instruments that measure dry deposition and emission of ammonia using flux-gradient and eddy covariance methodsDevelopment of multi-channel whole-air sampling equipment onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle for investigating volatile organic compounds' vertical distribution in the planetary boundary layerElectrochemical sensors on board a Zeppelin NT: in-flight evaluation of low-cost trace gas measurementsEvaluating the performance of a Picarro G2207-i analyser for high-precision atmospheric O2 measurementsAirborne flux measurements of ammonia over the southern Great Plains using chemical ionization mass spectrometryOptical receiver characterizations and corrections for ground-based and airborne measurements of spectral actinic flux densitiesDevelopment and validation of a new in situ technique to measure total gaseous chlorine in airTrue eddy accumulation – Part 1: Solutions to the problem of non-vanishing mean vertical wind velocityTrue eddy accumulation – Part 2: Theory and experiment of the short-time eddy accumulation methodChemical ionization mass spectrometry utilizing ammonium ions (NH4+ CIMS) for measurements of organic compounds in the atmosphereDirect measurement of N2O5 heterogeneous uptake coefficients on ambient aerosols via an aerosol flow tube system: design, characterization and performanceOnline measurements of cycloalkanes based on NO+ chemical ionization in proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)Intercomparison of in situ measurements of ambient NH3: instrument performance and application under field conditionsA lightweight broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer for NO2 measurement on uncrewed aerial vehiclesOn the development of a new prototype PTR-ToF-MS instrument and its application to the detection of atmospheric aminesNew methods for the calibration of optical resonators: Integrated Calibration by means of Optical Modulation (ICOM) and Narrow Band Cavity ring-down (NB-CRD)Low-complexity methods to mitigate the impact of environmental variables on low-cost UAS-based atmospheric carbon dioxide measurementsComparison of airborne measurements of NO, NO2, HONO, NOy, and CO during FIREX-AQDevelopment of a broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of ambient NO3, NO2, and H2ODevelopment and testing of a novel sulfur dioxide sondeTemperature-dependent sensitivity of iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometersA quadcopter unmanned aerial system (UAS)-based methodology for measuring biomass burning emission factorsA modular field system enabling cavity ring-down spectroscopy of in-situ vapor observations in harsh environments: The ISE-CUBE systemAir quality observations onboard commercial and targeted Zeppelin flights in Germany – a platform for high-resolution trace-gas and aerosol measurements within the planetary boundary layerPerformance of open-path lasers and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic systems in agriculture emissions researchMetrology for low-cost CO2 sensors applications: the case of a steady-state through-flow (SS-TF) chamber for CO2 fluxes observationsA relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) LOPAP system for flux measurements of nitrous acid (HONO)Fill dynamics and sample mixing in the AirCoreIRIS analyser assessment reveals sub-hourly variability of isotope ratios in carbon dioxide at Baring Head, New Zealand's atmospheric observatory in the Southern OceanA versatile vacuum ultraviolet ion source for reduced pressure bipolar chemical ionization mass spectrometryDesign and characterization of a semi-open dynamic chamber for measuring biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plantsFirst eddy covariance flux measurements of semi-volatile organic compounds with the PTR3-TOF-MSAn unmanned aerial vehicle sampling platform for atmospheric water vapor isotopes in polar environmentsNovel approach to observing system simulation experiments improves information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurementsUAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) – a versatile instrument for trace gas measurements on airborne platformsModification of a conventional photolytic converter for improving aircraft measurements of NO2 via chemiluminescenceBromine speciation in volcanic plumes: new in situ derivatization LC-MS method for the determination of gaseous hydrogen bromide by gas diffusion denuder samplingApplication of a mobile laboratory using a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) for characterisation of volatile organic compounds and atmospheric trace gasesDevelopment of a laser-photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of nitrous acid and hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphereCalibration and assessment of electrochemical low-cost sensors in remote alpine harsh environmentsIntercomparison of IBBCEAS, NitroMAC and FTIR analyses for HONO, NO2 and CH2O measurements during the reaction of NO2 with H2O vapour in the simulation chamber CESAMImpact of ozone and inlet design on the quantification of isoprene-derived organic nitrates by thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS)The Berkeley Environmental Air-quality and CO2 Network: field calibrations of sensor temperature dependence and assessment of network scale CO2 accuracyIodide CIMS and m∕z 62: the detection of HNO3 as NO3− in the presence of PAN, peroxyacetic acid and ozoneAirborne Mid-Infrared Cavity enhanced Absorption spectrometer (AMICA)Ethane measurement by Picarro CRDS G2201-i in laboratory and field conditions: potential and limitationsOn-line solid phase microextraction derivatization for the sensitive determination of multi-oxygenated volatile compounds in airThermal dissociation cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for measuring NO2, RO2NO2, and RONO2 in the atmosphereInternal consistency of the IAGOS ozone and carbon monoxide measurements for the last 25 yearsTesting the altitude attribution and vertical resolution of AirCore measurements with a new spiking method
Daan Swart, Jun Zhang, Shelley van der Graaf, Susanna Rutledge-Jonker, Arjan Hensen, Stijn Berkhout, Pascal Wintjen, René van der Hoff, Marty Haaima, Arnoud Frumau, Pim van den Bulk, Ruben Schulte, Margreet van Zanten, and Thomas van Goethem
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 529–546,Short summary
During a 5-week comparison campaign, we tested two set-ups to measure half hourly ammonia fluxes. The eddy covariance and flux gradient systems showed very similar results when the upwind terrain was both homogeneous and free of obstacles. We discuss the technical performance and practical limitations of both systems. Measurements from these instruments can facilitate the study of processes behind ammonia deposition, an important contributor to eutrophication and acidificationin natural areas.
Suding Yang, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, Xuena Yu, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Xiaofeng Huang, Dongmei Zhang, Haibin Xu, Shuchen Lin, Hefan Liu, Miao Feng, Danlin Song, Qinwen Tan, Jinhui Cui, Lifan Wang, Ying Chen, Wenjie Wang, Haijiong Sun, Mengdi Song, Liuwei Kong, Yi Liu, Linhui Wei, Xianwu Zhu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 501–512,Short summary
Vertical observation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential to study the spatial distribution and evolution patterns of VOCs in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). This paper describes multi-channel whole-air sampling equipment onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for near-continuous VOC vertical observation. Vertical profiles of VOCs and trace gases during the evolution of the PBL in south-western China have been successfully obtained by deploying the newly developed UAV system.
Tobias Schuldt, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Christian Wesolek, Franz Rohrer, Benjamin Winter, Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Ralf Tillmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 373–386,Short summary
We report in situ measurements of air pollutant concentrations within the planetary boundary layer on board a Zeppelin NT in Germany. We highlight the in-flight evaluation of electrochemical sensors that were installed inside a hatch box located on the bottom of the Zeppelin. Results from this work emphasize the potential of these sensors for other in situ airborne applications, e.g., on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
Leigh S. Fleming, Andrew C. Manning, Penelope A. Pickers, Grant L. Forster, and Alex J. Etchells
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 387–401,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric O2 can help constrain the carbon cycle processes and quantify fossil fuel CO2 emissions; however, measurement of atmospheric O2 is very challenging, and existing analysers are complex systems to build and maintain. We have tested a new O2 analyser (Picarro Inc. G2207-i) in the laboratory and at Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory. We have found that the G2207-i does not perform as well as an existing O2 analyser from Sable Systems Inc.
Siegfried Schobesberger, Emma L. D'Ambro, Lejish Vettikkat, Ben H. Lee, Qiaoyun Peng, David M. Bell, John E. Shilling, Manish Shrivastava, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome Fast, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 247–271,Short summary
We present a new, highly sensitive technique for measuring atmospheric ammonia, an important trace gas that is emitted mainly by agriculture. We deployed the instrument on an aircraft during research flights over rural Oklahoma. Due to its fast response, we could analyze correlations with turbulent winds and calculate ammonia emissions from nearby areas at 1 to 2 km resolution. We observed high spatial variability and point sources that are not resolved in the US National Emissions Inventory.
Birger Bohn and Insa Lohse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 209–233,Short summary
Optical receivers for solar spectral actinic radiation are designed for angle-independent sensitivities within a hemisphere. Remaining imperfections can be compensated for by receiver-specific corrections based on laboratory characterizations and radiative transfer calculations of spectral radiance distributions. The corrections cover a wide range of realistic atmospheric conditions and were applied to ground-based and airborne measurements in a wavelength range 280–660 nm.
Teles C. Furlani, RenXi Ye, Jordan Stewart, Leigh R. Crilley, Peter M. Edwards, Tara F. Kahan, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 181–193,Short summary
This study describes a new technique to measure total gaseous chlorine, which is the sum of gas-phase chlorine-containing chemicals. The method converts any chlorine-containing molecule to hydrogen chloride that can be detected in real time using a cavity ring-down spectrometer. The new method was validated through laboratory experiments, as well as by making measurements of ambient outdoor air and indoor air during cleaning with a chlorine-based cleaner.
Anas Emad and Lukas Siebicke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 29–40,Short summary
The true eddy accumulation (TEA) method enables measuring atmospheric exchange with slow-response gas analyzers. TEA is formulated assuming ideal conditions with a zero mean vertical wind velocity during the averaging interval. This core assumption is rarely valid under field conditions. Here, we extend the TEA equation to accommodate nonideal conditions. The new equation allows constraining the systematic error term in the measured fluxes and the possibility to minimize or remove it.
Anas Emad and Lukas Siebicke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 41–55,Short summary
A new micrometeorological method to measure atmospheric exchange is proposed, and a prototype sampler is evaluated. The new method, called short-time eddy accumulation, is a variant of the eddy accumulation method, which is suited for use with slow gas analyzers. The new method enables adaptive time-varying accumulation intervals, which brings many advantages to flux measurements such as an improved dynamic range and the ability to run eddy accumulation in a continuous flow-through mode.
Lu Xu, Matthew M. Coggon, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Jessica B. Gilman, Michael A. Robinson, Martin Breitenlechner, Aaron Lamplugh, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, J. Andrew Neuman, Gordon A. Novak, Patrick R. Veres, Steven S. Brown, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7353–7373,Short summary
We describe the development and operation of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer using an ammonium–water cluster (NH4+·H2O) as a reagent ion. NH4+·H2O is a highly versatile reagent ion for measurements of a wide range of oxygenated organic compounds. The major product ion is the cluster with NH4+ produced via ligand-switching reactions. The instrumental sensitivities of analytes depend on the binding energy of the analyte–NH4+ cluster; sensitivities can be estimated using voltage scanning.
Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, Tianyu Zhai, Chunmeng Li, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7019–7037,Short summary
N2O5 is an important reservoir of atmospheric nitrogen, on whose interface reaction ambient particles can largely influence the fate of nitrogen oxides and air quality. In this study, we develop an approach to enable the reactions of N2O5 on ambient particles directly in a tube reactor, deriving the reaction rates with high accuracy by means of a chemistry model. Its successful application helps complement the data scarcity and to fill the knowledge gap between laboratory and field results.
Yubin Chen, Bin Yuan, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Caihong Wu, Xin Song, Yibo Huangfu, Xiao-Bing Li, Yijia Liao, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6935–6947,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate that selective online measurements of cycloalkanes can be achieved using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry with NO+ chemical ionization (NO+ PTR-ToF-MS), with fast response and low detection limits. Applications of this method in both urban air and emission sources will be shown.
Marsailidh M. Twigg, Augustinus J. C. Berkhout, Nicholas Cowan, Sabine Crunaire, Enrico Dammers, Volker Ebert, Vincent Gaudion, Marty Haaima, Christoph Häni, Lewis John, Matthew R. Jones, Bjorn Kamps, John Kentisbeer, Thomas Kupper, Sarah R. Leeson, Daiana Leuenberger, Nils O. B. Lüttschwager, Ulla Makkonen, Nicholas A. Martin, David Missler, Duncan Mounsor, Albrecht Neftel, Chad Nelson, Eiko Nemitz, Rutger Oudwater, Celine Pascale, Jean-Eudes Petit, Andrea Pogany, Nathalie Redon, Jörg Sintermann, Amy Stephens, Mark A. Sutton, Yuk S. Tang, Rens Zijlmans, Christine F. Braban, and Bernhard Niederhauser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6755–6787,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) gas in the atmosphere impacts the environment, human health, and, indirectly, climate. Historic NH3 monitoring was labour intensive, and the instruments were complicated. Over the last decade, there has been a rapid technology development, including “plug-and-play” instruments. This study is an extensive field comparison of the currently available technologies and provides evidence that for routine monitoring, standard operating protocols are required for datasets to be comparable.
Caroline C. Womack, Steven S. Brown, Steven J. Ciciora, Ru-Shan Gao, Richard J. McLaughlin, Michael A. Robinson, Yinon Rudich, and Rebecca A. Washenfelder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6643–6652,Short summary
We present a new miniature instrument to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. NO2 contributes to the formation of pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, and its concentration can vary widely near sources. We developed this lightweight (3.05 kg) low-power (<35 W) instrument to measure NO2 on uncrewed aircraft vehicles (UAVs) and demonstrate that it has the accuracy and precision needed for atmospheric field measurements.
Alexander Håland, Tomáš Mikoviny, Elisabeth Emilie Syse, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6297–6307,Short summary
PTR-MS is widely used in atmospheric sciences for the detection of non-methane organic trace gases. The two most widely used types of PTR-MS instruments differ in their ion source and drift tube design. We herein present a new prototype PTR-MS instrument that hybridizes these designs and combines a conventional hollow cathode glow discharge ion source with a focusing ion–molecule reactor. We also show how this new instrument performs in detecting atmospheric amines.
Henning Finkenzeller, Denis Pöhler, Martin Horbanski, Johannes Lampel, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Optical resonators enhance the light path in compact instruments, thereby improving the sensitivity. Determining the established path length in the instrument is a prerequisite for the accurate determination of trace gas concentrations but can be a significant complication in the use of such resonators. Here we show two calibration techniques which are relatively simple and free of consumables, but still provide accurate calibrations. This facilitates the use of optical resonators.
Gustavo Britto Hupsel de Azevedo, Bill Doyle, Christopher A. Fiebrich, and David Schvartzman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5599–5618,Short summary
Strong changes in pressure, temperature, and humidity occur when small scientific aircraft ascend through the atmosphere to measure carbon dioxide. These strong changes can produce errors in the carbon dioxide measurements. To avoid these errors, we present a low-cost and simple correction method. This low-complexity method allows more researchers to study atmospheric carbon dioxide, reducing entry barriers in this field.
Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, J. Andrew Neuman, Steven S. Brown, Hannah M. Allen, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Matthew M. Coggon, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hongyu Guo, Hannah A. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Christopher D. Holmes, L. Gregory Huey, Jose L. Jimenez, Aaron D. Lamplugh, Young Ro Lee, Jakob Lindaas, Richard H. Moore, Benjamin A. Nault, John B. Nowak, Demetrios Pagonis, Pamela S. Rickly, Michael A. Robinson, Andrew W. Rollins, Vanessa Selimovic, Jason M. St. Clair, David Tanner, Krystal T. Vasquez, Patrick R. Veres, Carsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Caroline C. Womack, Lu Xu, Kyle J. Zarzana, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4901–4930,Short summary
Understanding fire emission impacts on the atmosphere is key to effective air quality management and requires accurate measurements. We present a comparison of airborne measurements of key atmospheric species in ambient air and in fire smoke. We show that most instruments performed within instrument uncertainties. In some cases, further work is needed to fully characterize instrument performance. Comparing independent measurements using different techniques is important to assess their accuracy.
Woohui Nam, Changmin Cho, Begie Perdigones, Tae Siek Rhee, and Kyung-Eun Min
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4473–4487,Short summary
We describe our vibration-resistant instrument for measuring ambient NO3, NO2, and H2O based on cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy. By simultaneous retrieval of H2O with the other species using a measured H2O absorption spectrum, direct quantifications among all species are possible without any pre-treatment for H2O. Our instrument achieves the effective light path to ~101.5 km, which allows the sensitive measurements of NO3 and NO2 as 1.41 pptv and 6.92 ppbv (1σ) in 1 s.
Subin Yoon, Alexander Kotsakis, Sergio L. Alvarez, Mark G. Spychala, Elizabeth Klovenski, Paul Walter, Gary Morris, Ernesto Corrales, Alfredo Alan, Jorge A. Diaz, and James H. Flynn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4373–4384,Short summary
SO2 is adverse to human health and the environment. A single SO2 sonde was developed to provide direct SO2 measurement with a greater vertical extent, a lower limit of detection, and less uncertainty relative to the previous dual-sonde method. The single sonde was tested in the field near volcanoes and anthropogenic sources where the sonde measured SO2 ranging from 0.5 to 940 ppb. This lighter-weight payload can be a great candidate to attach to small drones and unmanned aerial vehicles.
Michael A. Robinson, J. Andrew Neuman, L. Gregory Huey, James M. Roberts, Steven S. Brown, and Patrick R. Veres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4295–4305,Short summary
Iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is commonly used in atmospheric chemistry laboratory studies and field campaigns. Deployment of the NOAA iodide CIMS instrument in the summer of 2021 indicated a significant and overlooked temperature dependence of the instrument sensitivity. This work explores which analytes are influenced by this phenomena. Additionally, we recommend controls to reduce this effect for future field deployments.
Roland Vernooij, Patrik Winiger, Martin Wooster, Tercia Strydom, Laurent Poulain, Ulrike Dusek, Mark Grosvenor, Gareth J. Roberts, Nick Schutgens, and Guido R. van der Werf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4271–4294,Short summary
Landscape fires are a substantial emitter of greenhouse gases and aerosols. Previous studies have indicated savanna emission factors to be highly variable. Improving fire emission estimates, and understanding future climate- and human-induced changes in fire regimes, requires in situ measurements. We present a drone-based method that enables the collection of a large amount of high-quality emission factor measurements that do not have the biases of aircraft or surface measurements.
Andrew Walter Seidl, Harald Sodemann, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
It is challenging to make field measurements of stable water isotopes in the Arctic. To this end, we present a modular stable water isotope analyzer deployment system, the ISE-CUBEs. The system operated for a two week field campaign during the Arctic winter. We evaluate the system’s performance and analyze any potential impact that the field conditions might have had on the isotopic measurements.
Ralf Tillmann, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Franz Rohrer, Benjamin Winter, Christian Wesolek, Tobias Schuldt, Anne C. Lange, Philipp Franke, Elmar Friese, Michael Decker, Robert Wegener, Morten Hundt, Oleg Aseev, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3827–3842,Short summary
We report in situ measurements of air pollutant concentrations within the planetary boundary layer on board a Zeppelin in Germany. The low costs of commercial flights provide an affordable and efficient method to improve our understanding of changes in emissions in space and time. The experimental setup expands the capabilities of this platform and provides insights into primary and secondary pollution observations and planetary boundary layer dynamics which determine air quality significantly.
Mei Bai, Zoe Loh, David W. T. Griffith, Debra Turner, Richard Eckard, Robert Edis, Owen T. Denmead, Glenn W. Bryant, Clare Paton-Walsh, Matthew Tonini, Sean M. McGinn, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3593–3610,Short summary
The open-path laser (OPL) and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) are used in agricultural research, but their error in emissions research has not been the focus of studies. We conducted trace gas release trials and herd and paddock emission studies to compare their applicability and performance. The OP-FTIR has better stability in stable conditions than OPL. The CH4 OPL accurately detects the low background level of CH4, but the NH3 OPL only detects background values >10 ppbv.
Roger Curcoll, Josep-Anton Morguí, Armand Kamnang, Lídia Cañas, Arturo Vargas, and Claudia Grossi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2807–2818,Short summary
Low-cost air enquirer kits, including CO2 and environmental parameter sensors, have been designed, built, and tested in a new steady-state through-flow chamber for simultaneous measurements of CO2 fluxes in soil and CO2 concentrations in air. A CO2 calibration and multiparametric fitting reduced the total uncertainty of CO2 concentration by 90 %. This system allows continuous measurement of CO2 fluxes and CO2 ambient air, with low cost (EUR 1200), low energy demand (<5 W), and low maintenance.
Lisa von der Heyden, Walter Wißdorf, Ralf Kurtenbach, and Jörg Kleffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1983–2000,Short summary
A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system based on the LOPAP technique for the quantification of vertical fluxes of nitrous acid (HONO) was developed and tested in a field campaign. Typical diurnal variations of the HONO fluxes were observed with low, partly negative fluxes during night-time and higher positive fluxes around noon. The highest correlation of the HONO flux was observed with the product of the NO2 photolysis frequency and the NO2 concentration.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1903–1916,Short summary
The AirCore collects a continuous air sample in a long tube that can be read later when the captured air is slowly pushed through an analyzer. Much of the variation of gas composition encountered during collection is preserved, like having up to ~ 100 separate air samples. This is illustrated through examples of actual flights, and the analysis algorithm is described. The AirCore provides access to air as high as the mid stratosphere, enabling validation for satellite air composition soundings.
Peter Sperlich, Gordon W. Brailsford, Rowena C. Moss, John McGregor, Ross J. Martin, Sylvia Nichol, Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher, Beata Bukosa, Magda Mandic, C. Ian Schipper, Paul Krummel, and Alan D. Griffiths
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1631–1656,Short summary
We tested an in situ analyser for carbon and oxygen isotopes in atmospheric CO2 at Baring Head, New Zealand’s observatory for Southern Ocean baseline air. The analyser was able to resolve regional signals of the terrestrial carbon cycle, although the analysis of small events was limited by analytical uncertainty. Further improvement of the instrument performance would be desirable for the robust analysis of distant signals and to resolve the small variability in Southern Ocean baseline air.
Martin Breitenlechner, Gordon A. Novak, J. Andrew Neuman, Andrew W. Rollins, and Patrick R. Veres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1159–1169,Short summary
We coupled a new ion source to a commercially available state-of-the-art trace gas analyzer. The instrument is particularly well suited for conducting high-altitude observations, addressing the challenges of low ambient pressures and a complex sample matrix. The new instrument and ion source provides significant advantages to more traditional modes of operation, without sacrificing the sensitivity and flexibility of this technique.
Jianqiang Zeng, Yanli Zhang, Huina Zhang, Wei Song, Zhenfeng Wu, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 79–93,Short summary
The emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from plant leaves is an essential part of biosphere–atmosphere interactions. Here we demonstrate how a dynamic chamber for measuring branch-scale BVOC emissions could be characterized both in the lab for adsorptive losses and in the field for ambient–enclosure environmental differences. The results also imply emission factors for terpenes might be underestimated if measured using dynamic chambers without certified transfer efficiencies.
Lukas Fischer, Martin Breitenlechner, Eva Canaval, Wiebke Scholz, Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Thomas G. Karl, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 8019–8039,Short summary
Ecosystems emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are then oxidized in the atmosphere, contributing to ozone and secondary aerosol formation. While flux measurements of BVOCs are state of the art, flux measurements of the less volatile oxidation products are difficult to achieve due to inlet losses. Here we present first flux measurements, utilizing a novel PTR3 instrument in combination with a specially designed wall-less inlet we put on top of the Hyytiälä tower in Finland.
Kevin S. Rozmiarek, Bruce H. Vaughn, Tyler R. Jones, Valerie Morris, William B. Skorski, Abigail G. Hughes, Jack Elston, Sonja Wahl, Anne-Katrine Faber, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7045–7067,Short summary
We have designed an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sampling platform for operation in extreme polar environments that is capable of sampling atmospheric water vapor for subsequent measurement of water isotopes. During flight, we measure location, temperature, humidity, and pressure to determine the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using algorithms, allowing for strategic decision-making by the pilot to collect samples in glass flasks contained in the nose cone of the UAV.
Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Sreenath Paleri, Matthias Sühring, Brian J. Butterworth, Christopher Florian, Matthias Mauder, David M. Plummer, Luise Wanner, Ke Xu, and Ankur R. Desai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6929–6954,Short summary
The key points are the following. (i) Integrative observing system design can multiply the information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurements. (ii) Catalyzing numerical simulations and first-principles machine learning open up observing system simulation experiments to novel applications. (iii) Use cases include natural climate solutions, emission inventory validation, urban air quality, and industry leak detection.
Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, Dale F. Hurst, Geoff S. Dutton, Bradley D. Hall, J. David Nance, Ben R. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura P. Wolton, Audra McClure-Begley, James W. Elkins, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Laurel A. Watts, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Bruce C. Daube, Yenny Gonzalez Ramos, Roisin Commane, Gregory W. Santoni, Jasna V. Pittman, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric Kort, Glenn S. Diskin, and T. Paul Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6795–6819,Short summary
We built UCATS to study atmospheric chemistry and transport. It has measured trace gases including CFCs, N2O, SF6, CH4, CO, and H2 with gas chromatography, as well as ozone and water vapor. UCATS has been part of missions to study the tropical tropopause; transport of air into the stratosphere; greenhouse gases, transport, and chemistry in the troposphere; and ozone chemistry, on both piloted and unmanned aircraft. Its design, capabilities, and some results are shown and described here.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Uwe Parchatka, Ivan Tadic, Birger Bohn, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Hartwig Harder, Flora Kluge, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Florian Obersteiner, Martin Zöger, Raphael Doerich, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6759–6776,Short summary
NO2 plays a central role in atmospheric photochemical processes and requires accurate measurements. This research presents NO2 data obtained via chemiluminescence using a photolytic converter from airborne studies around Cabo Verde and laboratory investigations. We show the limits and error-proneness of a conventional blue light converter in aircraft measurements affected by humidity and NO levels and suggest the use of an alternative quartz converter for more reliable results.
Alexandra Gutmann, Nicole Bobrowski, Marcello Liotta, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6395–6406,Short summary
Motivated by a special interest in bromine chemistry in volcanic plumes, the study presented here describes a new method for the quantitative collection of gaseous hydrogen bromide in gas diffusion denuders. The hydrogen bromide reacted during sampling with appropriate epoxides applied to the denuder walls. The denuder sampling assembly was successfully deployed in the volcanic plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua.
Rebecca L. Wagner, Naomi J. Farren, Jack Davison, Stuart Young, James R. Hopkins, Alastair C. Lewis, David C. Carslaw, and Marvin D. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6083–6100,Short summary
We describe the use of a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) in a mobile laboratory to provide on-road, high spatial and temporal measurements of CO2, CH4, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases. Results are presented that highlight the potential of this platform for developing characterisation methods of different emissions sources in complex urban areas.
Brandon Bottorff, Emily Reidy, Levi Mielke, Sebastien Dusanter, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6039–6056,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl (OH) radicals, the primary oxidant in the atmosphere. Accurate measurements of HONO are thus important to understand the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. A new instrument capable of measuring atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) with high sensitivity is presented, utilizing laser photofragmentation of ambient HONO and subsequent detection of the OH radical fragment.
Federico Dallo, Daniele Zannoni, Jacopo Gabrieli, Paolo Cristofanelli, Francescopiero Calzolari, Fabrizio de Blasi, Andrea Spolaor, Dario Battistel, Rachele Lodi, Warren Raymond Lee Cairns, Ann Mari Fjæraa, Paolo Bonasoni, and Carlo Barbante
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6005–6021,Short summary
Our work showed how the adoption of low-cost technology could be useful in environmental research and monitoring. We focused our work on tropospheric ozone, but we also showed how to make a general purpose low-cost sensing system which may be adapted and optimised to be used in many other case studies. Given the importance of providing quality data, we put a lot of effort in the sensor's calibration, and we believe that our results show how to exploit the potential of the low-cost technology.
Hongming Yi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Aline Gratien, Vincent Michoud, Edouard Pangui, Jean-Francois Doussin, and Weidong Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5701–5715,Short summary
HONO and NO2 play a crucial role in the atmospheric oxidation capacity that affects the regional air quality and global climate. Accurate measurements of HONO are challenging due to the drawback of existing detection methods. Calibration-free high-sensitivity direct, simultaneous measurements of NO2, HONO and CH2O with UV-IBBCEAS provide accurate and fast quantitative analysis of their concentration variation within their lifetime by intercomparison with NOx, FTIR and NitroMAC sensors.
Patrick Dewald, Raphael Dörich, Jan Schuladen, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5501–5519,Short summary
Organic nitrates generated from the reaction between isoprene and the nitrate radical (ISOP-NITs) were detected via their thermal dissociation in heated quartz inlets to nitrogen dioxide monitored by cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent dissociation profiles of ISOP-NITs in the presence of ozone (O3) are broad in contrast to narrow profiles of common reference compounds. We demonstrate that this broadening is caused by O3-assisted reactions of ISOP-NITs on quartz surfaces.
Erin R. Delaria, Jinsol Kim, Helen L. Fitzmaurice, Catherine Newman, Paul J. Wooldridge, Kevin Worthington, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5487–5500,Short summary
The use of a dense network of low-cost CO2 sensors is an attractive option for measuring CO2 emissions in cities. However, these low-cost sensors are also subject to uncertainties. Here, we describe a novel method of field calibration for correcting temperature-related errors in the CO2 sensors deployed in the BEACO2N network. We show that with this temperature correction, we can achieve a sufficiently low network error to allow for the evaluation of CO2 emissions at a neighborhood scale.
Raphael Dörich, Philipp Eger, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5319–5332,Short summary
We demonstrate in laboratory experiments that the formation of IOx anions (formed in reactions of I− with O3) or acetate anions (formed e.g. by the reaction of I− with peracetic acid) results in unexpected sensitivity of an iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (I-CIMS) to HNO3 at a mass-to-charge ratio of 62. This helps explain observations of apparent high daytime levels of N2O5. Airborne measurements using I-CIMS confirm these conclusions.
Corinna Kloss, Vicheith Tan, J. Brian Leen, Garrett L. Madsen, Aaron Gardner, Xu Du, Thomas Kulessa, Johannes Schillings, Herbert Schneider, Stefanie Schrade, Chenxi Qiu, and Marc von Hobe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5271–5297,Short summary
We describe the innovative analyzer
AMICAfor airborne trace gas measurements by infrared spectroscopy. Its design makes it robust and allows for sensitive measurements. AMICA has been used on two different aircraft for measuring gases including carbonyl sulfide, carbon monoxide and ozone. With fairly simple adaptions, AMICA can measure many stable trace gases that absorb light in the infrared.
Sara M. Defratyka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Camille Yver-Kwok, Daniel Loeb, James France, Jon Helmore, Nigel Yarrow, Valérie Gros, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5049–5069,Short summary
We consider the possibility of using the CRDS Picarro G2201-i instrument, originally designed for isotopic CH4 and CO2, for measurements of ethane : methane in near-source conditions. The work involved laboratory tests, a controlled release experiment and mobile measurements. We show the potential of determining ethane : methane with 50 ppb ethane uncertainty. The instrument can correctly estimate the ratio in CH4 enhancements of 1 ppm and more, as can be found at strongly emitting sites.
Esther Borrás, Luis A. Tortajada-Genaro, Milagro Ródenas, Teresa Vera, Thomas Speak, Paul Seakins, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, and Amalia Muñoz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4989–4999,Short summary
This work presents promising results in the characterization of specific atmospheric pollutants (oxygenated VOCs) present at very low but highly relevant concentrations. We carried out this research at EUPHORE facilities within the framework of the EUROCHAMP project. A new analytical method, with high robustness and precision, also clean in the use of solvents, low cost, and easily adaptable for use in mobile laboratories for air quality monitoring, is presented.
Chunmeng Li, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Tianyu Zhai, Shiyi Chen, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4033–4051,Short summary
We present a feasible instrument for the measurement of NO2, total peroxy nitrates (PNs, RO2NO2), and total alkyl nitrates (ANs, RONO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument samples sequentially from three channels at different temperature settings and then measures spectra using one cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer. The concentrations are determined by spectral fitting and corrected using the lookup table method conveniently. The instrument will promote the study of PNs and ANs.
Romain Blot, Philippe Nedelec, Damien Boulanger, Pawel Wolff, Bastien Sauvage, Jean-Marc Cousin, Gilles Athier, Andreas Zahn, Florian Obersteiner, Dieter Scharffe, Hervé Petetin, Yasmine Bennouna, Hannah Clark, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3935–3951,Short summary
A lack of information about temporal changes in measurement uncertainties is an area of concern for long-term trend studies of the key compounds which have a direct or indirect impact on climate change. The IAGOS program has measured O3 and CO within the troposphere and lower stratosphere for more than 25 years. In this study, we demonstrated that the IAGOS database can be treated as one continuous program and is therefore appropriate for studies of long-term trends.
Thomas Wagenhäuser, Andreas Engel, and Robert Sitals
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3923–3934,Short summary
AirCore samplers are increasingly deployed to weather balloons to collect continuous atmospheric samples. We introduce a technique that can be used in situ to evaluate different data processing methods that are required to derive vertical trace gas profiles from AirCore measurements after sample recovery. Results from two test flights with a specific AirCore configuration provide evidence for systematic deviations in altitude attribution for the upper levels, which can be empirically corrected.
Agustí-Panareda, A., Massart, S., Chevallier, F., Boussetta, S., Balsamo, G., Beljaars, A., Ciais, P., Deutscher, N. M., Engelen, R., Jones, L., Kivi, R., Paris, J.-D., Peuch, V.-H., Sherlock, V., Vermeulen, A. T., Wennberg, P. O., and Wunch, D.: Forecasting global atmospheric CO2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11959–11983, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-11959-2014, 2014.
Allen, G., Hollingsworth, P., Kabbabe, K., Pitt, J. R., Mead, M. I., Illingworth, S., Roberts, G., Bourn, M., Shallcross, D. E., and Percival, C. J.: The development and trial of an unmanned aerial system for the measurement of methane flux from landfill and greenhouse gas emission hotspots, Waste Manage., 87, 883–892, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2017.12.024, 2019.
Arzoumanian, E., Vogel, F. R., Bastos, A., Gaynullin, B., Laurent, O., Ramonet, M., and Ciais, P.: Characterization of a commercial lower-cost medium-precision non-dispersive infrared sensor for atmospheric CO2 monitoring in urban areas, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2665–2677, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-2665-2019, 2019.
Bara, E., Dwayne, T., and Homayoun, N.: Low-Altitude Aerial Methane Concentration Mapping, Remote Sens., 9, 823, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9080823, 2017.
Barchyn, T., Hugenholtz, C. H., Myshak, S., and Bauer, J.: A UAV-based system for detecting natural gas leaks, J. Unmanned Veh. Sys., 6, 18–30, https://doi.org/10.1139/juvs-2017-0018, 2018.
Barker, P. A., Allen, G., Gallagher, M., Pitt, J. R., Fisher, R. E., Bannan, T., Nisbet, E. G., Bauguitte, S. J.-B., Pasternak, D., Cliff, S., Schimpf, M. B., Mehra, A., Bower, K. N., Lee, J. D., Coe, H., and Percival, C. J.: Airborne measurements of fire emission factors for African biomass burning sampled during the MOYA campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15443–15459, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-15443-2020, 2020.
Barritault, P., Brun, M., Lartigue, O., Willemin, J., Ouvrier-Buffet, J.-L., Pocas, S., and Nicoletti, S.: Low power CO2 NDIR sensing using a micro-bolometer detector and a micro-hotplate IR-source, Sens. Actuators B: Chem., 182, 565–570, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2013.03.048, 2013.
Berman, E. S. F., Fladeland, M., Liem, J., Kolyer, R., and Gupta, M.: Greenhouse gas analyzer for measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor aboard an unmanned aerial vehicle, Sens. Actuators B Chem., 169, 128–135, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2012.04.036, 2012.
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Crosson, E. R.: A cavity ring-down analyzer for measuring atmospheric levels of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor, Appl. Phys. B, 92, 403–408, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-008-3135-y, 2008.
Defratyka, S. M., Paris, J.-D., Yver-Kwok, C., Loeb, D., France, J., Helmore, J., Yarrow, N., Gros, V., and Bousquet, P.: Ethane measurement by Picarro CRDS G2201-i in laboratory and field conditions: potential and limitations, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5049–5069, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-14-5049-2021, 2021.
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Frey, M., Sha, M. K., Hase, F., Kiel, M., Blumenstock, T., Harig, R., Surawicz, G., Deutscher, N. M., Shiomi, K., Franklin, J. E., Bösch, H., Chen, J., Grutter, M., Ohyama, H., Sun, Y., Butz, A., Mengistu Tsidu, G., Ene, D., Wunch, D., Cao, Z., Garcia, O., Ramonet, M., Vogel, F., and Orphal, J.: Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1513–1530, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-1513-2019, 2019.
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Hazan, L., Tarniewicz, J., Ramonet, M., Laurent, O., and Abbaris, A.: Automatic processing of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mole fractions at the ICOS Atmosphere Thematic Centre, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4719–4736, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-4719-2016, 2016.
Hummelgård, C., Bryntse, I., Bryzgalov, M., Henning, J.-A., Martin, H., Norén, M., and Rödjegård, H.: Low-cost NDIR based sensor platform for sub-ppm gas detection, Urban Clim., 14, 342–350, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2014.09.001, 2015.
Jacob, D. J., Turner, A. J., Maasakkers, J. D., Sheng, J., Sun, K., Liu, X., Chance, K., Aben, I., McKeever, J., and Frankenberg, C.: Satellite observations of atmospheric methane and their value for quantifying methane emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14371–14396, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-14371-2016, 2016.
Daube Jr, B. C. D., Boering, K. A., Andrews, A. E., and Wofsy, S. C.: A High-Precision Fast-Response Airborne CO2 Analyzer for In Situ Sampling from the Surface to the Middle Stratosphere, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 19, 1532–1543, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2002)019<1532:AHPFRA>2.0.CO;2, 2002.
Kezoudi, M., Keleshis, C., Antoniou, P., Biskos, G., Bronz, M., Constantinides, C., Desservettaz, M., Gao, R.-S., Girdwood, J., Harnetiaux, J., Kandler, K., Leonidou, A., Liu, Y., Lelieveld, J., Marenco, F., Mihalopoulos, N., Močnik, G., Neitola, K., Paris, J.-D., Pikridas, M., Sarda-Esteve, R., Stopford, C., Unga, F., Vrekoussis, M., and Sciare, J.: The Unmanned Systems Research Laboratory (USRL): A New Facility for UAV-Based Atmospheric Observations, Atmosphere, 12, 1042, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12081042, 2021.
Khangaonkat, T., Nugraha, A., Xu, W., and Balaguru, K.: Salish Sea response to global climate change, sea level rise, and future nutrient loads, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 124, 3876–3904, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC014670, 2019.
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This paper details laboratory-based and field developments of a cost-effective and compacted UAV CO2 sensor system to address the challenge of measuring CO2 with sufficient precision and acquisition frequency. We assess its performance extensively through laboratory and field tests and provide a case study in an urban area (Nicosia, Cyprus). We therefore expect that this portable system will be widely used for measuring CO2 emission and distribution in natural or urban environments.
This paper details laboratory-based and field developments of a cost-effective and compacted UAV...