Articles | Volume 5, issue 6
Research article 15 Jun 2012
Research article | 15 Jun 2012
O. Nyström et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsApplicability of the VisiSize D30 shadowgraph system for cloud microphysical measurementsThe De-Icing Comparison Experiment (D-ICE): A study of broadband radiometric measurements under icing conditions in the ArcticThe portable ice nucleation experiment PINE: a new online instrument for laboratory studies and automated long-term field observations of ice-nucleating particlesCharacterising optical array particle imaging probes: implications for small ice crystal observationsCézeaux-Aulnat-Opme-Puy De Dôme: a multi-site for the long-term survey of the tropospheric composition and climate changeUsing a holographic imager on a tethered balloon system for microphysical observations of boundary layer cloudsEvaluation of ARM tethered-balloon system instrumentation for supercooled liquid water and distributed temperature sensing in mixed-phase Arctic cloudsRevisiting particle sizing using greyscale optical array probes: evaluation using laboratory experiments and synthetic dataCloud fraction determined by thermal infrared and visible all-sky camerasDevelopment and characterization of a high-efficiency, aircraft-based axial cyclone cloud water collectorIce particle sampling from aircraft – influence of the probing position on the ice water contentPHIPS-HALO: the airborne particle habit imaging and polar scattering probe – Part 2: Characterization and first resultsA tandem approach for collocated measurements of microphysical and radiative cirrus propertiesHoloGondel: in situ cloud observations on a cable car in the Swiss Alps using a holographic imagerDevelopment of a cloud particle sensor for radiosonde soundingThermodynamic correction of particle concentrations measured by underwing probes on fast-flying aircraftPHIPS–HALO: the airborne Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe – Part 1: Design and operationQuantitative evaluation of seven optical sensors for cloud microphysical measurements at the Puy-de-Dôme Observatory, FranceSchneefernerhaus as a mountain research station for clouds and turbulenceHigh-resolution measurement of cloud microphysics and turbulence at a mountaintop stationDual-channel photoacoustic hygrometer for airborne measurements: background, calibration, laboratory and in-flight intercomparison testsA comparison of ice water content measurement techniques on the FAAM BAe-146 aircraftCloud shadow speed sensorThe backscatter cloud probe – a compact low-profile autonomous optical spectrometerA fiber-coupled laser hygrometer for airborne total water measurementHOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase cloudsEvaluating the capabilities and uncertainties of droplet measurements for the fog droplet spectrometer (FM-100)First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probeEffects of ice particles shattering on the 2D-S probeWater droplet calibration of the Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) and in-flight performance in liquid, ice and mixed-phase clouds during ARCPACDevelopment of a Bioaerosol single particle detector (BIO IN) for the Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber FINCH
Jakub L. Nowak, Moein Mohammadi, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The commercial instrument designed to characterize sprays, based on shadowgraphy imaging, was applied to measure number concentration and size distribution of cloud droplets. Laboratory and field tests were performed to verify the resolution, detection reliability and sizing accuracy. We developed the correction to data processing method which improves the estimation of cloud micro-physical properties. The paper concludes with recommendations concerning the usage in cloud physics studies.
Christopher J. Cox, Sara M. Morris, Taneil Uttal, Ross Burgener, Emiel Hall, Mark Kutchenreiter, Allison McComiskey, Charles N. Long, Bryan D. Thomas, and James Wendell
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Solar and infrared radiation are measured regularly for research, industry and climate monitoring. In cold climates, icing of sensors is a poorly constrained source of uncertainty. D-ICE was carried out in Alaska to document the effectiveness of ice mitigation technology and quantify errors associated with ice. Technology was more effective than anticipated and while instantaneous errors were large, biases were small in the mean. Attributes of effective ice mitigation design were identified.
Ottmar Möhler, Michael Adams, Larissa Lacher, Franziska Vogel, Jens Nadolny, Romy Ullrich, Cristian Boffo, Tatjana Pfeuffer, Achim Hobl, Maximilian Weiß, Hemanth S. K. Vepuri, Naruki Hiranuma, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The Earth’s climate is influenced by clouds, which are impacted by ice nucleating particles, a minor fraction of atmospheric aerosols. INPs induce ice formation in clouds and by that often initiate precipitation formation. The Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment PINE is the first fully automated instrument to study cloud ice formation and to obtain long-term records of INPs. This is a timely development and the capabilities it offers for research and atmospheric monitoring are significant.
Sebastian O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Louis Gallagher, Waldemar Schledewitz, Keith Bower, Oliver Schlenczek, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Christopher Westbrook, and Zbigniew Ulanowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The number, shape and size of ice crystals in clouds are important properties that influence the Earth's radiation budget, cloud evolution and precipitation formation. This work suggests that one of the most widely used methods for in situ measurements of these properties has significant uncertainties and biases. We suggest methods that dramatically improve these measurements, which can be applied to past and future datasets from these instruments.
Jean-Luc Baray, Laurent Deguillaume, Aurélie Colomb, Karine Sellegri, Evelyn Freney, Clémence Rose, Joël Van Baelen, Jean-Marc Pichon, David Picard, Patrick Fréville, Laëtitia Bouvier, Mickaël Ribeiro, Pierre Amato, Sandra Banson, Angelica Bianco, Agnès Borbon, Lauréline Bourcier, Yannick Bras, Marcello Brigante, Philippe Cacault, Aurélien Chauvigné, Tiffany Charbouillot, Nadine Chaumerliac, Anne-Marie Delort, Marc Delmotte, Régis Dupuy, Antoine Farah, Guy Febvre, Andrea Flossmann, Christophe Gourbeyre, Claude Hervier, Maxime Hervo, Nathalie Huret, Muriel Joly, Victor Kazan, Morgan Lopez, Gilles Mailhot, Angela Marinoni, Olivier Masson, Nadège Montoux, Marius Parazols, Frédéric Peyrin, Yves Pointin, Michel Ramonet, Manon Rocco, Martine Sancelme, Stéphane Sauvage, Martina Schmidt, Emmanuel Tison, Mickaël Vaïtilingom, Paolo Villani, Miao Wang, Camille Yver-Kwok, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3413–3445,Short summary
CO-PDD (Cézeaux-Aulnat-Opme-puy de Dôme) is a fully instrumented platform for atmospheric research. The four sites located at different altitudes from 330 to 1465 m around Clermont-Ferrand (France) host in situ and remote sensing instruments to measure atmospheric composition, including long-term trends and variability, to study interconnected processes (microphysical, chemical, biological, chemical, and dynamical) and to provide a reference point for climate models.
Fabiola Ramelli, Alexander Beck, Jan Henneberger, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 925–939,Short summary
Boundary layer clouds are influenced by many physical and dynamical processes, making accurate forecasting difficult. Here we present a new measurement platform on a tethered balloon to measure cloud microphysical and meteorological profiles. The unique combination of holography and balloon-borne observations allows high-resolution measurements in a well-defined volume. Field measurements in stratus clouds over the Swiss Plateau revealed unique microphysical signatures in the cloud structure.
Darielle Dexheimer, Martin Airey, Erika Roesler, Casey Longbottom, Keri Nicoll, Stefan Kneifel, Fan Mei, R. Giles Harrison, Graeme Marlton, and Paul D. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6845–6864,Short summary
A tethered-balloon system deployed supercooled liquid water content sondes and fiber optic distributed temperature sensing to collect in situ atmospheric measurements within mixed-phase Arctic clouds. These data were validated against collocated surface-based and remote sensing datasets. From these measurements and sensor evaluations, tethered-balloon flights are shown to offer an effective method of collecting data to inform numerical models and calibrate remote sensing instrumentation.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Waldemar Schledewitz, Ian Crawford, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, and Aaron Bansemer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3067–3079,Short summary
Optical array probe measurements of clouds are widely used to inform and validate numerical weather and climate models. In this paper, we discuss artefacts which may bias data from these instruments. Using laboratory and synthetic datasets, we demonstrate how greyscale analysis can be used to filter data, constraining the sample volume and improving data quality particularly at small sizes where their measurements are considered unreliable.
Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5549–5563,Short summary
A newly developed hemispherical thermal infrared cloud camera (IRCCAM) is presented. The IRCCAM allows automatic cloud detection during the day and at night-time. The cloud fraction determined from the IRCCAM is compared with the cloud fraction determined from other instruments over a time period of 2 years. The IRCCAM has an agreement of +/- 2 oktas cloud fraction in 90 % of the data compared to other instruments. There are no significant differences between seasons or different times of day.
Ewan Crosbie, Matthew D. Brown, Michael Shook, Luke Ziemba, Richard H. Moore, Taylor Shingler, Edward Winstead, K. Lee Thornhill, Claire Robinson, Alexander B. MacDonald, Hossein Dadashazar, Armin Sorooshian, Andreas Beyersdorf, Alexis Eugene, Jeffrey Collett Jr., Derek Straub, and Bruce Anderson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5025–5048,Short summary
A new aircraft-mounted probe for collecting samples of cloud water has been designed, fabricated, and extensively tested. Cloud drop composition provides valuable insight into atmospheric processes, but separating liquid samples from the airstream in a controlled way at flight speeds has proven difficult. The features of the design have been analysed with detailed numerical flow simulations and the new probe has demonstrated improved efficiency and performance through extensive flight testing.
Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Anja Costa, Nicole Spelten, Martin Riese, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Romy Heller, Stefan Kaufmann, Andreas Minikin, Christiane Voigt, Martin Zöger, Jessica Smith, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Sergey Khaykin, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4015–4031,Short summary
The ice water content (IWC) of cirrus clouds is an essential parameter that determines their radiative properties and is thus important for climate simulations. Experimental investigations of IWCs measured on board research aircraft reveal that their accuracy is influenced by the sampling position. IWCs detected at the aircraft roof deviate significantly from wing, side or bottom IWCs. The reasons are deflections of the gas streamlines and ice particle trajectories behind the aircraft cockpit.
Martin Schnaiter, Emma Järvinen, Ahmed Abdelmonem, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 341–357,Short summary
PHIPS-HALO is a novel aircraft instrument for cloud research. It combines microscopic imaging of single cloud particles with the measurement of their spacial light scattering properties. The knowledge of how atmospheric ice particles in clouds scatter visible light is important for improving future climate models.
Marcus Klingebiel, André Ehrlich, Fanny Finger, Timo Röschenthaler, Suad Jakirlić, Matthias Voigt, Stefan Müller, Rolf Maser, Manfred Wendisch, Peter Hoor, Peter Spichtinger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3485–3498,Short summary
Microphysical and radiation measurements were collected with the unique AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle (AIRTOSS) – Learjet tandem platform. It is a combination of a Learjet 35A research aircraft and an instrumented aerodynamic bird, which can be detached from and retracted back to the aircraft during flight. AIRTOSS and Learjet are equipped with radiative, cloud microphysical, trace gas, and meteorological instruments to study cirrus clouds.
Alexander Beck, Jan Henneberger, Sarah Schöpfer, Jacob Fugal, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 459–476,Short summary
In situ observations of cloud properties in complex alpine terrain are commonly conducted at mountain-top research stations and limited to single-point measurements. The HoloGondel platform overcomes this limitation by using a cable car to obtain vertical profiles of the microphysical and meteorological cloud parameters. In this work example measurements of the vertical profiles observed in a liquid cloud and a mixed-phase cloud at the Eggishorn in the Swiss Alps are presented.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Takuji Sugidachi, Toru Arai, Kensaku Shimizu, Mayumi Hayashi, Yasuhisa Noma, Hideaki Kawagita, Kazuo Sagara, Taro Nakagawa, Satoshi Okumura, Yoichi Inai, Takashi Shibata, Suginori Iwasaki, and Atsushi Shimizu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5911–5931,Short summary
A meteorological balloon-borne cloud sensor called the cloud particle sensor (CPS) has been developed. The CPS can count the number of particles per second and can obtain the cloud phase information (i.e. liquid, ice, or mixed). Twenty-five test flights have been made between 2012 and 2015 at midlatitude and tropical sites. The results from the four flights are discussed.
Ralf Weigel, Peter Spichtinger, Christoph Mahnke, Marcus Klingebiel, Armin Afchine, Andreas Petzold, Martina Krämer, Anja Costa, Sergej Molleker, Philipp Reutter, Miklós Szakáll, Max Port, Lucas Grulich, Tina Jurkat, Andreas Minikin, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5135–5162,Short summary
The subject of our study concerns measurements with optical array probes (OAPs) on fast-flying aircraft such as the G550 (HALO or HIAPER). At up to Mach 0.7 the effect of air compression upstream of underwing-mounted instruments and particles' inertia need consideration for determining ambient particle concentrations. Compared to conventional practices the introduced correction procedure eliminates ambiguities and exhibits consistency over flight speeds between 50 and 250 m s−.
Ahmed Abdelmonem, Emma Järvinen, Denis Duft, Edwin Hirst, Steffen Vogt, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3131–3144,Short summary
The properties of ice crystals present in mixed-phase and ice clouds influence the radiation properties, precipitation occurrence and lifetime of these clouds. It is necessary to investigate the optical and microphysical properties of cloud particles particularly in situ, and to get correlation between these properties. To this end we have developed PHIPS-HALO to measure the optical properties and the corresponding microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles simultaneously.
G. Guyot, C. Gourbeyre, G. Febvre, V. Shcherbakov, F. Burnet, J.-C. Dupont, K. Sellegri, and O. Jourdan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4347–4367,
S. Risius, H. Xu, F. Di Lorenzo, H. Xi, H. Siebert, R. A. Shaw, and E. Bodenschatz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3209–3218,
H. Siebert, R. A. Shaw, J. Ditas, T. Schmeissner, S. P. Malinowski, E. Bodenschatz, and H. Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3219–3228,Short summary
We report results from simultaneous, high-resolution and collocated measurements of cloud microphysical and turbulence properties during several warm cloud events at the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (UFS) on Zugspitze in the German Alps. The data gathered were found to be representative of observations made with similar instrumentation in free clouds.
D. Tátrai, Z. Bozóki, H. Smit, C. Rolf, N. Spelten, M. Krämer, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, G. Gulyás, and G. Szabó
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 33–42,Short summary
Airborne hygrometry is very important in climate research, and the interest in knowing not only water vapor concentration but (cirrus) cloud content as well is increasing. The authors provide a photoacoustic spectroscopy-based dual-channel hygrometer system that can be a good solution for such measurements. The instrument was proven to operate properly from ground level up to the lower stratosphere, giving the possibility even for cirrus cloud studies.
S. J. Abel, R. J. Cotton, P. A. Barrett, and A. K. Vance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3007–3022,
V. Fung, J. L. Bosch, S. W. Roberts, and J. Kleissl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1693–1700,
K. Beswick, D. Baumgardner, M. Gallagher, A. Volz-Thomas, P. Nedelec, K.-Y. Wang, and S. Lance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1443–1457,
S. W. Dorsi, L. E. Kalnajs, D. W. Toohey, and L. M. Avallone
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 215–223,
J. Henneberger, J. P. Fugal, O. Stetzer, and U. Lohmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2975–2987,
J. K. Spiegel, P. Zieger, N. Bukowiecki, E. Hammer, E. Weingartner, and W. Eugster
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2237–2260,
A. Abdelmonem, M. Schnaiter, P. Amsler, E. Hesse, J. Meyer, and T. Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2125–2142,
R. P. Lawson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1361–1381,
S. Lance, C. A. Brock, D. Rogers, and J. A. Gordon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 1683–1706,
U. Bundke, B. Reimann, B. Nillius, R. Jaenicke, and H. Bingemer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 263–271,
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