Articles | Volume 6, issue 8
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2007–2025, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Observations and modeling of aerosol and cloud properties...
Research article 13 Aug 2013
Research article | 13 Aug 2013
The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing
D. J. Diner et al.
O. V. Kalashnikova, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, and D. J. Diner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2131–2154,
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Vijay Natraj, Feng Xu, Sihe Chen, Fang-Ying Gong, Thomas J. Pongetti, Keeyoon Sung, Geoffrey Toon, Stanley P. Sander, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6483–6507,Short summary
Large carbon source regions such as megacities are also typically associated with heavy aerosol loading, which introduces uncertainties in the retrieval of greenhouse gases from reflected and scattered sunlight measurements. In this study, we developed a full physics algorithm to retrieve greenhouse gases in the presence of aerosols and demonstrated its performance by retrieving CO2 and CH4 columns from remote sensing measurements in the Los Angeles megacity.
Marcin L. Witek, Michael J. Garay, David J. Diner, Michael A. Bull, Felix C. Seidel, Abigail M. Nastan, and Earl G. Hansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5577–5591,Short summary
This article documents the development and testing of a new near real-time (NRT) aerosol product from the MISR instrument on NASA’s Terra platform. The NRT product capitalizes on the unique attributes of the MISR retrieval approach, which leads to a high-quality and reliable aerosol data product. Several modifications are described that allow for rapid product generation within a 3 h window following acquisition. Implications for the product quality and consistency are discussed.
Kirk Knobelspiesse, Amir Ibrahim, Bryan Franz, Sean Bailey, Robert Levy, Ziauddin Ahmad, Joel Gales, Meng Gao, Michael Garay, Samuel Anderson, and Olga Kalashnikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3233–3252,Short summary
We assessed atmospheric aerosol and ocean surface wind speed remote sensing capability with NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), using synthetic data and a Bayesian inference technique called generalized nonlinear retrieval analysis (GENRA). We found success using three aerosol parameters plus wind speed. This shows that MISR can perform an atmospheric correction for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same spacecraft (Terra).
Yan Yu, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Michael J. Garay, Huikyo Lee, Myungje Choi, Gregory S. Okin, John E. Yorks, James R. Campbell, and Jared Marquis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1427–1447,Short summary
Given the current uncertainties in the simulated diurnal variability of global dust mobilization and concentration, observational characterization of the variations in dust mobilization and concentration will provide a valuable benchmark for evaluating and constraining such model simulations. The current study investigates the diurnal cycle of dust loading across the global tropics, subtropics, and mid-latitudes by analyzing aerosol observations from the International Space Station.
Kirk Knobelspiesse, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Christine Bradley, Carol Bruegge, Brian Cairns, Gao Chen, Jacek Chowdhary, Anthony Cook, Antonio Di Noia, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, David J. Diner, Richard Ferrare, Guangliang Fu, Meng Gao, Michael Garay, Johnathan Hair, David Harper, Gerard van Harten, Otto Hasekamp, Mark Helmlinger, Chris Hostetler, Olga Kalashnikova, Andrew Kupchock, Karla Longo De Freitas, Hal Maring, J. Vanderlei Martins, Brent McBride, Matthew McGill, Ken Norlin, Anin Puthukkudy, Brian Rheingans, Jeroen Rietjens, Felix C. Seidel, Arlindo da Silva, Martijn Smit, Snorre Stamnes, Qian Tan, Sebastian Val, Andrzej Wasilewski, Feng Xu, Xiaoguang Xu, and John Yorks
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2183–2208,Short summary
The Aerosol Characterization from Polarimeter and Lidar (ACEPOL) field campaign is a resource for the next generation of spaceborne multi-angle polarimeter (MAP) and lidar missions. Conducted in the fall of 2017 from the Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, California, four MAP instruments and two lidars were flown on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft over a variety of scene types and ground assets. Data are freely available to the public and useful for algorithm development and testing.
Michel M. Verstraete, Linda A. Hunt, and Veljko M. Jovanovic
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1321–1346,Short summary
The L1B2 Georectified Radiance Product, available for each of the nine cameras of the MISR instrument, contains a variable number of missing values, especially wherever and whenever the instrument is switched from the Global to the Local Mode. This paper proposes an algorithm to effectively replace those missing values and demonstrates the performance of the process. MISR data and software tools are obtainable from public domain websites to explore this issue further.
Larisa Sogacheva, Thomas Popp, Andrew M. Sayer, Oleg Dubovik, Michael J. Garay, Andreas Heckel, N. Christina Hsu, Hiren Jethva, Ralph A. Kahn, Pekka Kolmonen, Miriam Kosmale, Gerrit de Leeuw, Robert C. Levy, Pavel Litvinov, Alexei Lyapustin, Peter North, Omar Torres, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2031–2056,Short summary
The typical lifetime of a single satellite platform is on the order of 5–15 years; thus, for climate studies the usage of multiple satellite sensors should be considered. Here we introduce and evaluate a monthly AOD merged product and AOD global and regional time series for the period 1995–2017 created from 12 individual satellite AOD products, which provide a long-term perspective on AOD changes over different regions of the globe.
Michael J. Garay, Marcin L. Witek, Ralph A. Kahn, Felix C. Seidel, James A. Limbacher, Michael A. Bull, David J. Diner, Earl G. Hansen, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Huikyo Lee, Abigail M. Nastan, and Yan Yu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 593–628,Short summary
The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been operational since early 2000, creating an extensive data set of global Earth observations. Here we introduce the latest version (V23) of the MISR aerosol products, which is reported on a 4.4 km spatial grid and contains retrieved aerosol optical depth and aerosol particle property information derived over both land and water. The changes implemented in V23 have significant impacts on the data product and its interpretation.
Guangliang Fu, Otto Hasekamp, Jeroen Rietjens, Martijn Smit, Antonio Di Noia, Brian Cairns, Andrzej Wasilewski, David Diner, Felix Seidel, Feng Xu, Kirk Knobelspiesse, Meng Gao, Arlindo da Silva, Sharon Burton, Chris Hostetler, John Hair, and Richard Ferrare
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 553–573,Short summary
In this paper, we present aerosol retrieval results from the ACEPOL (Aerosol Characterization from Polarimeter and Lidar) campaign, which was a joint initiative between NASA and SRON (the Netherlands Institute for Space Research). We perform aerosol retrievals from different multi-angle polarimeters employed during the ACEPOL campaign and evaluate them against ground-based AERONET measurements and High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2) measurements.
Yan Yu, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Michael J. Garay, Huikyo Lee, Myungje Choi, Gregory S. Okin, John E. Yorks, and James R. Campbell
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Given the current uncertainties in the simulated diurnal variability of global dust mobilization and concentration, observational characterization of the variations in dust mobilization and concentration will provide a valuable benchmark for evaluating and constraining such model simulations. The current study investigates the diurnal cycle of dust loading across the global tropics, sub-tropics, and mid-latitudes by analyzing aerosol observations from the International Space Station.
Myungje Choi, Hyunkwang Lim, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Thomas F. Eck, Brent N. Holben, Michael J. Garay, Edward J. Hyer, Pablo E. Saide, and Hongqing Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4619–4641,Short summary
Satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have been improved continuously and available from multiple low Earth orbit sensors, such as MODIS, MISR, and VIIRS, and geostationary sensors, such as GOCI and AHI, over East Asia. These multi-satellite AOD products are validated, intercompared, analyzed, and integrated to understand different characteristics, such as quality and spatio-temporal coverage, focused on several aerosol transportation cases during the 2016 KORUS-AQ campaign.
Kristina Pistone, Jens Redemann, Sarah Doherty, Paquita Zuidema, Sharon Burton, Brian Cairns, Sabrina Cochrane, Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, Steffen Freitag, Steven G. Howell, Meloë Kacenelenbogen, Samuel LeBlanc, Xu Liu, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Yohei Shinozuka, Snorre Stamnes, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Gerard Van Harten, and Feng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9181–9208,Short summary
Understanding how smoke particles interact with sunlight is important in calculating their effects on climate, since some smoke is more scattering (cooling) and some is more absorbing (heating). Knowing this proportion is important for both satellite observations and climate models. We measured smoke properties in a recent aircraft-based field campaign off the west coast of Africa and present a comparison of these properties as measured using the six different, independent techniques available.
Yan Yu, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Michael J. Garay, and Michael Notaro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 363–378,Short summary
Asian dust has been reported at remote destinations, such as North America. However, the relative contribution of the Taklamakan and Gobi deserts, the major Asian dust sources, remains unaddressed in observation. Here, satellite observations of dust plume characteristics and trajectory modeling suggest latitude-dependent influence of dust from the two deserts, with Taklamakan dust dominantly affecting areas south of 50° N and Gobi dust primarily affecting areas north of 50° N in North America.
Brent N. Holben, Jhoon Kim, Itaru Sano, Sonoyo Mukai, Thomas F. Eck, David M. Giles, Joel S. Schafer, Aliaksandr Sinyuk, Ilya Slutsker, Alexander Smirnov, Mikhail Sorokin, Bruce E. Anderson, Huizheng Che, Myungje Choi, James H. Crawford, Richard A. Ferrare, Michael J. Garay, Ukkyo Jeong, Mijin Kim, Woogyung Kim, Nichola Knox, Zhengqiang Li, Hwee S. Lim, Yang Liu, Hal Maring, Makiko Nakata, Kenneth E. Pickering, Stuart Piketh, Jens Redemann, Jeffrey S. Reid, Santo Salinas, Sora Seo, Fuyi Tan, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Owen B. Toon, and Qingyang Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 655–671,Short summary
Aerosol particles, such as smoke, vary over space and time. This paper describes a series of very high-resolution ground-based aerosol measurement networks and associated studies that contributed new understanding of aerosol processes and detailed comparisons to satellite aerosol validation. Significantly, these networks also provide an opportunity to statistically relate grab samples of an aerosol parameter to companion satellite observations, a step toward air quality assessment from space.
Marcin L. Witek, Michael J. Garay, David J. Diner, Michael A. Bull, and Felix C. Seidel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 429–439,Short summary
This study outlines a new methodology for assessing air pollution from space using observations from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Both air pollution amounts – as well as the uncertainties associated with space observations – are simultaneously and consistently obtained from MISR measurements over oceans. The new products have superior quality to the previous versions and will benefit the air pollution community.
Longtao Wu, Hui Su, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Jonathan H. Jiang, Chun Zhao, Michael J. Garay, James R. Campbell, and Nanpeng Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7291–7309,Short summary
The WRF-Chem simulation successfully captures aerosol variations in the cold season in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) but has poor performance in the warm season. High-resolution model simulation can better resolve nonhomogeneous distribution of anthropogenic emissions in urban areas, resulting in better simulation of aerosols in the cold season in the SJV. Poor performance of the WRF-Chem model in the warm season in the SJV is mainly due to misrepresentation of dust emission and vertical mixing.
Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalashnikova, and Michael A. Bull
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5095–5106,Short summary
Satellite data from the MISR instrument were used to produce aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at 4.4 km spatial resolution, a factor of 16 improvement relative to the currently operational 17.6 km product. Retrievals were compared with high-spatial-resolution ground-based observations made by AERONET-DRAGON deployments around the globe. It was found that the 4.4 km MISR retrievals performed significantly better than the 17.6 km retrievals in comparisons made at over 100 individual sites.
Feng Xu, Oleg Dubovik, Peng-Wang Zhai, David J. Diner, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Felix C. Seidel, Pavel Litvinov, Andrii Bovchaliuk, Michael J. Garay, Gerard van Harten, and Anthony B. Davis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2877–2907,Short summary
We developed an algorithm for aerosol and water-leaving radiance retrieval in a simultaneous way.
Huikyo Lee, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Kentaroh Suzuki, Amy Braverman, Michael J. Garay, and Ralph A. Kahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6627–6640,Short summary
The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on NASA's TERRA satellite has provided a global distribution of aerosol amount and type information for each month over 16+ years since March 2000. This study analyzes, for the first time, characteristics of observed and simulated distributions of aerosols for three broad classes of aerosols: spherical nonabsorbing, spherical absorbing, and nonspherical – near or downwind of their major source regions.
Glynn C. Hulley, Riley M. Duren, Francesca M. Hopkins, Simon J. Hook, Nick Vance, Pierre Guillevic, William R. Johnson, Bjorn T. Eng, Jonathan M. Mihaly, Veljko M. Jovanovic, Seth L. Chazanoff, Zak K. Staniszewski, Le Kuai, John Worden, Christian Frankenberg, Gerardo Rivera, Andrew D. Aubrey, Charles E. Miller, Nabin K. Malakar, Juan M. Sánchez Tomás, and Kendall T. Holmes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2393–2408,Short summary
Using data from a new airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) instrument, we present a technique for the detection and wide-area mapping of emission plumes of methane and other atmospheric trace gas species over challenging and diverse environmental conditions with high spatial resolution, that permits direct attribution to sources in complex environments.
S. Li, R. Kahn, M. Chin, M. J. Garay, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1157–1171,Short summary
We demonstrate a post-processing technique to improve MISR-retrieved aerosol optical properties when information content is low. By filtering the list of aerosol mixtures that pass the MISR retrieval acceptance criteria using pre-defined discrepancy thresholds between MISR and GOCART model simulations, the adjusted MISR Angstrom exponent (ANG) and absorbing AOD (AAOD) agree significantly better with sun-photometer validation data, especially when AOD<0.2 for ANG and AOD<0.5 for AAOD.
O. V. Kalashnikova, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, and D. J. Diner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2131–2154,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsPolarization lidar for detecting dust orientation: system design and calibrationAccuracy in starphotometryRethinking the correction for absorbing aerosols in the OMI- and TROPOMI-like surface UV algorithmsMie–Raman–fluorescence lidar observations of aerosols during pollen season in the north of FranceSatellite imagery and products of the 16–17 February 2020 Saharan Air Layer dust event over the eastern Atlantic: impacts of water vapor on dust detection and morphologyCombined use of Mie–Raman and fluorescence lidar observations for improving aerosol characterization: feasibility experimentSolar radiometer sensing of multi-year aerosol features over a tropical urban station: direct-Sun and inversion productsAn overview of and issues with sky radiometer technology and SKYNETScanning polarization lidar LOSA-M3: opportunity for research of crystalline particle orientation in the ice cloudsThe polarized Sun and sky radiometer SSARA: design, calibration, and application for ground-based aerosol remote sensingNocturnal aerosol optical depth measurements with modified sky radiometer POM-02 using the moon as a light sourceRelationship analysis of PM2.5 and boundary layer height using an aerosol and turbulence detection lidarMonitoring aerosols over Europe: an assessment of the potential benefit of assimilating the VIS04 measurements from the future MTG/FCI geostationary imagerThe impact of MISR-derived injection height initialization on wildfire and volcanic plume dispersion in the HYSPLIT modelThe instrument constant of sky radiometers (POM-02) – Part 1: Calibration constantThe instrument constant of sky radiometers (POM-02) – Part 2: Solid view angleDescription and applications of a mobile system performing on-road aerosol remote sensing and in situ measurementsRemote sensing of aerosols with small satellites in formation flightA study of the approaches used to retrieve aerosol extinction, as applied to limb observations made by OSIRIS and SCIAMACHYIncreased aerosol content in the atmosphere over Ukraine during summer 2010Experimental techniques for the calibration of lidar depolarization channels in EARLINETCalibration of the DSCOVR EPIC visible and NIR channels using MODIS Terra and Aqua data and EPIC lunar observationsUsing paraxial approximation to describe the optical setup of a typical EARLINET lidar systemCross-calibration of S-NPP VIIRS moderate-resolution reflective solar bands against MODIS Aqua over dark water scenesAerosol optical depth determination in the UV using a four-channel precision filter radiometerA new zenith-looking narrow-band radiometer-based system (ZEN) for dust aerosol optical depth monitoringAerosol absorption retrieval at ultraviolet wavelengths in a complex environment1064 nm rotational Raman lidar for particle extinction and lidar-ratio profiling: cirrus case studyAbout the effects of polarising optics on lidar signals and the Δ90 calibrationRecommendations for processing atmospheric attenuated backscatter profiles from Vaisala CL31 ceilometersAn empirical method to correct for temperature-dependent variations in the overlap function of CHM15k ceilometersMonitoring and tracking the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols using multi-satellite aerosol optical depth compositesThe automated multiwavelength Raman polarization and water-vapor lidar PollyXT: the neXT generationProfiling the PM2.5 mass concentration vertical distribution in the boundary layerThe Aerosol Limb Imager: acousto-optic imaging of limb-scattered sunlight for stratospheric aerosol profilingImager-to-radiometer in-flight cross calibration: RSP radiometric comparison with airborne and satellite sensorsThe new sun-sky-lunar Cimel CE318-T multiband photometer – a comprehensive performance evaluationTowards a long-term global aerosol optical depth record: applying a consistent aerosol retrieval algorithm to MODIS and VIIRS-observed reflectanceUse of rotational Raman measurements in multiwavelength aerosol lidar for evaluation of particle backscattering and extinctionSynchronous polar winter starphotometry and lidar measurements at a High Arctic stationMISR empirical stray light corrections in high-contrast scenesCeilometer aerosol profiling versus Raman lidar in the frame of the INTERACT campaign of ACTRISAtmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrumentScientific impact of MODIS C5 calibration degradation and C6+ improvementsRecovering long-term aerosol optical depth series (1976–2012) from an astronomical potassium-based resonance scattering spectrometerWhat is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? An answer from EARLINETA high-resolution oxygen A-band spectrometer (HABS) and its radiation closureThe Spectral Aerosol Extinction Monitoring System (SǼMS): setup, observational products, and comparisonsThe identification and tracking of volcanic ash using the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI)Characterization of the planetary boundary layer height and structure by Raman lidar: comparison of different approaches
Alexandra Tsekeri, Vassilis Amiridis, Alexandros Louridas, George Georgoussis, Volker Freudenthaler, Spiros Metallinos, George Doxastakis, Josef Gasteiger, Nikolaos Siomos, Peristera Paschou, Thanasis Georgiou, George Tsaknakis, Christos Evangelatos, and Ioannis Binietoglou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7453–7474,Short summary
Dust orientation in the Earth's atmosphere has been an ongoing investigation in recent years, and its potential proof will be a paradigm shift for dust remote sensing. We have designed and developed a polarization lidar that provides direct measurements of dust orientation, as well as more detailed information of the particle microphysics. We provide a description of its design as well as its first measurements.
Liviu Ivănescu, Konstantin Baibakov, Norman T. O'Neill, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, and Karl-Heinz Schulz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6561–6599,Short summary
Starphotometry seeks to provide accurate measures of nocturnal optical depth (OD). It is driven by a need to characterize aerosols and their radiative forcing effects during a very data-sparse period. A sub-0.01 OD error is required to adequately characterize key aerosol parameters. We found approaches for sufficiently mitigating errors to achieve the 0.01 standard. This renders starphotometry the equal of daytime techniques and opens the door to exploiting its distinct star-pointing advantages.
Antti Arola, William Wandji Nyamsi, Antti Lipponen, Stelios Kazadzis, Nickolay A. Krotkov, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4947–4957,Short summary
Methods to estimate surface UV radiation from satellite measurements offer the only means to obtain global coverage, and the development of satellite-based UV algorithms has been ongoing since the early 1990s. One of the main challenges in this development has been how to account for the overall effect of absorption by atmospheric aerosols. One such method was suggested roughly a decade ago, and in this study we propose further improvements for this kind of approach.
Igor Veselovskii, Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, Marie Choël, Nicolas Visez, and Mikhail Korenskiy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4773–4786,Short summary
The multiwavelength Mie–Raman–fluorescence lidar of the University of Lille was used to characterize aerosols during the pollen season in the north of France for the period March–June 2020. The results of observations demonstrate that the presence of pollen grains in aerosol mixtures leads to an increase in the depolarization ratio and to the enhancement of the fluorescence backscattering.
Lewis Grasso, Daniel Bikos, Jorel Torres, John F. Dostalek, Ting-Chi Wu, John Forsythe, Heather Q. Cronk, Curtis J. Seaman, Steven D. Miller, Emily Berndt, Harry G. Weinman, and Kennard B. Kasper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1615–1634,Short summary
This study uses geostationary imagery to detect dust. This research was done to demonstrate the ability of dust detection over ocean surfaces in a dry atmosphere.
Igor Veselovskii, Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, Mikhail Korenskiy, Olivier Pujol, Oleg Dubovik, and Anton Lopatin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6691–6701,Short summary
To study the feasibility of a fluorescence lidar for aerosol characterization, the fluorescence channel is added to the multiwavelength Mie-Raman lidar of Lille University. A part of the fluorescence spectrum is selected by the interference filter of 44 nm bandwidth centered at 466 nm. Such an approach has demonstrated high sensitivity, allowing fluorescence signals from weak aerosol layers to be detected. The technique can also be used for monitoring the aerosol inside the cloud layers.
Katta Vijayakumar, Panuganti C. S. Devara, Sunil M. Sonbawne, David M. Giles, Brent N. Holben, Sarangam Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, and Chalicheemalapalli K. Jayasankar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5569–5593,Short summary
The direct-Sun and inversion products of urban atmospheric aerosols, obtained from a Cimel Sun–sky radiometer in Pune, India, under the AERONET program since October 2004, have been reported in this paper. The mean seasonal variations in AOD from cloud-free days indicated greater values during the monsoon season, revealing dominance of hygroscopic aerosols over the station. Such results are sparse in India and are important for estimating aerosol radiative forcing and validating climate models.
Teruyuki Nakajima, Monica Campanelli, Huizheng Che, Victor Estellés, Hitoshi Irie, Sang-Woo Kim, Jhoon Kim, Dong Liu, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Govindan Pandithurai, Vijay Kumar Soni, Boossarasiri Thana, Nas-Urt Tugjsurn, Kazuma Aoki, Sujung Go, Makiko Hashimoto, Akiko Higurashi, Stelios Kazadzis, Pradeep Khatri, Natalia Kouremeti, Rei Kudo, Franco Marenco, Masahiro Momoi, Shantikumar S. Ningombam, Claire L. Ryder, Akihiro Uchiyama, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4195–4218,Short summary
This paper overviews the progress in sky radiometer technology and the development of the network called SKYNET. It is found that the technology has produced useful on-site calibration methods, retrieval algorithms, and data analyses from sky radiometer observations of aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and ozone. The paper also discusses current issues of SKYNET to provide better information for the community.
Grigorii P. Kokhanenko, Yurii S. Balin, Marina G. Klemasheva, Sergei V. Nasonov, Mikhail M. Novoselov, Iogannes E. Penner, and Svetlana V. Samoilova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1113–1127,Short summary
Cirrus clouds consist of crystals (plates, needles) that can orient themselves in space as a result of free fall. This leads to the appearance of various types of optical halo and to specular reflection of solar radiation. The presence of such particles significantly affects the passage of thermal radiation through the mid- and high-level ice clouds. Using the properties of polarization, a scanning lidar makes it possible to identify cloud areas with oriented crystals.
Hans Grob, Claudia Emde, Matthias Wiegner, Meinhard Seefeldner, Linda Forster, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 239–258,Short summary
Polarimetry has been established as an enhancement to classical photometry in aerosol remote sensing over the past years. We propose a fast and exact radiometric and polarimetric calibration method for polarized photometers. Additionally, a technique for correcting an alt-azimuthal mount is introduced. These methods are applied to measurements obtained with our SSARA instrument during the A-LIFE field campaign. For 2 d, the data are subjected to an inversion of aerosol optical properties.
Akihiro Uchiyama, Masataka Shiobara, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Akihiro Yamazaki, Kazunori Inei, Kazuhiro Kawai, and Yoshiaki Watanabe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6465–6488,Short summary
The majority of aerosol data are obtained from daytime measurements using the Sun as a light source, and there are few datasets available for studying nighttime aerosol characteristics. To estimate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the nighttime using the moon as a light source, a radiometer for the daytime was modified, and a new calibration method was developed. As a result, the estimations of the nighttime AOD were made with the same degree of precision and accuracy during the daytime.
Chong Wang, Mingjiao Jia, Haiyun Xia, Yunbin Wu, Tianwen Wei, Xiang Shang, Chengyun Yang, Xianghui Xue, and Xiankang Dou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3303–3315,Short summary
To investigate the relationship between BLH and air pollution under different conditions, a compact micro-pulse lidar integrating both direct-detection lidar and coherent Doppler wind lidar is built. Evolution of atmospheric boundary layer height (BLH), aerosol layer and fine structure in cloud base are well retrieved. Negative correlation exists between BLH and PM2.5. Different trends show that the relationship between PM2.5 and BLH should be considered in different boundary layer categories.
Maxence Descheemaecker, Matthieu Plu, Virginie Marécal, Marine Claeyman, Francis Olivier, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Lucien Wald, Jonathan Guth, Bojan Sič, Jérôme Vidot, Andrea Piacentini, and Béatrice Josse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1251–1275,Short summary
The future Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) on board MeteoSat Third Generation is expected to improve the detection and the quantification of aerosols. The study assesses the potential of FCI/VIS04 channel for monitoring air pollution in Europe. An observing system simulation experiment in MOCAGE is developed, and they show a large positive impact of the assimilation over a 4-month period and particularly during a severe pollution episode. The added value of geostationary data is also assessed.
Charles J. Vernon, Ryan Bolt, Timothy Canty, and Ralph A. Kahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6289–6307,Short summary
The height that aerosols are injected into the atmosphere can significantly impact the dispersion of aerosol plumes. We use direct observations from the MISR instrument to determine aerosol injection height and constrain the HYSPLIT Dispersion model with these data. We have shown that the nominal plume-rise calculation within HYSPLIT tends to underestimate injection heights of wildfires and that simulations constrained with MISR injection height can show better agreement with MODIS observations.
Akihiro Uchiyama, Tsuneo Matsunaga, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5363–5388,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols are an important constituent of the atmosphere. Measurement networks using radiometers such as SKYNET have been developed. There are two constants that we must determine to make accurate measurements. One of them is the calibration constant. The accuracy of the current method to determine this was investigated and the new method for water vapor and near-infrared channels was developed. Utilizing the results of this paper, SKYNET measurement data will become more reliable.
Akihiro Uchiyama, Tsuneo Matsunaga, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5389–5402,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols are an important constituent of the atmosphere. Measurement networks using radiometers such as SKYNET have been developed. There are two constants that we must determine. One of them is the solid view angle (SVA) of the radiometer. The problems related to SVA were investigated. It was shown that the conventional method can cause a systematic underestimation, and an improved method was proposed. Utilizing the results of this paper, SKYNET data will become more reliable.
Ioana Elisabeta Popovici, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, Luc Blarel, Rodrigue Loisil, Florin Unga, Augustin Mortier, Christine Deroo, Stéphane Victori, Fabrice Ducos, Benjamin Torres, Cyril Delegove, Marie Choël, Nathalie Pujol-Söhne, and Christophe Pietras
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4671–4691,Short summary
This paper aims to show the potential of an instrumented mobile platform, performing on-road remote sensing and in situ measurements, to derive aerosol properties. It is distinguished from other transportable platforms through its ability to perform measurements during movement. Its reduced size, versatility and great flexibility makes it suitable for following sudden aerosol events and for validating satellite measurements and model simulations.
Kirk Knobelspiesse and Sreeja Nag
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3935–3954,Short summary
We test if small satellites flying in formation can be used for multi-angle aerosol remote sensing. So far, this has only been done with multiple views on one satellite. Single-view angle satellites flying in formation are a technically feasible alternative, although with different geometries. Using Bayesian information content analysis, we find such satellites equally capable. For aerosol remote sensing, the number of viewing angles is the most important.
Landon A. Rieger, Elizaveta P. Malinina, Alexei V. Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Adam E. Bourassa, and Doug A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3433–3445,Short summary
This paper compares aerosol extinction records from two limb scattering instruments, OSIRIS and SCIAMACHY, to that from the occultation instrument SAGE II. Differences are investigated through modelling and retrieval studies and important sources of systematic errors are quantified. It is found that the largest biases come from uncertainties in the aerosol size distribution and the aerosol particle concentration at altitudes above 30 km.
Evgenia Galytska, Vassyl Danylevsky, René Hommel, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2101–2118,Short summary
This research assesses the influence of biomass burning during forest fires throughout summer 2010 on aerosol load over Ukraine, the European territory of Russia (ETR) and Eastern Europe. We apply and compare ground-based and satellite measurements to determine aerosol content, dynamics, and properties. With the application of modeling techniques (HYSPLIT), we show that the maximum AOD in August 2010 over Ukraine was caused by particle transport from the forest fires in the ETR.
Livio Belegante, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Volker Freudenthaler, Doina Nicolae, Anca Nemuc, Dragos Ene, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Aldo Amodeo, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Giuseppe D'Amico, Francesco Amato, Ronny Engelmann, Holger Baars, Ulla Wandinger, Alexandros Papayannis, Panos Kokkalis, and Sérgio N. Pereira
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1119–1141,Short summary
This paper presents different depolarization calibration procedures used to improve the quality of the depolarization data. The results illustrate a significant improvement of the depolarization lidar products for all the selected EARLINET lidar instruments. The calibrated volume and particle depolarization profiles at 532 nm show values that fall within a range that is accepted in the literature. The depolarization accuracy estimate at 532 nm is better than ±0.03 for all cases.
Igor V. Geogdzhayev and Alexander Marshak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 359–368,Short summary
The unique Earth view of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) orbiting at the point of equal attraction from the Earth and the Sun can significantly augment the low-orbit remote sensing of aerosols, clouds and gases. We derive the relationship between the digital counts and the reflected sunlight intensity for some EPIC channels using collocated Earth views from EPIC and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and EPIC moon views.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3103–3115,Short summary
The mathematical formulation for the optical setup of a typical EARLINET lidar system is given here. The equations describing a lidar system from the emitted laser beam to the projection of the telescope aperture on the final receiving unit (i.e., photomultiplier or photodiode) are presented, based on paraxial approximation and a geometric optics approach. The evaluation of the formulation is performed with ray-tracing simulations on a real system.
Andrew M. Sayer, N. Christina Hsu, Corey Bettenhausen, Robert E. Holz, Jaehwa Lee, Greg Quinn, and Paolo Veglio
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1425–1444,Short summary
The satellite instrument VIIRS is being used to carry on observations of the Earth made by older satellites like MODIS. Data sets created from these satellite observations depend on the quality of the satellite instruments' calibration. This paper describes a comparison between the calibration of these two sensors. MODIS is believed to be more reliable and so VIIRS is corrected to bring it in line with MODIS. These corrections are shown to improve the quality of VIIRS aerosol data.
Thomas Carlund, Natalia Kouremeti, Stelios Kazadzis, and Julian Gröbner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 905–923,Short summary
Aerosols play an important role in atmospheric processes. Aerosol optical depth is the most common measure of columnar aerosol load. We present a sunphotometer called UVPFR that is able to measure aerosol optical depth in the ultraviolet range, including the calibration, characterization and validation of the instrument/measurements. The instrument will serve as a reference on the intercalibration of Brewer spectrophotometers that are also able to measure aerosol optical depth in the UV region.
A. Fernando Almansa, Emilio Cuevas, Benjamín Torres, África Barreto, Rosa D. García, Victoria E. Cachorro, Ángel M. de Frutos, César López, and Ramón Ramos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 565–579,Short summary
This study presents a new zenith-looking narrow-band radiometer-based system (ZEN), conceived for dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring. The ZEN system comprises a robust and automated radiometer (ZEN-R41), and a lookup table methodology for AOD retrieval (ZEN-LUT). Our results suggest that ZEN is a suitable system to fill the current observational gaps and to complement observations performed by sun-photometer networks in order to improve mineral dust monitoring in remote locations.
Stelios Kazadzis, Panagiotis Raptis, Natalia Kouremeti, Vassilis Amiridis, Antti Arola, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, and Gregory L. Schuster
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5997–6011,Short summary
Aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate. One of the main aerosol properties is the single scattering albedo which is a measure of the aerosol absorption. In this work we have presented a method to retrieve this aerosol property in the ultraviolet and we presented the results for measurements at the urban environment of Athens, Greece. We show that the spectral dependence of the aerosol absorption in the VIS–IR and the UV range depends on the aerosol composition and type.
Moritz Haarig, Ronny Engelmann, Albert Ansmann, Igor Veselovskii, David N. Whiteman, and Dietrich Althausen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4269–4278,
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4181–4255,
Simone Kotthaus, Ewan O'Connor, Christoph Münkel, Cristina Charlton-Perez, Martial Haeffelin, Andrew M. Gabey, and C. Sue B. Grimmond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3769–3791,Short summary
Ceilometers lidars are useful to study clouds, aerosol layers and atmospheric boundary layer structures. As sensor optics and acquisition algorithms can strongly influence the observations, sensor specifics need to be incorporated into the physical interpretation. Here, recommendations are made for the operation and processing of profile observations from the widely deployed Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Proposed corrections are shown to increase data quality and even data availability at times.
Maxime Hervo, Yann Poltera, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2947–2959,Short summary
Imperfections in a lidar's overlap function lead to artefacts in the lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) signals. These artefacts can erroneously be interpreted as an aerosol gradient or, in extreme cases, as a cloud base leading to false cloud detection. In this study an algorithm is presented to correct such artefacts. The algorithm is completely automatic and does not require any intervention on site. It is therefore suited for use in large automatic lidar networks.
Aaron R. Naeger, Pawan Gupta, Bradley T. Zavodsky, and Kevin M. McGrath
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2463–2482,Short summary
In this study, we merge aerosol information from multiple satellite sensors on board low-earth orbiting (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) platforms in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial distribution of aerosols compared to when only using single sensors as is commonly done. Our results show that merging aerosol information from LEO and GEO platforms can be very useful, which paves the way for applications to the more advanced next-generation of satellites.
Ronny Engelmann, Thomas Kanitz, Holger Baars, Birgit Heese, Dietrich Althausen, Annett Skupin, Ulla Wandinger, Mika Komppula, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Ina Mattis, Holger Linné, and Albert Ansmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1767–1784,Short summary
The atmospheric science community demands for autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. For this purpose, a portable lidar called Polly was developed at TROPOS in 2003. This lidar type was continuously improved with gained experience from EARLINET, worldwide field campaigns, and institute collaborations within the last 10 years. We present recent changes to the setup of our portable multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar PollyXT.
Zongming Tao, Zhenzhu Wang, Shijun Yang, Huihui Shan, Xiaomin Ma, Hui Zhang, Sugui Zhao, Dong Liu, Chenbo Xie, and Yingjian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1369–1376,Short summary
A new measurement technology of PM2.5 mass concentration profile near ground is addressed using a CCD side-scatter lidar and a PM2.5 detector. The PM2.5 mass concentration profile can be built upon the vertical distribution of the extinction coefficient for aerosol. The PM2.5 is always loading in the planet boundary layer with a complex muti-layer structure. The new method for PM2.5 mass concentration profile is useful for improving our understanding of air quality and atmospheric environment.
B. J. Elash, A. E. Bourassa, P. R. Loewen, N. D. Lloyd, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1261–1277,
Joel McCorkel, Brian Cairns, and Andrzej Wasilewski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 955–962,Short summary
The transfer and maintenance of international radiometric standards to satellite remote-sensing instruments is a labor-intensive and costly one. The goal is to provide specific examples for calibration implementation for a potential instrument mission and, with this, advance debate on the roles that the various satellite calibration techniques play in providing the best radiometric standards for Earth-observing sensors.
África Barreto, Emilio Cuevas, María-José Granados-Muñoz, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Pedro M. Romero, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Antonio F. Almansa, Tom Stone, Carlos Toledano, Roberto Román, Mikhail Sorokin, Brent Holben, Marius Canini, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 631–654,Short summary
This paper presents the new photometer CE318-T, able to perform daytime and night-time photometric measurements using the sun and the moon as light sources. This new device permits a complete cycle of diurnal aerosol and water vapour measurements to be extracted, valuable to enhance atmospheric monitoring. We have also highlighted the ability of this new device to capture short-term atmospheric variations, critical for climate studies.
R. C. Levy, L. A. Munchak, S. Mattoo, F. Patadia, L. A. Remer, and R. E. Holz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4083–4110,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is an essential climate variable, so we seek to create a long-term AOD record. From MODIS, we have 15+ years, which we want to continue with VIIRS. Accounting for instrumental difference, we have developed a MODIS-like algorithm for VIIRS, and applied it to overlapping 2-year time period. In general, the two data sets are similar, except for VIIRS being high-biased over ocean. We discuss the impacts of calibration, resolution, and sampling on the results.
I. Veselovskii, D. N. Whiteman, M. Korenskiy, A. Suvorina, and D. Pérez-Ramírez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4111–4122,Short summary
We describe a practical implementation of rotational Raman (RR) measurements in an existing Mie-Raman lidar to obtain aerosol extinction and backscattering at 532nm. A 2.3nm width interference filter was used to select a spectral range characterized by low temperature sensitivity within the anti-Stokes branch of the RR spectrum. Simulations demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the scattering cross section does not exceed 1.5% in the 230-300K range.
K. Baibakov, N. T. O'Neill, L. Ivanescu, T. J. Duck, C. Perro, A. Herber, K.-H. Schulz, and O. Schrems
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3789–3809,
J. A. Limbacher and R. A. Kahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2927–2943,Short summary
We address mirroring, blurring, and background radiometric anomalies in the MISR standard Level 1 product empirically by comparing nadir-view near-infrared MISR with simultaneous MODIS images in high-contrast scenes. These anomalies affect aerosol optical depth and aerosol type results, especially over dark ocean scenes with broken cloud. We validate the corrections in all MISR channels by comparing multi-angle research retrievals with 1100 simultaneous surface sun photometer observations.
F. Madonna, F. Amato, J. Vande Hey, and G. Pappalardo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2207–2223,Short summary
This work is the first time that three different commercial ceilometers with an advanced Raman lidar are compared over a period of 6 months. The comparison of the attenuated backscatter profiles from a multi-wavelength Raman lidar and three ceilometers (CHM15k, CS135s, CT25K) reveals differences due to the expected discrepancy in the SNR, but also due to effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the stability of ceilometer calibration over short and mid-term.
G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, A. Di Noia, F. Snik, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, O. P. Hasekamp, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4341–4351,
A. Lyapustin, Y. Wang, X. Xiong, G. Meister, S. Platnick, R. Levy, B. Franz, S. Korkin, T. Hilker, J. Tucker, F. Hall, P. Sellers, A. Wu, and A. Angal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4353–4365,
A. Barreto, E. Cuevas, P. Pallé, P. M. Romero, C. Guirado, C. J. Wehrli, and F. Almansa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4103–4116,
M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1979–1997,
Q. Min, B. Yin, S. Li, J. Berndt, L. Harrison, E. Joseph, M. Duan, and P. Kiedron
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1711–1722,
A. Skupin, A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, H. Baars, and T. Müller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 701–712,
A. R. Naeger and S. A. Christopher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 581–597,
D. Summa, P. Di Girolamo, D. Stelitano, and M. Cacciani
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3515–3525,
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