Articles | Volume 7, issue 5
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The backscatter cloud probe – a compact low-profile autonomous optical spectrometer
University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO, USA
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung 8: Troposphäre, 24525 Juelich, Germany
CNRS Laboratoire d'Aérologie, Univerity of Toulouse, Toulouse, France
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan
Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO, USA
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
No articles found.
Mahen Konwar, Benjamin Werden, Edward C. Fortner, Sudarsan Bera, Mercy Varghese, Subharthi Chowdhuri, Kurt Hibert, Philip Croteau, John Jayne, Manjula Canagaratna, Neelam Malap, Sandeep Jayakumar, Shivsai A. Dixit, Palani Murugavel, Duncan Axisa, Darrel Baumgardner, Peter F. DeCarlo, Doug R. Worsnop, and Thara Prabhakaran
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
In a warm cloud seeding experiment hygroscopic particles are released to alter cloud processes to induce early raindrops. During Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment, airborne mini-Aerosol Mass Spectrometers analyze the particles on which clouds form. The seeded clouds showed higher concentrations of Chlorine (Cl) and potassium (K), the oxidizing agents of flares. Small cloud droplet concentrations increased, and seeding particles were detected in deep cloud depths.
Declan L. Finney, Alan M. Blyth, Martin Gallagher, Huihui Wu, Graeme Nott, Mike Biggerstaff, Richard G. Sonnenfeld, Martin Daily, Dan Walker, David Dufton, Keith Bower, Steven Boeing, Thomas Choularton, Jonathan Crosier, James Groves, Paul R. Field, Hugh Coe, Benjamin J. Murray, Gary Lloyd, Nicholas A. Marsden, Michael Flynn, Kezhen Hu, Naveneeth M. Thamban, Paul I. Williams, James B. McQuaid, Joseph Robinson, Gordon Carrie, Robert Moore, Graydon Aulich, Ralph R. Burton, and Paul J. Connolly
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Deep convective clouds are a source of large uncertainty in predictions of surface temperature response to carbon dioxide. It is the effect of clouds on incoming sunlight and outgoing heat that matters. The DCMEX 2022 campaign in New Mexico collected data with an aircraft, radars, and other instruments. They give new detail on the role of aerosol and cloud ice in cloud formation. Combined with satellite data, the dataset can be used to explore the cloud impact on sunlight and heat.
Bighnaraj Sarangi, Darrel Baumgardner, Benjamin Bolaños-Rosero, and Olga L. Mayol-Bracero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9647–9661,Short summary
Here, the fluorescent characteristics and cloud-forming efficiency of aerosols at an urban site in Puerto Rico are discussed. The results from this pilot study highlight the capabilities of ultraviolet-induced fluorescence (UV-IF) measurements for characterizing the properties of fluorescing aerosol particles, as they relate to the daily evolution of primary biological aerosol particles. This work has established a database of measurements on which future, longer-term studies will be initiated.
Graciela B. Raga, Darrel Baumgardner, Blanca Rios, Yanet Díaz-Esteban, Alejandro Jaramillo, Martin Gallagher, Bastien Sauvage, Pawel Wolff, and Gary Lloyd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2269–2292,Short summary
The In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) is a small fleet of commercial aircraft that carry a suite of meteorological, gas, aerosol, and cloud sensors and have been measuring worldwide for almost 9 years, since late 2011. Extreme ice events (EIEs) have been identified from the IAGOS cloud measurements and linked to surface emissions for biomass and fossil fuel consumption. The results reported here are highly relevant for climate change and flight operations forecasting.
Waldemar Schledewitch, Gary Lloyd, Keith Bower, Thomas Choularton, Michael Flynn, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Ice crystals on the surface of ice and snow covered terrain are thought to be transported into clouds that cover the surface. This has important implications for the properties of clouds in these regions. This research measured the potential transport of surface based ice crystals into the surrounding clouds at a mountain top site.
Elvis Torres-Delgado, Darrel Baumgardner, and Olga L. Mayol-Bracero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18011–18027,Short summary
African dust aerosols can travel thousands of kilometers and reach the Caribbean and other places, where they can serve as ice and cloud condensation nuclei and alter precipitation patterns. Cloud microphysical properties (droplet number and size) were measured in a Caribbean tropical montane cloud forest along with models and satellite products. The results of the study suggest that meteorology and air mass history are more important for cloud processes than aerosols transported from Africa.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Fernanda Córdoba, Carolina Ramírez-Romero, Diego Cabrera, Graciela B. Raga, Javier Miranda, Harry Alvarez-Ospina, Daniel Rosas, Bernardo Figueroa, Jong Sung Kim, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, Talib Amador, Wilfrido Gutierrez, Manuel García, Allan K. Bertram, Darrel Baumgardner, and Luis A. Ladino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4453–4470,Short summary
Most precipitation from deep clouds over the continents and in the intertropical convergence zone is strongly influenced by the presence of ice crystals whose formation requires the presence of aerosol particles. In the present study, the ability of three different aerosol types (i.e., marine aerosol, biomass burning, and African dust) to facilitate ice particle formation was assessed in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.
Carolina Ramírez-Romero, Alejandro Jaramillo, María F. Córdoba, Graciela B. Raga, Javier Miranda, Harry Alvarez-Ospina, Daniel Rosas, Talib Amador, Jong Sung Kim, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, Darrel Baumgardner, and Luis A. Ladino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 239–253,Short summary
Field measurements were conducted to confirm the arrival of African dust on the Yucatàn Peninsula. Aerosol particles were monitored at ground level by different online and off-line sensors. Several particulate matter peaks were observed with a relative increase in their levels of up to 500 % with respect to background conditions. Based on the chemical composition, back trajectories, vertical profiles, reanalysis, and satellite images, it was found that the peaks are linked to African dust.
Patrick A. Barker, Grant Allen, Martin Gallagher, Joseph R. Pitt, Rebecca E. Fisher, Thomas Bannan, Euan G. Nisbet, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Dominika Pasternak, Samuel Cliff, Marina B. Schimpf, Archit Mehra, Keith N. Bower, James D. Lee, Hugh Coe, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15443–15459,Short summary
Africa is estimated to account for approximately 52 % of global biomass burning (BB) carbon emissions. Despite this, there has been little previous in situ study of African BB emissions. This work presents BB emission factors for various atmospheric trace gases sampled from an aircraft in two distinct areas of Africa (Senegal and Uganda). Intracontinental variability in biomass burning methane emission is identified, which is attributed to difference in the specific fuel mixtures burnt.
Douglas Morrison, Ian Crawford, Nicholas Marsden, Michael Flynn, Katie Read, Luis Neves, Virginia Foot, Paul Kaye, Warren Stanley, Hugh Coe, David Topping, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14473–14490,Short summary
We provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of bacteria within transatlantic dust clouds, originating from the African continent. We observe significant seasonal differences in the overall concentrations of particles but no seasonal variation in the ratio between bacteria and dust. With bacteria contributing to ice formation at warmer temperatures than dust, our observations should improve the accuracy of climate models.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas Choularton, Keith Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin Gallagher, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Oliver Schlenczek, Jacob Fugal, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Paul Field, and Alan Blyth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3895–3904,Short summary
Measurements of liquid and ice cloud particles were made using an aircraft to penetrate fresh growing convective clouds in the tropical Atlantic. We found small ice particles at surprisingly high temperatures just below freezing. At colder temperatures secondary ice processes rapidly generated high concentrations of ice crystals.
Adil Shah, Joseph R. Pitt, Hugo Ricketts, J. Brian Leen, Paul I. Williams, Khristopher Kabbabe, Martin W. Gallagher, and Grant Allen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1467–1484,Short summary
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, with large flux uncertainties from facility-scale sources, such as natural gas extraction infrastructure. A recently developed flux quantification method was successfully tested by flying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) downwind of 22 controlled atmospheric methane releases. The UAVs were used to derive high-precision atmospheric methane measurements. The UAV methodology was successful in both detecting the release and providing a rough flux estimate.
Lester Alfonso, Graciela B. Raga, and Darrel Baumgardner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14917–14932,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to find some observational evidence of gel formation in clouds, by analyzing the distribution of the largest droplet at an early stage of cloud formation, and to show that the mass of the gel (
lucky droplet) is a mixture of Gaussian and Gumbel distributions. The results obtained may help advance the understanding of precipitation formation and are a novel application of the theory of critical phenomena in cloud physics.
Joseph R. Pitt, Grant Allen, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Martin W. Gallagher, James D. Lee, Will Drysdale, Beth Nelson, Alistair J. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8931–8945,Short summary
This paper presents a new method to assess inventory estimates of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions for large cities and their surrounding regions. A case study using data sampled by a research aircraft around London was used to test the method. We found that the UK national inventory agrees with our observations for CO but needed lower emissions for CH4 to agree with the measured data. Repeated studies could help determine how these emissions vary on different timescales.
Elizabeth Forde, Martin Gallagher, Virginia Foot, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Ian Crawford, Paul Kaye, Warren Stanley, and David Topping
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1665–1684,Short summary
The abundance and diversity of airborne biological particles in different environments remains poorly constrained. Measurements of such particles were conducted at four sites in the United Kingdom, using real-time fluorescence instrumentation. Using local land cover types, sources of suspected particle types were identified and compared. Most sites exhibited a wet-discharged fungal spore dominance, with the exception of one site, which was inferred to be influenced by a local dairy farm.
Franco Marenco, Claire Ryder, Victor Estellés, Debbie O'Sullivan, Jennifer Brooke, Luke Orgill, Gary Lloyd, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17655–17668,Short summary
The AER-D airborne campaign characterised Saharan dust in the eastern Atlantic. We report an instance of unusual vertical structure of the Saharan Air Layer during an intense event, showing a large radiative impact and correlated with anomalous lightning activity. Moreover, we report a significant presence of giant dust particles. This is important because most models would miss the giant particles. Our findings may change the way we represent dust transport and deposition in the Atlantic.
Claire L. Ryder, Franco Marenco, Jennifer K. Brooke, Victor Estelles, Richard Cotton, Paola Formenti, James B. McQuaid, Hannah C. Price, Dantong Liu, Patrick Ausset, Phil D. Rosenberg, Jonathan W. Taylor, Tom Choularton, Keith Bower, Hugh Coe, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Gary Lloyd, Eleanor J. Highwood, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17225–17257,Short summary
Every year, millions of tons of Saharan dust particles are carried across the Atlantic by the wind, where they can affect weather patterns and climate. Their sizes span orders of magnitude, but the largest (over 10 microns – around the width of a human hair) are difficult to measure and few observations exist. Here we show new aircraft observations of large dust particles, finding more than we would expect, and we quantify their properties which allow them to interact with atmospheric radiation.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas W. Choularton, Keith N. Bower, Martin W. Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Sebastian O'Shea, Steven J. Abel, Stuart Fox, Richard Cotton, and Ian A. Boutle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17191–17206,Short summary
The work deals with cold weather outbreaks at high latitudes that often bring severe weather such as heavy snow, lightning and high winds but are poorly forecast by weather models. Here we made measurements of these events and the clouds associated with them using a research aircraft. We found that the properties of these clouds were often very different to what the models predicted, and these results can potentially be used to bring significant improvement to the forecasting of these events.
Simon Ruske, David O. Topping, Virginia E. Foot, Andrew P. Morse, and Martin W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6203–6230,Short summary
Pollen, bacteria and fungal spores are common in the environment, can have very important implications for public health and may influence the weather. Biological sensors potentially could be used to monitor quantities of these types of particles. However, it is important to transform the measurements from these instruments into counts of these biological particles. The paper tests a variety of approaches for achieving this aim on data collected in a laboratory.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
James D. Lee, Stephen D. Mobbs, Axel Wellpott, Grant Allen, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Richard Camilli, Hugh Coe, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Martin Gallagher, James R. Hopkins, Mathias Lanoiselle, Alastair C. Lewis, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Ruth M. Purvis, Sebastian O'Shea, John A. Pyle, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1725–1739,Short summary
This work describes measurements, made from an aircraft platform, of the emission of methane and other organic gases from an uncontrolled leak from an oil platform in the North Sea (Total Elgin). The measurements made helped the platform operators to devise a strategy for repairing the leak and serve as a methodology for assessing future similar incidents.
Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Jonathan Crosier, Nicholas Marsden, Keith N. Bower, Gary Lloyd, Claire L. Ryder, Jennifer K. Brooke, Richard Cotton, Franco Marenco, Alan Blyth, Zhiqiang Cui, Victor Estelles, Martin Gallagher, Hugh Coe, and Tom W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3817–3838,Short summary
This article presents measurements of aerosol properties off the coast of west Africa during August 2015. For the first time, an airborne laser-induced incandescence instrument was deployed to measure the hematite content of dust. The single scattering albedo of dust was found to be influenced by the hematite content, but depended on the dust source and potential dust age. This highlights the importance of size-dependent composition in determining the optical properties of dust.
Viswanathan Bringi, Merhala Thurai, and Darrel Baumgardner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1377–1384,Short summary
Raindrop fall velocities are important for rain rate estimation, soil erosion studies and in numerical modelling of rain formation in clouds. The assumption that the fall velocity is uniquely related to drop size is made inherently based on laboratory measurements under still air conditions from nearly 68 years ago. There have been very few measurements of drop fall speeds in natural rain under both still and turbulent wind conditions. We report on fall speed measurements in natural rain shafts.
Ian Crawford, Martin W. Gallagher, Keith N. Bower, Thomas W. Choularton, Michael J. Flynn, Simon Ruske, Constantino Listowski, Neil Brough, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Zoë L. Fleming, Virginia E. Foot, and Warren R. Stanley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14291–14307,Short summary
We present the first real-time detection of bioparticles on the Antarctic continent using a novel UV-LIF technique. The high time resolution of the technique allowed us to examine the relationships between bioparticle concentrations and airmass history and local winds, which would not have been possible with conventional high-volume filter sampling techniques. We also show evidence of episodic long-range transport of pollen from coastal South America to the continent.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Thomas W. Choularton, Michael Flynn, Keith N. Bower, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Paul Williams, Ian Crawford, Zoë L. Fleming, Constantino Listowski, Amélie Kirchgaessner, Russell S. Ladkin, and Thomas Lachlan-Cope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13049–13070,Short summary
Few direct measurements have been made of Antarctic cloud and aerosol properties. As part of the 2015 Microphysics of Antarctic Clouds (MAC) field campaign, detailed airborne and ground-based measurements were made over the Weddell Sea and Antarctic coastal continent. This paper presents the first results from this campaign and discusses the cloud properties and processes important in this region.
Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Armin Afchine, Anna Luebke, Gebhard Günther, James R. Dorsey, Martin W. Gallagher, Andre Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Darrel Baumgardner, Heike Wex, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12219–12238,Short summary
The paper presents 38 h of in situ cloud spectrometer observations of microphysical cloud properties in the Arctic, midlatitudes and tropics. The clouds are classified via particle concentrations, size distributions, and – as a novelty – small particle aspherical fractions. Cloud-type profiles are given for different temperatures and locations. The results confine regions where different cloud transformation processes occurred and emphasise the importance of small particle shape detection.
Leonid Nichman, Emma Järvinen, James Dorsey, Paul Connolly, Jonathan Duplissy, Claudia Fuchs, Karoliina Ignatius, Kamalika Sengupta, Frank Stratmann, Ottmar Möhler, Martin Schnaiter, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3231–3248,Short summary
Optical probes are frequently used for the detection of cloud particles. The detected microphysical properties may affect particle growth and accretion mechanisms and the light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. In the CLOUD chamber study at CERN, we compared four optical measurement techniques. We show that shape derivation alone is not sufficient to determine the phase of the small cloud particles. None of the instruments were able to unambiguously determine the phase of small particles.
Simon Ruske, David O. Topping, Virginia E. Foot, Paul H. Kaye, Warren R. Stanley, Ian Crawford, Andrew P. Morse, and Martin W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 695–708,Short summary
Particles such as bacteria, pollen and fungal spores have important implications within the environment and public health sectors. Here we evaluate the performance of various different methods for distinguishing between these different types of particles using a new instrument. We demonstrate that there may be better alternatives to the currently used methods which can be further investigated in future research.
Ulrich Schumann, Robert Baumann, Darrel Baumgardner, Sarah T. Bedka, David P. Duda, Volker Freudenthaler, Jean-Francois Gayet, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Patrick Minnis, Markus Quante, Ehrhard Raschke, Hans Schlager, Margarita Vázquez-Navarro, Christiane Voigt, and Zhien Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 403–438,Short summary
The initially linear clouds often seen behind aircraft are known as contrails. Contrails are prototype cirrus clouds forming under well-known conditions, but with less certain life cycle and climate effects. This paper collects contrail data from a large set of measurements and compares them among each other and with models. The observations show consistent contrail properties over a wide range of aircraft and atmosphere conditions. The dataset is available for further research.
Marie Ila Gosselin, Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Ian Crawford, Christopher Pöhlker, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Beatrice Schmer, Viviane R. Després, Guenter Engling, Martin Gallagher, Elizabeth Stone, Ulrich Pöschl, and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15165–15184,Short summary
We present an analysis of bioaerosol measurements using two real-time fluorescence instruments in combination with molecular tracer techniques for quantifying airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest. Both techniques provide fungal spore concentrations of the order of 104 m−3 and up to 30 % of particle mass. Rainy periods exhibited higher concentrations and stronger correlations between fluorescent bioparticle and molecular tracer measurements. Fungal culture results are also presented.
Gillian Young, Hazel M. Jones, Thomas W. Choularton, Jonathan Crosier, Keith N. Bower, Martin W. Gallagher, Rhiannon S. Davies, Ian A. Renfrew, Andrew D. Elvidge, Eoghan Darbyshire, Franco Marenco, Philip R. A. Brown, Hugo M. A. Ricketts, Paul J. Connolly, Gary Lloyd, Paul I. Williams, James D. Allan, Jonathan W. Taylor, Dantong Liu, and Michael J. Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13945–13967,Short summary
Clouds are intricately coupled to the Arctic sea ice. Our inability to accurately model cloud fractions causes large uncertainties in predicted radiative interactions in this region, therefore, affecting sea ice forecasts. Here, we present measurements of cloud microphysics, aerosol properties, and thermodynamic structure over the transition from sea ice to ocean to improve our understanding of the relationship between the Arctic atmosphere and clouds which develop in this region.
Ana Graciela Ulke, Marcela M. Torres Brizuela, Graciela B. Raga, and Darrel Baumgardner
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2159–2175,Short summary
The eruption in June 2011 of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex (Chile) impacted air traffic around the Southern Hemisphere for several months. The ash deposited in vast areas of the Patagonian steppe was subjected to the strong wind conditions prevalent during the austral winter and spring. An ash resuspension event impacted Buenos Aires and resulted in the closure of airports in the area on 16 October 2011. Measurements of aerosol properties clearly indicate the enhanced concentrations
Jonathan W. Taylor, Thomas W. Choularton, Alan M. Blyth, Michael J. Flynn, Paul I. Williams, Gillian Young, Keith N. Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin W. Gallagher, James R. Dorsey, Zixia Liu, and Philip D. Rosenberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11687–11709,Short summary
We present measurements of boundary layer aerosol concentration, size and composition from research flights performed over the southwest peninsula of the UK during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) of summer 2013. We compare case studies of aerosol in cleaner marine air from the Atlantic with anthropogenic pollution from the UK. These measurements are then used to investigate the possible sources of CCN and IN in the region.
James D. Whitehead, Eoghan Darbyshire, Joel Brito, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Ian Crawford, Rafael Stern, Martin W. Gallagher, Paul H. Kaye, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9727–9743,Short summary
We present measurements of aerosols during the transition from wet to dry seasons at a pristine rainforest site in central Amazonia. By excluding pollution episodes, we focus on natural biogenic aerosols. Submicron aerosols are dominated by organic material, similar to previous wet season measurements. Larger particles are dominated by biological material, mostly fungal spores, with higher concentrations at night. This study provides important data on the nature of particles above the Amazon.
Mark Hernandez, Anne E. Perring, Kevin McCabe, Greg Kok, Gary Granger, and Darrel Baumgardner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3283–3292,Short summary
We have performed laboratory experiments examining a large set of known bacterial, fungal and pollen species using a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS). The instrumental response is shown to be sufficiently distinct for these classes of particles to distinguish between them, and this library will provide a framework for interpretation of UV-induced fluorescence measurements of atmospheric bioaerosol. Atmospheric implications and instrumental considerations are discussed.
Karoliina Ignatius, Thomas B. Kristensen, Emma Järvinen, Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Hamish Gordon, Paul Herenz, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jonathan Duplissy, Sarvesh Garimella, Antonio Dias, Carla Frege, Niko Höppel, Jasmin Tröstl, Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Martin W. Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Antonio Tomé, Annele Virtanen, Douglas Worsnop, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6495–6509,Short summary
Viscous solid or semi-solid secondary organic aerosol (SOA) may influence cloud properties through ice nucleation in the atmosphere. Here, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA at temperatures between −39 °C and −37.2 °C with ice saturation ratios significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. Global modelling suggests that viscous biogenic SOA are present in regions where cirrus formation takes place and could contribute to the global ice nuclei budget.
Anna E. Luebke, Armin Afchine, Anja Costa, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Jessica Meyer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Linnea M. Avallone, Darrel Baumgardner, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5793–5809,Short summary
In this study, we present observational evidence to show that two distinct types of cirrus clouds exist – in situ origin and liquid origin cirrus. These two types differ by their formation mechanism and other properties. Airborne, in-cloud measurements of cloud ice water content (IWC), ice crystal concentration (Nice), and ice crystal size from the 2014 ML-CIRRUS campaign provide cloud samples that have been divided and analyzed according to their origin type.
Rebecca M. McKenzie, Mustafa Z. Özel, J. Neil Cape, Julia Drewer, Kerry J. Dinsmore, Eiko Nemitz, Y. Sim Tang, Netty van Dijk, Margaret Anderson, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Mark A. Sutton, Martin W. Gallagher, and Ute Skiba
Biogeosciences, 13, 2353–2365,Short summary
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) contributes significantly to the overall nitrogen budget and can potentially be biologically available as a source of N. Despite this it is not routinely measured. This study found that DON contributed up to 10 % of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) found in precipitation and was the most dominant fraction in soil water (99 %) and stream water (75 %).
Robert J. Farrington, Paul J. Connolly, Gary Lloyd, Keith N. Bower, Michael J. Flynn, Martin W. Gallagher, Paul R. Field, Chris Dearden, and Thomas W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4945–4966,Short summary
This paper assesses the reasons for high ice number concentrations observed in orographic clouds by comparing observations with model simulations over Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. The results suggest that ice nuclei do not significantly contribute to the high concentrations and that a surface source of ice crystals is responsible for the witnessed ice number concentrations.
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
G. Young, H. M. Jones, E. Darbyshire, K. J. Baustian, J. B. McQuaid, K. N. Bower, P. J. Connolly, M. W. Gallagher, and T. W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4063–4079,
María José Granados-Muñoz, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Darrel Baumgardner, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Igor Veselovskii, Hassan Lyamani, Antonio Valenzuela, Francisco José Olmo, Gloria Titos, Javier Andrey, Anatoli Chaikovsky, Oleg Dubovik, Manuel Gil-Ojeda, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1113–1133,Short summary
A Saharan dust event is studied in detail using ground-based remote sensing measurements from lidar technology, as well as sun- and star-photometers. The use of combined techniques allows for obtaining both profiles and column-integrated microphysical properties during night and daytime. Besides, for the first time a validation of the CAS-POL depolarization measurements and LIRIC profiles is performed, thanks to the availability of aircraft in situ measurements, obtaining reasonable agreement.
Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Niko Florian Höppel, Antonio Dias, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, Jasmin Tröstl, Andrea Christine Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Chao Yan, Paul James Connolly, James Robert Dorsey, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Christopher Robert Hoyle, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, Gerhard Steiner, Neil McPherson Donahue, Richard Flagan, Martin William Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Frank Stratmann, and António Tomé
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3651–3664,Short summary
Processes in the atmosphere are often governed by the physical and chemical properties of small cloud particles. Ice, water, and mixed clouds, as well as viscous aerosols, were formed under controlled conditions at the CLOUD-CERN facility. The experimental results show a link between cloud particle properties and their unique optical fingerprints. The classification map presented here allows easier discrimination between various particles such as viscous organic aerosol, salt, ice, and liquid.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Anna Luebke, Armin Afchine, Nicole Spelten, Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Martin Zöger, Jessica Smith, Robert L. Herman, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Darrel Baumgardner, Stephan Borrmann, Marcus Klingebiel, and Linnea Avallone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3463–3483,Short summary
A guide to cirrus clouds is compiled from extensive model simulations and aircraft observations. Two types of cirrus are found: rather thin in situ cirrus that form directly as ice and thicker liquid origin cirrus consisting of uplifted frozen liquid drops. Over Europe, thinner in situ and liquid origin cirrus occur often together with frontal systems, while over the US and the Tropics, thick liquid origin cirrus formed in large convective systems are detected more frequently.
I. Crawford, G. Lloyd, E. Herrmann, C. R. Hoyle, K. N. Bower, P. J. Connolly, M. J. Flynn, P. H. Kaye, T. W. Choularton, and M. W. Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2273–2284,Short summary
In this manuscript we discuss observations of fluorescent aerosol and their interactions with cloud at a high-alpine site in the wintertime under background conditions. We find the majority of the fluorescent aerosol to be consistent in nature to mineral dust and no apparent trend was observed between the fluorescent aerosol fraction and meteorological or cloud microphysical parameters, suggesting that particle fluorescence does not impact cloud evolution or formation at the site.
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
J. W. Taylor, T. W. Choularton, A. M. Blyth, Z. Liu, K. N. Bower, J. Crosier, M. W. Gallagher, P. I. Williams, J. R. Dorsey, M. J. Flynn, L. J. Bennett, Y. Huang, J. French, A. Korolev, and P. R. A. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 799–826,Short summary
We present microphysical observations of cumulus clouds measured over south-west England during COPE in summer 2013. Detailed sampling focused on an isolated liquid cloud that glaciated as it matured to merge with a band of cloud downwind. The first ice particles observed were frozen drizzle, while columnar ice dominated in the mature stages. We discuss the interactions between the warm rain and secondary ice processes, and their importance for the formation of precipitation.
J. R. Pitt, M. Le Breton, G. Allen, C. J. Percival, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. J. O'Shea, J. B. A. Muller, M. S. Zahniser, J. Pyle, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 63–77,Short summary
We present details of an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) used to make airborne measurements of N2O and CH4, including its configuration for use on board an aircraft. Two different methods to correct for the influence of water vapour on the measurements are evaluated. We diagnose a sensitivity of the instrument to changes in pressure, introduce a new calibration procedure to account for this effect, and assess its performance.
I. Crawford, S. Ruske, D. O. Topping, and M. W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4979–4991,Short summary
HCA analysis methods were evaluated for the purpose of identifying primary biological aerosol sampled with a WIBS. The ward linkage with z-score normalisation could discriminate between five test particles with 98% accuracy. We applied these methods to a previously studied ambient data set, where both methods produced similar results with some minor differences in cluster partitioning. Finally we compared to previous approaches and found our new method offered improved quantification of PBA.
G. Lloyd, T. W. Choularton, K. N. Bower, M. W. Gallagher, P. J. Connolly, M. Flynn, R. Farrington, J. Crosier, O. Schlenczek, J. Fugal, and J. Henneberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12953–12969,Short summary
The paper explores the microphysical structure of clouds at the high-alpine measurement site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. High concentrations of ice crystals were measured by a range of instruments. The presence of these high concentrations could not be explained through conventional understanding of ice formation processes in clouds and the possibility that the surface provides a significant source of ice crystals is investigated.
D. Liu, B. Quennehen, E. Darbyshire, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, J. W. Taylor, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, M. J. Flynn, D. Lowe, M. W. Gallagher, K. N. Bower, T. W. Choularton, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11537–11555,Short summary
We show that during the springtime of 2013, the anthropogenic pollution particularly from sources in Asia, contributed significantly to black carbon across the European Arctic free troposphere. In contrast to previous studies, the contribution from open wildfires was minimal. Given that Asian pollution is likely to continue to rise over the coming years, it is likely that the radiative forcing in the Arctic will also continue to increase.
A. Retama, D. Baumgardner, G. B. Raga, G. R. McMeeking, and J. W. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9693–9709,Short summary
Extended measurements of equivalent black carbon (eBC) derived from light absorption measurements have been made with a PAX over a 13 month period. The daily trends in eBC and other co-pollutants are evaluated with respect to season. The primary factors that led to large changes between the wet and dry seasons are the accelerated vertical mixing of boundary layer and free tropospheric air, by the formation of clouds and decreased actinic flux that reduces the production of ozone.
D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, D. C. Green, M. J. Flynn, R. M. Harrison, J. Yin, M. W. Gallagher, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6351–6366,Short summary
For the first time, the behaviour of non-refractory inorganic and organic submicron particulates through an entire annual cycle is investigated at a UK urban background site. We show secondary aerosols account for a significant fraction of the submicron aerosol burden, high concentration events are governed by different factors depending on season, and on an annual basis there is no variability in the extent of secondary organic aerosol oxidation.
M. Hummel, C. Hoose, M. Gallagher, D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. O'Connor, U. Pöschl, C. Pöhlker, N. H. Robinson, M. Schnaiter, J. R. Sodeau, M. Stengel, E. Toprak, and H. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6127–6146,
G. Lloyd, T. W. Choularton, K. N. Bower, J. Crosier, H. Jones, J. R. Dorsey, M. W. Gallagher, P. Connolly, A. C. R. Kirchgaessner, and T. Lachlan-Cope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3719–3737,Short summary
Measurements of cloud microphysics are reported from the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions (ACCACIA) campaign. Concentrations of ice particles from two spring and two summer cases are compared with particular attention to the role of secondary ice in these clouds. In addition aerosol measurements were used as input to a primary ice nucleation parameterisation which was compared with observed values of primary ice in these clouds. We found higher concentrations of ice during summer.
D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, D. C. Green, R. M. Harrison, J. Yin, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2429–2443,Short summary
Two solid fuel organic aerosol (SFOA) factors, both associated with domestic space heating activities, were derived from positive matrix factorisation (PMF) applied to organic aerosol data from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) deployed at an urban background site in London during winter 2012. The factors controlling the split between the two SFOA factors were assessed, and it is concluded the split is likely governed predominantly by differences in burn conditions.
G. Allen, S. M. Illingworth, S. J. O'Shea, S. Newman, A. Vance, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, F. Marenco, J. Kent, K. Bower, M. W. Gallagher, J. Muller, C. J. Percival, C. Harlow, J. Lee, and J. P. Taylor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4401–4416,Short summary
This paper presents a validated method and data set for new retrievals of trace gas concentrations and temperature from the ARIES infrared spectrometer instrument on the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft (www.faam.ac.uk). This new capability for the aircraft will allow new science to be done because of the way it can sense information about the atmosphere without having to physically pass through it (remote sensing). This will allow us to better understand the make-up of the lower atmosphere.
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, K. Bower, S. M. Illingworth, J. B. A. Muller, B. T. Jones, C. J. Percival, S. J-B. Bauguitte, M. Cain, N. Warwick, A. Quiquet, U. Skiba, J. Drewer, K. Dinsmore, E. G. Nisbet, D. Lowry, R. E. Fisher, J. L. France, M. Aurela, A. Lohila, G. Hayman, C. George, D. B. Clark, A. J. Manning, A. D. Friend, and J. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13159–13174,Short summary
This paper presents airborne measurements of greenhouse gases collected in the European Arctic. Regional scale flux estimates for the northern Scandinavian wetlands are derived. These fluxes are found to be in excellent agreement with coincident surface measurements within the aircraft's sampling domain. This has allowed a significant low bias to be identified in two commonly used process-based land surface models.
D. Liu, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, H. Coe, D. Beddows, Z. L. Fleming, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, R. M. Harrison, J. Lee, A. S. H. Prevot, J. W. Taylor, J. Yin, P. I. Williams, and P. Zotter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10061–10084,
I. Crawford, N. H. Robinson, M. J. Flynn, V. E. Foot, M. W. Gallagher, J. A. Huffman, W. R. Stanley, and P. H. Kaye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8559–8578,
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. M. Illingworth, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, A. T. Archibald, D. E. Oram, M. Parrington, P. I. Palmer, and A. C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12451–12467,
G. B. Raga, D. Baumgardner, A. G. Ulke, M. Torres Brizuela, and B. Kucienska
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 2319–2330,
A. M. Gabey, M. Vaitilingom, E. Freney, J. Boulon, K. Sellegri, M. W. Gallagher, I. P. Crawford, N. H. Robinson, W. R. Stanley, and P. H. Kaye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7415–7428,
J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, P. J. DeMott, C. Pöhlker, R. H. Mason, N. H. Robinson, J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Y. Tobo, V. R. Després, E. Garcia, D. J. Gochis, E. Harris, I. Müller-Germann, C. Ruzene, B. Schmer, B. Sinha, D. A. Day, M. O. Andreae, J. L. Jimenez, M. Gallagher, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. K. Bertram, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151–6164,
S. J. O'Shea, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, M. W. Gallagher, D. Lowry, and C. J. Percival
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1095–1109,
N. H. Robinson, J. D. Allan, J. A. Huffman, P. H. Kaye, V. E. Foot, and M. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 337–347,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsA comparative analysis of in situ measurements of high-altitude cirrus in the tropicsIn situ ground-based mobile measurement of lightning events above central EuropeA phase separation inlet for droplets, ice residuals, and interstitial aerosol particlesSimulation and field campaign evaluation of an optical particle counter on a fixed-wing UAVCloud microphysical measurements at a mountain observatory: comparison between shadowgraph imaging and phase Doppler interferometryUse of large-eddy simulations to design an adaptive sampling strategy to assess cumulus cloud heterogeneities by remotely piloted aircraftPost-flight analysis of detailed size distributions of warm cloud droplets, as determined in situ by cloud and aerosol spectrometersPHIPS-HALO: the airborne Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe – Part 3: Single-particle phase discrimination and particle size distribution based on the angular-scattering functionApplicability of the VisiSize D30 shadowgraph system for cloud microphysical measurementsCharacterising optical array particle imaging probes: implications for small-ice-crystal observationsThe De-Icing Comparison Experiment (D-ICE): a study of broadband radiometric measurements under icing conditions in the ArcticThe Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment (PINE): a new online instrument for laboratory studies and automated long-term field observations of ice-nucleating particlesCézeaux-Aulnat-Opme-Puy De Dôme: a multi-site for the long-term survey of the tropospheric composition and climate changeUsing a holographic imager on a tethered balloon system for microphysical observations of boundary layer cloudsEvaluation of ARM tethered-balloon system instrumentation for supercooled liquid water and distributed temperature sensing in mixed-phase Arctic cloudsRevisiting particle sizing using greyscale optical array probes: evaluation using laboratory experiments and synthetic dataCloud fraction determined by thermal infrared and visible all-sky camerasDevelopment and characterization of a high-efficiency, aircraft-based axial cyclone cloud water collectorIce particle sampling from aircraft – influence of the probing position on the ice water contentPHIPS-HALO: the airborne particle habit imaging and polar scattering probe – Part 2: Characterization and first resultsA tandem approach for collocated measurements of microphysical and radiative cirrus propertiesHoloGondel: in situ cloud observations on a cable car in the Swiss Alps using a holographic imagerDevelopment of a cloud particle sensor for radiosonde soundingThermodynamic correction of particle concentrations measured by underwing probes on fast-flying aircraftPHIPS–HALO: the airborne Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe – Part 1: Design and operationQuantitative evaluation of seven optical sensors for cloud microphysical measurements at the Puy-de-Dôme Observatory, FranceSchneefernerhaus as a mountain research station for clouds and turbulenceHigh-resolution measurement of cloud microphysics and turbulence at a mountaintop stationDual-channel photoacoustic hygrometer for airborne measurements: background, calibration, laboratory and in-flight intercomparison testsA comparison of ice water content measurement techniques on the FAAM BAe-146 aircraftCloud shadow speed sensorA fiber-coupled laser hygrometer for airborne total water measurementHOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase cloudsEvaluating the capabilities and uncertainties of droplet measurements for the fog droplet spectrometer (FM-100)PHOCUS radiometerFirst correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probeEffects of ice particles shattering on the 2D-S probeWater droplet calibration of the Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) and in-flight performance in liquid, ice and mixed-phase clouds during ARCPACDevelopment of a Bioaerosol single particle detector (BIO IN) for the Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber FINCH
Francesco Cairo, Martina Krämer, Armin Afchine, Guido Di Donfrancesco, Luca Di Liberto, Sergey Khaykin, Lorenza Lucaferri, Valentin Mitev, Max Port, Christian Rolf, Marcel Snels, Nicole Spelten, Ralf Weigel, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4899–4925,Short summary
Cirrus clouds have been observed over the Himalayan region between 10 km and the tropopause at 17–18 km. Data from backscattersonde, hygrometers, and particle cloud spectrometers have been compared to assess their consistency. Empirical relationships between optical parameters accessible with remote sensing lidars and cloud microphysical parameters (such as ice water content, particle number and surface area density, and particle aspherical fraction) have been established.
Jakub Kákona, Jan Mikeš, Iva Ambrožová, Ondřej Ploc, Olena Velychko, Lembit Sihver, and Martin Kákona
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 547–561,Short summary
Storm activity is sometimes associated with the generation of ionizing radiation. Our motivation for performing this research was to understand its origin. Using measuring cars fitted with new instruments, it was found that the duration of lightning is longer than generally thought. In most cases, lightning occurs only inside the cloud; however, rarely, it is also visible outside the cloud. In such cases, the course of emission over time can be used to assume what it looks like inside the cloud.
Libby Koolik, Michael Roesch, Carmen Dameto de Espana, Christopher Nathan Rapp, Lesly J. Franco Deloya, Chuanyang Shen, A. Gannet Hallar, Ian B. McCubbin, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3213–3222,Short summary
A new inlet for studying the small particles, droplets, and ice crystals that constitute mixed-phase clouds has been constructed and is described here. This new inlet was tested in the laboratory. We present the performance of the new inlet to demonstrate its capability of separating ice, droplets, and small particles.
Joseph Girdwood, Warren Stanley, Chris Stopford, and David Brus
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2061–2076,Short summary
UAVs have great potential to be used for airborne measurements of cloud and aerosol properties, which are of particular importance due to the largely uncharacterised nature of such phenomena. However, since UAVs are a new tool in atmospheric physics expensive platform validation and characterisation of UAV-instrument combinations needs to be performed. This paper presents an evaluation of a fixed-wing UAV in combination with an instrument that measures cloud droplet diameter.
Moein Mohammadi, Jakub L. Nowak, Guus Bertens, Jan Moláček, Wojciech Kumala, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 965–985,Short summary
To compare two instruments, a VisiSize D30 shadowgraph system and a phase Doppler interferometer (PDI-FPDR), we performed a series of measurements of cloud droplet size and number concentration in orographic clouds. After applying essential modifications and filters to the data, the results from the two instruments showed better agreement in droplet sizing and velocimetry than droplet number concentration or liquid water content. Discrepancies were observed for droplets smaller than 13 µm.
Nicolas Maury, Gregory C. Roberts, Fleur Couvreux, Titouan Verdu, Pierre Narvor, Najda Villefranque, Simon Lacroix, and Gautier Hattenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 335–352,Short summary
The paper aims to use large-eddy simulations of cumulus clouds to design a sampling strategy that allows following cumulus clouds with remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) and documenting the cloud spatial heterogeneities. Different possible explorations by RPA are investigated, and the use of Gaussian process regression permits the reconstruction of liquid water content (LWC) distribution with only one RPA.
Sorin Nicolae Vâjâiac, Andreea Calcan, Robert Oscar David, Denisa-Elena Moacă, Gabriela Iorga, Trude Storelvmo, Viorel Vulturescu, and Valeriu Filip
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6777–6794,Short summary
Warm clouds (with liquid droplets) play an important role in modulating the amount of incoming solar radiation to Earth’s surface and thus the climate. The most efficient way to study them is by in situ optical measurements. This paper proposes a new methodology for providing more detailed and reliable structural analyses of warm clouds through post-flight processing of collected data. The impact fine aerosol incorporation in water droplets might have on such measurements is also discussed.
Fritz Waitz, Martin Schnaiter, Thomas Leisner, and Emma Järvinen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3049–3070,Short summary
A major challenge in the observations of mixed-phase clouds remains the phase discrimination and sizing of cloud droplets and ice crystals, especially for particles with diameters smaller than 0.1 mm. Here, we present a new method to derive the phase and size of single cloud particles using their angular-light-scattering information. Comparisons with other in situ instruments in three case studies show good agreement.
Jakub L. Nowak, Moein Mohammadi, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2615–2633,Short summary
A commercial instrument that characterizes sprays via shadowgraphy imaging was applied to measure the number concentration and size distribution of cloud droplets. Laboratory and field tests were performed to verify the resolution, detection reliability and sizing accuracy. We developed a correction to the data processing method which improves the estimation of cloud microphysical properties. The paper concludes with recommendations concerning the use of the instrument in cloud physics studies.
Sebastian O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Louis Gallagher, Waldemar Schledewitz, Keith Bower, Oliver Schlenczek, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Christopher Westbrook, and Zbigniew Ulanowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1917–1939,Short summary
The number, shape, and size of ice crystals in clouds are important properties that influence the Earth's radiation budget, cloud evolution, and precipitation formation. This work suggests that one of the most widely used methods for in situ measurements of these properties has significant uncertainties and biases. We suggest methods that dramatically improve these measurements, which can be applied to past and future datasets from these instruments.
Christopher J. Cox, Sara M. Morris, Taneil Uttal, Ross Burgener, Emiel Hall, Mark Kutchenreiter, Allison McComiskey, Charles N. Long, Bryan D. Thomas, and James Wendell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1205–1224,Short summary
Solar and infrared radiation are measured regularly for research, industry, and climate monitoring. In cold climates, icing of sensors is a poorly constrained source of uncertainty. D-ICE was carried out in Alaska to document the effectiveness of ice-mitigation technology and quantify errors associated with ice. Technology was more effective than anticipated, and while instantaneous errors were large, mean biases were small. Attributes of effective ice mitigation design were identified.
Ottmar Möhler, Michael Adams, Larissa Lacher, Franziska Vogel, Jens Nadolny, Romy Ullrich, Cristian Boffo, Tatjana Pfeuffer, Achim Hobl, Maximilian Weiß, Hemanth S. K. Vepuri, Naruki Hiranuma, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1143–1166,Short summary
The Earth's climate is influenced by clouds, which are impacted by ice-nucleating particles (INPs), a minor fraction of atmospheric aerosols. INPs induce ice formation in clouds and thus often initiate precipitation formation. The Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment (PINE) is the first fully automated instrument to study cloud ice formation and to obtain long-term records of INPs. This is a timely development, and the capabilities it offers for research and atmospheric monitoring are significant.
Jean-Luc Baray, Laurent Deguillaume, Aurélie Colomb, Karine Sellegri, Evelyn Freney, Clémence Rose, Joël Van Baelen, Jean-Marc Pichon, David Picard, Patrick Fréville, Laëtitia Bouvier, Mickaël Ribeiro, Pierre Amato, Sandra Banson, Angelica Bianco, Agnès Borbon, Lauréline Bourcier, Yannick Bras, Marcello Brigante, Philippe Cacault, Aurélien Chauvigné, Tiffany Charbouillot, Nadine Chaumerliac, Anne-Marie Delort, Marc Delmotte, Régis Dupuy, Antoine Farah, Guy Febvre, Andrea Flossmann, Christophe Gourbeyre, Claude Hervier, Maxime Hervo, Nathalie Huret, Muriel Joly, Victor Kazan, Morgan Lopez, Gilles Mailhot, Angela Marinoni, Olivier Masson, Nadège Montoux, Marius Parazols, Frédéric Peyrin, Yves Pointin, Michel Ramonet, Manon Rocco, Martine Sancelme, Stéphane Sauvage, Martina Schmidt, Emmanuel Tison, Mickaël Vaïtilingom, Paolo Villani, Miao Wang, Camille Yver-Kwok, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3413–3445,Short summary
CO-PDD (Cézeaux-Aulnat-Opme-puy de Dôme) is a fully instrumented platform for atmospheric research. The four sites located at different altitudes from 330 to 1465 m around Clermont-Ferrand (France) host in situ and remote sensing instruments to measure atmospheric composition, including long-term trends and variability, to study interconnected processes (microphysical, chemical, biological, chemical, and dynamical) and to provide a reference point for climate models.
Fabiola Ramelli, Alexander Beck, Jan Henneberger, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 925–939,Short summary
Boundary layer clouds are influenced by many physical and dynamical processes, making accurate forecasting difficult. Here we present a new measurement platform on a tethered balloon to measure cloud microphysical and meteorological profiles. The unique combination of holography and balloon-borne observations allows high-resolution measurements in a well-defined volume. Field measurements in stratus clouds over the Swiss Plateau revealed unique microphysical signatures in the cloud structure.
Darielle Dexheimer, Martin Airey, Erika Roesler, Casey Longbottom, Keri Nicoll, Stefan Kneifel, Fan Mei, R. Giles Harrison, Graeme Marlton, and Paul D. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6845–6864,Short summary
A tethered-balloon system deployed supercooled liquid water content sondes and fiber optic distributed temperature sensing to collect in situ atmospheric measurements within mixed-phase Arctic clouds. These data were validated against collocated surface-based and remote sensing datasets. From these measurements and sensor evaluations, tethered-balloon flights are shown to offer an effective method of collecting data to inform numerical models and calibrate remote sensing instrumentation.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Waldemar Schledewitz, Ian Crawford, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, and Aaron Bansemer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3067–3079,Short summary
Optical array probe measurements of clouds are widely used to inform and validate numerical weather and climate models. In this paper, we discuss artefacts which may bias data from these instruments. Using laboratory and synthetic datasets, we demonstrate how greyscale analysis can be used to filter data, constraining the sample volume and improving data quality particularly at small sizes where their measurements are considered unreliable.
Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5549–5563,Short summary
A newly developed hemispherical thermal infrared cloud camera (IRCCAM) is presented. The IRCCAM allows automatic cloud detection during the day and at night-time. The cloud fraction determined from the IRCCAM is compared with the cloud fraction determined from other instruments over a time period of 2 years. The IRCCAM has an agreement of +/- 2 oktas cloud fraction in 90 % of the data compared to other instruments. There are no significant differences between seasons or different times of day.
Ewan Crosbie, Matthew D. Brown, Michael Shook, Luke Ziemba, Richard H. Moore, Taylor Shingler, Edward Winstead, K. Lee Thornhill, Claire Robinson, Alexander B. MacDonald, Hossein Dadashazar, Armin Sorooshian, Andreas Beyersdorf, Alexis Eugene, Jeffrey Collett Jr., Derek Straub, and Bruce Anderson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5025–5048,Short summary
A new aircraft-mounted probe for collecting samples of cloud water has been designed, fabricated, and extensively tested. Cloud drop composition provides valuable insight into atmospheric processes, but separating liquid samples from the airstream in a controlled way at flight speeds has proven difficult. The features of the design have been analysed with detailed numerical flow simulations and the new probe has demonstrated improved efficiency and performance through extensive flight testing.
Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Anja Costa, Nicole Spelten, Martin Riese, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Romy Heller, Stefan Kaufmann, Andreas Minikin, Christiane Voigt, Martin Zöger, Jessica Smith, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Sergey Khaykin, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4015–4031,Short summary
The ice water content (IWC) of cirrus clouds is an essential parameter that determines their radiative properties and is thus important for climate simulations. Experimental investigations of IWCs measured on board research aircraft reveal that their accuracy is influenced by the sampling position. IWCs detected at the aircraft roof deviate significantly from wing, side or bottom IWCs. The reasons are deflections of the gas streamlines and ice particle trajectories behind the aircraft cockpit.
Martin Schnaiter, Emma Järvinen, Ahmed Abdelmonem, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 341–357,Short summary
PHIPS-HALO is a novel aircraft instrument for cloud research. It combines microscopic imaging of single cloud particles with the measurement of their spacial light scattering properties. The knowledge of how atmospheric ice particles in clouds scatter visible light is important for improving future climate models.
Marcus Klingebiel, André Ehrlich, Fanny Finger, Timo Röschenthaler, Suad Jakirlić, Matthias Voigt, Stefan Müller, Rolf Maser, Manfred Wendisch, Peter Hoor, Peter Spichtinger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3485–3498,Short summary
Microphysical and radiation measurements were collected with the unique AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle (AIRTOSS) – Learjet tandem platform. It is a combination of a Learjet 35A research aircraft and an instrumented aerodynamic bird, which can be detached from and retracted back to the aircraft during flight. AIRTOSS and Learjet are equipped with radiative, cloud microphysical, trace gas, and meteorological instruments to study cirrus clouds.
Alexander Beck, Jan Henneberger, Sarah Schöpfer, Jacob Fugal, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 459–476,Short summary
In situ observations of cloud properties in complex alpine terrain are commonly conducted at mountain-top research stations and limited to single-point measurements. The HoloGondel platform overcomes this limitation by using a cable car to obtain vertical profiles of the microphysical and meteorological cloud parameters. In this work example measurements of the vertical profiles observed in a liquid cloud and a mixed-phase cloud at the Eggishorn in the Swiss Alps are presented.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Takuji Sugidachi, Toru Arai, Kensaku Shimizu, Mayumi Hayashi, Yasuhisa Noma, Hideaki Kawagita, Kazuo Sagara, Taro Nakagawa, Satoshi Okumura, Yoichi Inai, Takashi Shibata, Suginori Iwasaki, and Atsushi Shimizu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5911–5931,Short summary
A meteorological balloon-borne cloud sensor called the cloud particle sensor (CPS) has been developed. The CPS can count the number of particles per second and can obtain the cloud phase information (i.e. liquid, ice, or mixed). Twenty-five test flights have been made between 2012 and 2015 at midlatitude and tropical sites. The results from the four flights are discussed.
Ralf Weigel, Peter Spichtinger, Christoph Mahnke, Marcus Klingebiel, Armin Afchine, Andreas Petzold, Martina Krämer, Anja Costa, Sergej Molleker, Philipp Reutter, Miklós Szakáll, Max Port, Lucas Grulich, Tina Jurkat, Andreas Minikin, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5135–5162,Short summary
The subject of our study concerns measurements with optical array probes (OAPs) on fast-flying aircraft such as the G550 (HALO or HIAPER). At up to Mach 0.7 the effect of air compression upstream of underwing-mounted instruments and particles' inertia need consideration for determining ambient particle concentrations. Compared to conventional practices the introduced correction procedure eliminates ambiguities and exhibits consistency over flight speeds between 50 and 250 m s−.
Ahmed Abdelmonem, Emma Järvinen, Denis Duft, Edwin Hirst, Steffen Vogt, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3131–3144,Short summary
The properties of ice crystals present in mixed-phase and ice clouds influence the radiation properties, precipitation occurrence and lifetime of these clouds. It is necessary to investigate the optical and microphysical properties of cloud particles particularly in situ, and to get correlation between these properties. To this end we have developed PHIPS-HALO to measure the optical properties and the corresponding microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles simultaneously.
G. Guyot, C. Gourbeyre, G. Febvre, V. Shcherbakov, F. Burnet, J.-C. Dupont, K. Sellegri, and O. Jourdan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4347–4367,
S. Risius, H. Xu, F. Di Lorenzo, H. Xi, H. Siebert, R. A. Shaw, and E. Bodenschatz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3209–3218,
H. Siebert, R. A. Shaw, J. Ditas, T. Schmeissner, S. P. Malinowski, E. Bodenschatz, and H. Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3219–3228,Short summary
We report results from simultaneous, high-resolution and collocated measurements of cloud microphysical and turbulence properties during several warm cloud events at the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (UFS) on Zugspitze in the German Alps. The data gathered were found to be representative of observations made with similar instrumentation in free clouds.
D. Tátrai, Z. Bozóki, H. Smit, C. Rolf, N. Spelten, M. Krämer, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, G. Gulyás, and G. Szabó
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 33–42,Short summary
Airborne hygrometry is very important in climate research, and the interest in knowing not only water vapor concentration but (cirrus) cloud content as well is increasing. The authors provide a photoacoustic spectroscopy-based dual-channel hygrometer system that can be a good solution for such measurements. The instrument was proven to operate properly from ground level up to the lower stratosphere, giving the possibility even for cirrus cloud studies.
S. J. Abel, R. J. Cotton, P. A. Barrett, and A. K. Vance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3007–3022,
V. Fung, J. L. Bosch, S. W. Roberts, and J. Kleissl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1693–1700,
S. W. Dorsi, L. E. Kalnajs, D. W. Toohey, and L. M. Avallone
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 215–223,
J. Henneberger, J. P. Fugal, O. Stetzer, and U. Lohmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2975–2987,
J. K. Spiegel, P. Zieger, N. Bukowiecki, E. Hammer, E. Weingartner, and W. Eugster
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2237–2260,
O. Nyström, D. Murtagh, and V. Belitsky
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1359–1373,
A. Abdelmonem, M. Schnaiter, P. Amsler, E. Hesse, J. Meyer, and T. Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2125–2142,
R. P. Lawson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1361–1381,
S. Lance, C. A. Brock, D. Rogers, and J. A. Gordon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 1683–1706,
U. Bundke, B. Reimann, B. Nillius, R. Jaenicke, and H. Bingemer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 263–271,
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