Articles | Volume 7, issue 1
27 Jan 2014
Research article | 27 Jan 2014
A fiber-coupled laser hygrometer for airborne total water measurement
S. W. Dorsi et al.
No articles found.
Amy P. Sullivan, Rudra P. Pokhrel, Yingjie Shen, Shane M. Murphy, Darin W. Toohey, Teresa Campos, Jakob Lindaas, Emily V. Fischer, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
During the WE-CAN (Western Wildfire Experiment for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol Absorption and Nitrogen) Study brown carbon (BrC) absorption was measured on the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft using a Particle-into-Liquid Sampler and Photoacoustic Aerosol Absorption Spectrometer. Approximately 45 % of the BrC absorption in wildfires was observed to be due to water-soluble species. The ratio of BrC absorption to WSOC or ΔCO showed no clear dependence on fire dynamics or the time since emission over 9 h.
Cynthia H. Twohy, Gavin R. McMeeking, Paul J. DeMott, Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Susannah M. Burrows, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Meryem Tanarhte, Durga N. Kafle, and Darin W. Toohey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8205–8225,Short summary
Fluorescent biological aerosol particles were measured in autumn over the continental United States at a variety of altitudes and temperatures, spanning the atmospheric boundary layer to the upper troposphere. Number concentrations of these particles generally decreased with height but were most variable at middle altitudes, above the boundary layer. This corresponds to the temperature range where biological particles may be more important than mineral dust at nucleating ice in clouds.
Anna E. Luebke, Armin Afchine, Anja Costa, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Jessica Meyer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Linnea M. Avallone, Darrel Baumgardner, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5793–5809,Short summary
In this study, we present observational evidence to show that two distinct types of cirrus clouds exist – in situ origin and liquid origin cirrus. These two types differ by their formation mechanism and other properties. Airborne, in-cloud measurements of cloud ice water content (IWC), ice crystal concentration (Nice), and ice crystal size from the 2014 ML-CIRRUS campaign provide cloud samples that have been divided and analyzed according to their origin type.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Anna Luebke, Armin Afchine, Nicole Spelten, Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Martin Zöger, Jessica Smith, Robert L. Herman, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Darrel Baumgardner, Stephan Borrmann, Marcus Klingebiel, and Linnea Avallone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3463–3483,Short summary
A guide to cirrus clouds is compiled from extensive model simulations and aircraft observations. Two types of cirrus are found: rather thin in situ cirrus that form directly as ice and thicker liquid origin cirrus consisting of uplifted frozen liquid drops. Over Europe, thinner in situ and liquid origin cirrus occur often together with frontal systems, while over the US and the Tropics, thick liquid origin cirrus formed in large convective systems are detected more frequently.
R. Schofield, L. M. Avallone, L. E. Kalnajs, A. Hertzog, I. Wohltmann, and M. Rex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2463–2472,Short summary
Ozone measurements onboard three Concordiasi balloons flown in the stratosphere in the Antarctic spring of 2010 are presented. These measurements are the first long-duration in situ measurements of Antarctic springtime stratospheric ozone. By matching air parcels, ozone loss rates where derived. Downwind of the Antarctic Peninsula, very large ozone losses of up to 230 ppb per day or 16 ppbv per sunlit hour were observed. These high rates are consistent with almost complete chlorine activation.
D. W. Fahey, R.-S. Gao, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, C. Schiller, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, T. Peter, N. Amarouche, L. M. Avallone, R. Bauer, Z. Bozóki, L. E. Christensen, S. M. Davis, G. Durry, C. Dyroff, R. L. Herman, S. Hunsmann, S. M. Khaykin, P. Mackrodt, J. Meyer, J. B. Smith, N. Spelten, R. F. Troy, H. Vömel, S. Wagner, and F. G. Wienhold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3177–3213,
M. Diao, M. A. Zondlo, A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Avallone, M. E. Paige, S. P. Beaton, T. Campos, and D. C. Rogers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2639–2656,
J. L. Stith, L. M. Avallone, A. Bansemer, B. Basarab, S. W. Dorsi, B. Fuchs, R. P. Lawson, D. C. Rogers, S. Rutledge, and D. W. Toohey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1973–1985,
C. H. Twohy, J. R. Anderson, D. W. Toohey, M. Andrejczuk, A. Adams, M. Lytle, R. C. George, R. Wood, P. Saide, S. Spak, P. Zuidema, and D. Leon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2541–2562,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsA phase separation inlet for droplets, ice residuals, and interstitial aerosol particlesSimulation and field campaign evaluation of an optical particle counter on a fixed-wing UAVCloud microphysical measurements at a mountain observatory: comparison between shadowgraph imaging and phase Doppler interferometryUse of large-eddy simulations to design an adaptive sampling strategy to assess cumulus cloud heterogeneities by remotely piloted aircraftPost-flight analysis of detailed size distributions of warm cloud droplets, as determined in situ by cloud and aerosol spectrometersPHIPS-HALO: the airborne Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe – Part 3: Single-particle phase discrimination and particle size distribution based on the angular-scattering functionApplicability of the VisiSize D30 shadowgraph system for cloud microphysical measurementsCharacterising optical array particle imaging probes: implications for small-ice-crystal observationsThe De-Icing Comparison Experiment (D-ICE): a study of broadband radiometric measurements under icing conditions in the ArcticThe Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment (PINE): a new online instrument for laboratory studies and automated long-term field observations of ice-nucleating particlesCézeaux-Aulnat-Opme-Puy De Dôme: a multi-site for the long-term survey of the tropospheric composition and climate changeUsing a holographic imager on a tethered balloon system for microphysical observations of boundary layer cloudsEvaluation of ARM tethered-balloon system instrumentation for supercooled liquid water and distributed temperature sensing in mixed-phase Arctic cloudsRevisiting particle sizing using greyscale optical array probes: evaluation using laboratory experiments and synthetic dataCloud fraction determined by thermal infrared and visible all-sky camerasDevelopment and characterization of a high-efficiency, aircraft-based axial cyclone cloud water collectorIce particle sampling from aircraft – influence of the probing position on the ice water contentPHIPS-HALO: the airborne particle habit imaging and polar scattering probe – Part 2: Characterization and first resultsA tandem approach for collocated measurements of microphysical and radiative cirrus propertiesHoloGondel: in situ cloud observations on a cable car in the Swiss Alps using a holographic imagerDevelopment of a cloud particle sensor for radiosonde soundingThermodynamic correction of particle concentrations measured by underwing probes on fast-flying aircraftPHIPS–HALO: the airborne Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe – Part 1: Design and operationQuantitative evaluation of seven optical sensors for cloud microphysical measurements at the Puy-de-Dôme Observatory, FranceSchneefernerhaus as a mountain research station for clouds and turbulenceHigh-resolution measurement of cloud microphysics and turbulence at a mountaintop stationDual-channel photoacoustic hygrometer for airborne measurements: background, calibration, laboratory and in-flight intercomparison testsA comparison of ice water content measurement techniques on the FAAM BAe-146 aircraftCloud shadow speed sensorThe backscatter cloud probe – a compact low-profile autonomous optical spectrometerHOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase cloudsEvaluating the capabilities and uncertainties of droplet measurements for the fog droplet spectrometer (FM-100)PHOCUS radiometerFirst correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probeEffects of ice particles shattering on the 2D-S probeWater droplet calibration of the Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) and in-flight performance in liquid, ice and mixed-phase clouds during ARCPACDevelopment of a Bioaerosol single particle detector (BIO IN) for the Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber FINCH
Libby Koolik, Michael Roesch, Carmen Dameto de Espana, Christopher Nathan Rapp, Lesly J. Franco Deloya, Chuanyang Shen, A. Gannet Hallar, Ian B. McCubbin, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3213–3222,Short summary
A new inlet for studying the small particles, droplets, and ice crystals that constitute mixed-phase clouds has been constructed and is described here. This new inlet was tested in the laboratory. We present the performance of the new inlet to demonstrate its capability of separating ice, droplets, and small particles.
Joseph Girdwood, Warren Stanley, Chris Stopford, and David Brus
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2061–2076,Short summary
UAVs have great potential to be used for airborne measurements of cloud and aerosol properties, which are of particular importance due to the largely uncharacterised nature of such phenomena. However, since UAVs are a new tool in atmospheric physics expensive platform validation and characterisation of UAV-instrument combinations needs to be performed. This paper presents an evaluation of a fixed-wing UAV in combination with an instrument that measures cloud droplet diameter.
Moein Mohammadi, Jakub L. Nowak, Guus Bertens, Jan Moláček, Wojciech Kumala, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 965–985,Short summary
To compare two instruments, a VisiSize D30 shadowgraph system and a phase Doppler interferometer (PDI-FPDR), we performed a series of measurements of cloud droplet size and number concentration in orographic clouds. After applying essential modifications and filters to the data, the results from the two instruments showed better agreement in droplet sizing and velocimetry than droplet number concentration or liquid water content. Discrepancies were observed for droplets smaller than 13 µm.
Nicolas Maury, Gregory C. Roberts, Fleur Couvreux, Titouan Verdu, Pierre Narvor, Najda Villefranque, Simon Lacroix, and Gautier Hattenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 335–352,Short summary
The paper aims to use large-eddy simulations of cumulus clouds to design a sampling strategy that allows following cumulus clouds with remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) and documenting the cloud spatial heterogeneities. Different possible explorations by RPA are investigated, and the use of Gaussian process regression permits the reconstruction of liquid water content (LWC) distribution with only one RPA.
Sorin Nicolae Vâjâiac, Andreea Calcan, Robert Oscar David, Denisa-Elena Moacă, Gabriela Iorga, Trude Storelvmo, Viorel Vulturescu, and Valeriu Filip
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6777–6794,Short summary
Warm clouds (with liquid droplets) play an important role in modulating the amount of incoming solar radiation to Earth’s surface and thus the climate. The most efficient way to study them is by in situ optical measurements. This paper proposes a new methodology for providing more detailed and reliable structural analyses of warm clouds through post-flight processing of collected data. The impact fine aerosol incorporation in water droplets might have on such measurements is also discussed.
Fritz Waitz, Martin Schnaiter, Thomas Leisner, and Emma Järvinen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3049–3070,Short summary
A major challenge in the observations of mixed-phase clouds remains the phase discrimination and sizing of cloud droplets and ice crystals, especially for particles with diameters smaller than 0.1 mm. Here, we present a new method to derive the phase and size of single cloud particles using their angular-light-scattering information. Comparisons with other in situ instruments in three case studies show good agreement.
Jakub L. Nowak, Moein Mohammadi, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2615–2633,Short summary
A commercial instrument that characterizes sprays via shadowgraphy imaging was applied to measure the number concentration and size distribution of cloud droplets. Laboratory and field tests were performed to verify the resolution, detection reliability and sizing accuracy. We developed a correction to the data processing method which improves the estimation of cloud microphysical properties. The paper concludes with recommendations concerning the use of the instrument in cloud physics studies.
Sebastian O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Louis Gallagher, Waldemar Schledewitz, Keith Bower, Oliver Schlenczek, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Christopher Westbrook, and Zbigniew Ulanowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1917–1939,Short summary
The number, shape, and size of ice crystals in clouds are important properties that influence the Earth's radiation budget, cloud evolution, and precipitation formation. This work suggests that one of the most widely used methods for in situ measurements of these properties has significant uncertainties and biases. We suggest methods that dramatically improve these measurements, which can be applied to past and future datasets from these instruments.
Christopher J. Cox, Sara M. Morris, Taneil Uttal, Ross Burgener, Emiel Hall, Mark Kutchenreiter, Allison McComiskey, Charles N. Long, Bryan D. Thomas, and James Wendell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1205–1224,Short summary
Solar and infrared radiation are measured regularly for research, industry, and climate monitoring. In cold climates, icing of sensors is a poorly constrained source of uncertainty. D-ICE was carried out in Alaska to document the effectiveness of ice-mitigation technology and quantify errors associated with ice. Technology was more effective than anticipated, and while instantaneous errors were large, mean biases were small. Attributes of effective ice mitigation design were identified.
Ottmar Möhler, Michael Adams, Larissa Lacher, Franziska Vogel, Jens Nadolny, Romy Ullrich, Cristian Boffo, Tatjana Pfeuffer, Achim Hobl, Maximilian Weiß, Hemanth S. K. Vepuri, Naruki Hiranuma, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1143–1166,Short summary
The Earth's climate is influenced by clouds, which are impacted by ice-nucleating particles (INPs), a minor fraction of atmospheric aerosols. INPs induce ice formation in clouds and thus often initiate precipitation formation. The Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment (PINE) is the first fully automated instrument to study cloud ice formation and to obtain long-term records of INPs. This is a timely development, and the capabilities it offers for research and atmospheric monitoring are significant.
Jean-Luc Baray, Laurent Deguillaume, Aurélie Colomb, Karine Sellegri, Evelyn Freney, Clémence Rose, Joël Van Baelen, Jean-Marc Pichon, David Picard, Patrick Fréville, Laëtitia Bouvier, Mickaël Ribeiro, Pierre Amato, Sandra Banson, Angelica Bianco, Agnès Borbon, Lauréline Bourcier, Yannick Bras, Marcello Brigante, Philippe Cacault, Aurélien Chauvigné, Tiffany Charbouillot, Nadine Chaumerliac, Anne-Marie Delort, Marc Delmotte, Régis Dupuy, Antoine Farah, Guy Febvre, Andrea Flossmann, Christophe Gourbeyre, Claude Hervier, Maxime Hervo, Nathalie Huret, Muriel Joly, Victor Kazan, Morgan Lopez, Gilles Mailhot, Angela Marinoni, Olivier Masson, Nadège Montoux, Marius Parazols, Frédéric Peyrin, Yves Pointin, Michel Ramonet, Manon Rocco, Martine Sancelme, Stéphane Sauvage, Martina Schmidt, Emmanuel Tison, Mickaël Vaïtilingom, Paolo Villani, Miao Wang, Camille Yver-Kwok, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3413–3445,Short summary
CO-PDD (Cézeaux-Aulnat-Opme-puy de Dôme) is a fully instrumented platform for atmospheric research. The four sites located at different altitudes from 330 to 1465 m around Clermont-Ferrand (France) host in situ and remote sensing instruments to measure atmospheric composition, including long-term trends and variability, to study interconnected processes (microphysical, chemical, biological, chemical, and dynamical) and to provide a reference point for climate models.
Fabiola Ramelli, Alexander Beck, Jan Henneberger, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 925–939,Short summary
Boundary layer clouds are influenced by many physical and dynamical processes, making accurate forecasting difficult. Here we present a new measurement platform on a tethered balloon to measure cloud microphysical and meteorological profiles. The unique combination of holography and balloon-borne observations allows high-resolution measurements in a well-defined volume. Field measurements in stratus clouds over the Swiss Plateau revealed unique microphysical signatures in the cloud structure.
Darielle Dexheimer, Martin Airey, Erika Roesler, Casey Longbottom, Keri Nicoll, Stefan Kneifel, Fan Mei, R. Giles Harrison, Graeme Marlton, and Paul D. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6845–6864,Short summary
A tethered-balloon system deployed supercooled liquid water content sondes and fiber optic distributed temperature sensing to collect in situ atmospheric measurements within mixed-phase Arctic clouds. These data were validated against collocated surface-based and remote sensing datasets. From these measurements and sensor evaluations, tethered-balloon flights are shown to offer an effective method of collecting data to inform numerical models and calibrate remote sensing instrumentation.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Waldemar Schledewitz, Ian Crawford, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, and Aaron Bansemer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3067–3079,Short summary
Optical array probe measurements of clouds are widely used to inform and validate numerical weather and climate models. In this paper, we discuss artefacts which may bias data from these instruments. Using laboratory and synthetic datasets, we demonstrate how greyscale analysis can be used to filter data, constraining the sample volume and improving data quality particularly at small sizes where their measurements are considered unreliable.
Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5549–5563,Short summary
A newly developed hemispherical thermal infrared cloud camera (IRCCAM) is presented. The IRCCAM allows automatic cloud detection during the day and at night-time. The cloud fraction determined from the IRCCAM is compared with the cloud fraction determined from other instruments over a time period of 2 years. The IRCCAM has an agreement of +/- 2 oktas cloud fraction in 90 % of the data compared to other instruments. There are no significant differences between seasons or different times of day.
Ewan Crosbie, Matthew D. Brown, Michael Shook, Luke Ziemba, Richard H. Moore, Taylor Shingler, Edward Winstead, K. Lee Thornhill, Claire Robinson, Alexander B. MacDonald, Hossein Dadashazar, Armin Sorooshian, Andreas Beyersdorf, Alexis Eugene, Jeffrey Collett Jr., Derek Straub, and Bruce Anderson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5025–5048,Short summary
A new aircraft-mounted probe for collecting samples of cloud water has been designed, fabricated, and extensively tested. Cloud drop composition provides valuable insight into atmospheric processes, but separating liquid samples from the airstream in a controlled way at flight speeds has proven difficult. The features of the design have been analysed with detailed numerical flow simulations and the new probe has demonstrated improved efficiency and performance through extensive flight testing.
Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Anja Costa, Nicole Spelten, Martin Riese, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Romy Heller, Stefan Kaufmann, Andreas Minikin, Christiane Voigt, Martin Zöger, Jessica Smith, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Sergey Khaykin, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4015–4031,Short summary
The ice water content (IWC) of cirrus clouds is an essential parameter that determines their radiative properties and is thus important for climate simulations. Experimental investigations of IWCs measured on board research aircraft reveal that their accuracy is influenced by the sampling position. IWCs detected at the aircraft roof deviate significantly from wing, side or bottom IWCs. The reasons are deflections of the gas streamlines and ice particle trajectories behind the aircraft cockpit.
Martin Schnaiter, Emma Järvinen, Ahmed Abdelmonem, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 341–357,Short summary
PHIPS-HALO is a novel aircraft instrument for cloud research. It combines microscopic imaging of single cloud particles with the measurement of their spacial light scattering properties. The knowledge of how atmospheric ice particles in clouds scatter visible light is important for improving future climate models.
Marcus Klingebiel, André Ehrlich, Fanny Finger, Timo Röschenthaler, Suad Jakirlić, Matthias Voigt, Stefan Müller, Rolf Maser, Manfred Wendisch, Peter Hoor, Peter Spichtinger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3485–3498,Short summary
Microphysical and radiation measurements were collected with the unique AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle (AIRTOSS) – Learjet tandem platform. It is a combination of a Learjet 35A research aircraft and an instrumented aerodynamic bird, which can be detached from and retracted back to the aircraft during flight. AIRTOSS and Learjet are equipped with radiative, cloud microphysical, trace gas, and meteorological instruments to study cirrus clouds.
Alexander Beck, Jan Henneberger, Sarah Schöpfer, Jacob Fugal, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 459–476,Short summary
In situ observations of cloud properties in complex alpine terrain are commonly conducted at mountain-top research stations and limited to single-point measurements. The HoloGondel platform overcomes this limitation by using a cable car to obtain vertical profiles of the microphysical and meteorological cloud parameters. In this work example measurements of the vertical profiles observed in a liquid cloud and a mixed-phase cloud at the Eggishorn in the Swiss Alps are presented.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Takuji Sugidachi, Toru Arai, Kensaku Shimizu, Mayumi Hayashi, Yasuhisa Noma, Hideaki Kawagita, Kazuo Sagara, Taro Nakagawa, Satoshi Okumura, Yoichi Inai, Takashi Shibata, Suginori Iwasaki, and Atsushi Shimizu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5911–5931,Short summary
A meteorological balloon-borne cloud sensor called the cloud particle sensor (CPS) has been developed. The CPS can count the number of particles per second and can obtain the cloud phase information (i.e. liquid, ice, or mixed). Twenty-five test flights have been made between 2012 and 2015 at midlatitude and tropical sites. The results from the four flights are discussed.
Ralf Weigel, Peter Spichtinger, Christoph Mahnke, Marcus Klingebiel, Armin Afchine, Andreas Petzold, Martina Krämer, Anja Costa, Sergej Molleker, Philipp Reutter, Miklós Szakáll, Max Port, Lucas Grulich, Tina Jurkat, Andreas Minikin, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5135–5162,Short summary
The subject of our study concerns measurements with optical array probes (OAPs) on fast-flying aircraft such as the G550 (HALO or HIAPER). At up to Mach 0.7 the effect of air compression upstream of underwing-mounted instruments and particles' inertia need consideration for determining ambient particle concentrations. Compared to conventional practices the introduced correction procedure eliminates ambiguities and exhibits consistency over flight speeds between 50 and 250 m s−.
Ahmed Abdelmonem, Emma Järvinen, Denis Duft, Edwin Hirst, Steffen Vogt, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3131–3144,Short summary
The properties of ice crystals present in mixed-phase and ice clouds influence the radiation properties, precipitation occurrence and lifetime of these clouds. It is necessary to investigate the optical and microphysical properties of cloud particles particularly in situ, and to get correlation between these properties. To this end we have developed PHIPS-HALO to measure the optical properties and the corresponding microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles simultaneously.
G. Guyot, C. Gourbeyre, G. Febvre, V. Shcherbakov, F. Burnet, J.-C. Dupont, K. Sellegri, and O. Jourdan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4347–4367,
S. Risius, H. Xu, F. Di Lorenzo, H. Xi, H. Siebert, R. A. Shaw, and E. Bodenschatz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3209–3218,
H. Siebert, R. A. Shaw, J. Ditas, T. Schmeissner, S. P. Malinowski, E. Bodenschatz, and H. Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3219–3228,Short summary
We report results from simultaneous, high-resolution and collocated measurements of cloud microphysical and turbulence properties during several warm cloud events at the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (UFS) on Zugspitze in the German Alps. The data gathered were found to be representative of observations made with similar instrumentation in free clouds.
D. Tátrai, Z. Bozóki, H. Smit, C. Rolf, N. Spelten, M. Krämer, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, G. Gulyás, and G. Szabó
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 33–42,Short summary
Airborne hygrometry is very important in climate research, and the interest in knowing not only water vapor concentration but (cirrus) cloud content as well is increasing. The authors provide a photoacoustic spectroscopy-based dual-channel hygrometer system that can be a good solution for such measurements. The instrument was proven to operate properly from ground level up to the lower stratosphere, giving the possibility even for cirrus cloud studies.
S. J. Abel, R. J. Cotton, P. A. Barrett, and A. K. Vance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3007–3022,
V. Fung, J. L. Bosch, S. W. Roberts, and J. Kleissl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1693–1700,
K. Beswick, D. Baumgardner, M. Gallagher, A. Volz-Thomas, P. Nedelec, K.-Y. Wang, and S. Lance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1443–1457,
J. Henneberger, J. P. Fugal, O. Stetzer, and U. Lohmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2975–2987,
J. K. Spiegel, P. Zieger, N. Bukowiecki, E. Hammer, E. Weingartner, and W. Eugster
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2237–2260,
O. Nyström, D. Murtagh, and V. Belitsky
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1359–1373,
A. Abdelmonem, M. Schnaiter, P. Amsler, E. Hesse, J. Meyer, and T. Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2125–2142,
R. P. Lawson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1361–1381,
S. Lance, C. A. Brock, D. Rogers, and J. A. Gordon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 1683–1706,
U. Bundke, B. Reimann, B. Nillius, R. Jaenicke, and H. Bingemer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 263–271,
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