Articles | Volume 16, issue 10
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Using a deep neural network to detect methane point sources and quantify emissions from PRISMA hyperspectral satellite images
School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
Cristina Ruiz Villena
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE4 5SP, United Kingdom
National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE4 5SP, United Kingdom
School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
Fabien H. Wagner
Institute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Martyn P. Chipperfield
National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
Rocío Barrio Guilló
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE4 5SP, United Kingdom
now at: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, 28334 Bremen, Germany
No articles found.
Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, William Okello, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Mark F. Lunt, Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, and Frank Hase
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We used a Bruker EM27/SUN spectrometer within an automated weatherproof enclosure to measure greenhouse gas column concentrations over a three-month period in Jinja, Uganda. The portability of the EM27/SUN allows us to evaluate satellite and model data in locations not covered by traditional validation networks. This is of particular value in tropical Africa, where extensive terrestrial ecosystems are a significant store of carbon and play a key role in the atmospheric budgets of CO2 and CH4.
Sandip S. Dhomse and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 5105–5120,Short summary
There are no long-term stratospheric profile data sets for two very important greenhouse gases: methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Along with radiative feedback, these species play an important role in controlling ozone loss in the stratosphere. Here, we use machine learning to fuse satellite measurements with a chemical model to construct long-term gap-free profile data sets for CH4 and N2O. We aim to construct similar data sets for other important trace gases (e.g. O3, Cly, NOy species).
Chris Wilson, Brian J. Kerridge, Richard Siddans, David P. Moore, Lucy J. Ventress, Emily Dowd, Wuhu Feng, Martyn P. Chipperfield, and John J. Remedios
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
The leaks from the Nord Stream gas pipelines in September 2022 released a large amount of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. We provide observational data from a satellite instrument, IASI, that shows a large CH4 plume over the North Sea off the coast of Scandinavia. We use this, together with atmospheric models, to quantify the CH4 leaked into the atmosphere from the pipelines. We find that 215–390 Gg CH4 was emitted, making this the largest individual fossil fuel-related CH4 leak on record.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Ryan Hossaini, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13701–13711,Short summary
We quantify, for the first time, the time-varying impact of uncontrolled emissions of chlorinated very short-lived substances (Cl-VSLSs) on stratospheric ozone using a state-of-the-art chemistry-climate model. We demonstrate that Cl-VSLSs already have a non-negligible impact on stratospheric ozone, including a local reduction of up to ~7 DU in Arctic ozone in the cold winter of 2019/20, and any so future growth in emissions will continue to offset some of the benefits of the Montreal Protocol.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Ryan Hossaini, N. Luke Abraham, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6187–6209,Short summary
Development and performance of the new DEST chemistry scheme of UM–UKCA is described. The scheme extends the standard StratTrop scheme by including important updates to the halogen chemistry, thus allowing process-oriented studies of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery, including impacts from both controlled long-lived ozone-depleting substances and emerging issues around uncontrolled, very short-lived substances. It will thus aid studies in support of future ozone assessment reports.
Richard J. Pope, Brian J. Kerridge, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Richard Siddans, Barry G. Latter, Lucy J. Ventress, Matilda A. Pimlott, Wuhu Feng, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry D. Hayman, Stephen R. Arnold, and Ailish M. Graham
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13235–13253,Short summary
In the summer of 2018, Europe experienced several persistent large-scale ozone (O3) pollution episodes. Satellite tropospheric O3 and surface O3 data recorded substantial enhancements in 2018 relative to other years. Targeted model simulations showed that meteorological processes and emissions controlled the elevated surface O3, while mid-tropospheric O3 enhancements were dominated by stratospheric O3 intrusion and advection of North Atlantic O3-rich air masses into Europe.
Yajuan Li, Sandip S. Dhomse, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Jianchun Bian, Yuan Xia, and Dong Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13029–13047,Short summary
For the first time a regularized multivariate regression model is used to estimate stratospheric ozone trends. Regularized regression avoids the over-fitting issue due to correlation among explanatory variables. We demonstrate that there are considerable differences in satellite-based and chemical-model-based ozone trends, highlighting large uncertainties in our understanding about ozone variability. We argue that caution is needed when interpreting results with different methods and datasets.
Emily Dowd, Alistair J. Manning, Bryn Orth-Lashley, Marianne Girard, James France, Rebecca E. Fisher, Dave Lowry, Mathias Lanoisellé, Joseph R. Pitt, Kieran M. Stanley, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Glen Thistlethwaite, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Emanuel Gloor, and Chris Wilson
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).Short summary
We provide the first validation of the satellite-derived emission estimates using surface-based mobile greenhouse gas surveys of an active gas leak detected near Cheltenham, UK. GHGSat’s emission estimates broadly agree with the surface based mobile survey and step were taken to fix the leak, highlighting the importance of satellite data in identifying emissions and helping to reduce our human impact on climate change.
Hanqin Tian, Naiqing Pan, Rona L. Thompson, Josep G. Canadell, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Pierre Regnier, Eric A. Davidson, Michael Prather, Philippe Ciais, Marilena Muntean, Shufen Pan, Wilfried Winiwarter, Sönke Zaehle, Feng Zhou, Robert B. Jackson, Hermann W. Bange, Sarah Berthet, Zihao Bian, Daniele Bianchi, Alexander F. Bouwman, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Geoffrey Dutton, Minpeng Hu, Akihiko Ito, Atul K. Jain, Aurich Jeltsch-Thömmes, Fortunat Joos, Sian Kou-Giesbrecht, Paul B. Krummel, Xin Lan, Angela Landolfi, Ronny Lauerwald, Ya Li, Chaoqun Lu, Taylor Maavara, Manfredi Manizza, Dylan B. Millet, Jens Mühle, Prabir K. Patra, Glen P. Peters, Xiaoyu Qin, Peter Raymond, Laure Resplandy, Judith A. Rosentreter, Hao Shi, Qing Sun, Daniele Tonina, Francesco N. Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Junjie Wang, Kelley C. Wells, Luke M. Western, Chris Wilson, Jia Yang, Yuanzhi Yao, Yongfa You, and Qing Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
The atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas 265 times more potent than carbon dioxide, has increased by 25 % since the pre-industrial period, with the highest observed growth rate in both 2020 and 2021. This rapid growth rate was primarily due to a 40 % increase in anthropogenic emissions since 1980. The observed atmospheric N2O concentrations in recent years have exceeded the worst-case climate scenario, underscoring the urgency to reduce anthropogenic N2O emissions.
Blanca Fuentes Andrade, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, Andreas Richter, Hartmut Boesch, and John P. Burrows
We developed a method to estimate CO2 emissions from localized sources such as power plants using satellite data and applied it to estimate CO2 emissions from the Bełchatów Power Station (Poland). Because the detection of CO2 emission plumes from satellite data is difficult, we used observations of co-emitted NO2 to constrain the emission plume region. Our results agree with CO2 emissions estimations based on the power plant generated power and emission factors.
Stefan Noël, Michael Buchwitz, Michael Hilker, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Weimer, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Bösch, and Ruediger Lang
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
FOCAL-CO2M is one of the three operational retrieval algorithms which will be used to derive XCO2 and XCH4 from measurements of the forthcoming European CO2M mission. We present results of applications of FOCAL-CO2M to simulated spectra, from which confidence is gained that the algorithm is able to fulfil the challenging requirements on systematic errors for the CO2M mission (spatio-temporal bias ≤ 0.5 ppm for XCO2 and ≤ 5 ppb for XCH4).
Michael P. Cartwright, Richard J. Pope, Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, David P. Moore, and Parvadha Suntharalingam
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10035–10056,Short summary
A 3-D chemical transport model, TOMCAT, is used to simulate global atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) distribution. Modelled OCS compares well with satellite observations of OCS from limb-sounding satellite observations. Model simulations also compare adequately with surface and atmospheric observations and suitably capture the seasonality of OCS and background concentrations.
Richard J. Pope, Alexandru Rap, Matilda A. Pimlott, Brice Barret, Eric Le Flochmoen, Brian J. Kerridge, Richard Siddans, Barry G. Latter, Lucy J. Ventress, Anne Boynard, Christian Retscher, Wuhu Feng, Richard Rigby, Sandip S. Dhomse, Catherine Wespes, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Tropospheric ozone is an important short-lived climate forcer which influences the incoming solar short-wave radiation and the outgoing long-wave radiation in the atmosphere (10–15 km) where the balance between the two yields a net positive (i.e. warming) effect at the surface. Overall, we find that the tropospheric ozone radiative effect ranges between 1.21 and 1.28 W/m2 with a negligible trend (2008–2017) suggesting that tropospheric ozone influences on climate have remained stable with time.
Luana S. Basso, Chris Wilson, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Graciela Tejada, Henrique L. G. Cassol, Egídio Arai, Mathew Williams, T. Luke Smallman, Wouter Peters, Stijn Naus, John B. Miller, and Manuel Gloor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9685–9723,Short summary
The Amazon’s carbon balance may have changed due to forest degradation, deforestation and warmer climate. We used an atmospheric model and atmospheric CO2 observations to quantify Amazonian carbon emissions (2010–2018). The region was a small carbon source to the atmosphere, mostly due to fire emissions. Forest uptake compensated for ~ 50 % of the fire emissions, meaning that the remaining forest is still a small carbon sink. We found no clear evidence of weakening carbon uptake over the period.
Nicholas Balasus, Daniel J. Jacob, Alba Lorente, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Zichong Chen, Makoto M. Kelp, Hannah Nesser, and Daniel J. Varon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3787–3807,Short summary
We use machine learning to remove biases in TROPOMI satellite observations of atmospheric methane, with GOSAT observations serving as a reference. We find that the TROPOMI biases relative to GOSAT are related to the presence of aerosols and clouds, the surface brightness, and the specific detector that makes the observation aboard TROPOMI. The resulting blended TROPOMI+GOSAT product is more reliable for quantifying methane emissions.
Ruosi Liang, Yuzhong Zhang, Wei Chen, Peixuan Zhang, Jingran Liu, Cuihong Chen, Huiqin Mao, Guofeng Shen, Zhen Qu, Zichong Chen, Minqiang Zhou, Pucai Wang, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Alba Lorente, Joannes D. Maasakkers, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8039–8057,Short summary
We compare and evaluate East Asian methane emissions inferred from different satellite observations (GOSAT and TROPOMI). The results show discrepancies over northern India and eastern China. Independent ground-based observations are more consistent with TROPOMI-derived emissions in northern India and GOSAT-derived emissions in eastern China.
Yang Li, Wuhu Feng, Xin Zhou, Yajuan Li, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest and largest plateau, experiences strong surface solar UV radiation, whose excess can cause harmful influences on the local biota. Hence, it is critical to study TP ozone. We find ENSO, the strongest interannual phenomenon, can induce tropospheric temperature change and thus cause tropopause movement, which in turn leads to ozone change. Our understanding implies that future more strong ENSO events will play a key role in ozone recovery and ecosystems of the TP.
Emily Dowd, Chris Wilson, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Emanuel Gloor, Alistair Manning, and Ruth Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7363–7382,Short summary
Surface observations of methane show that the seasonal cycle amplitude (SCA) of methane is decreasing in the northern high latitudes (NHLs) but increased globally (1995–2020). The NHL decrease is counterintuitive, as we expect the SCA to increase with increasing concentrations. We use a chemical transport model to investigate changes in SCA in the NHLs. We find well-mixed methane and changes in emissions from Canada, the Middle East, and Europe are the largest contributors to the SCA in NHLs.
Martyn Chipperfield and Slimane Bekki
We give a personal perspective on recent issues related to the depletion of stratospheric ozone and some newly emerging challenges. We first provide a brief review of historic work on understanding the ozone layer and review ozone recovery from the effects of halogenated source gases and the Montreal Protocol. We then discuss the recent observations of ozone depletion from Australian fires in early 2020 and the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha`apai volcano in January 2022.
Richard J. Pope, Brian J. Kerridge, Richard Siddans, Barry G. Latter, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Matilda A. Pimlott, Sandip S. Dhomse, Christian Retscher, and Richard Rigby
Ozone is a potent air pollutant and we present the first study to investigate long-term changes in lower tropospheric column ozone (LTO3) from space. We have constructed a merged LTO3 dataset from GOME-1, SCIAMACHY and OMI between 1996 and 2017. Comparing LTO3 between the 1996–2000 and 2013–2017 5-year averages, we find significant positive increases in the tropics/sub-tropics, while in the northern mid-latitudes, we find small scale differences.
Andrea Pazmino, Florence Goutail, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Alain Hauchecorne, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Franck Lefèvre, Audrey Lecouffe, Michel Van Roozendael, Nis Jepsen, Georg Hansen, Rigel Kivi, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, and Steve Colwell
The vortex-averaged ozone loss over the last three decades is evaluated for both polar regions using the passive ozone tracer of the chemical transport model TOMCAT/SLIMCAT and total ozone observations from SAOZ network and MSR2 reanalysis. Three metrics were developed to compute ozone trend since 2000. The study confirms the ozone recovery in the Antarctic and shows a first quantitative detection of ozone recovery in the Arctic that needs to be robustly confirmed in the future.
Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Robert J. Parker, Mark F. Lunt, and Hartmut Bösch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4863–4880,Short summary
Our understanding of recent changes in atmospheric methane has defied explanation. Since 2007, the atmospheric growth of methane has accelerated to record-breaking values in 2020 and 2021. We use satellite observations of methane to show that (1) increasing emissions over the tropics are mostly responsible for these recent atmospheric changes, and (2) changes in the OH sink during the 2020 Covid-19 lockdown can explain up to 34% of changes in atmospheric methane for that year.
Antonio G. Bruno, Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, David P. Moore, Richard J. Pope, Christopher Wilson, Emmanuel Mahieu, and Justus Notholt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4849–4861,Short summary
A 3-D chemical transport model, TOMCAT; satellite data; and ground-based observations have been used to investigate hydrogen cyanide (HCN) variability. We found that the oxidation by O(1D) drives the HCN loss in the middle stratosphere and the currently JPL-recommended OH reaction rate overestimates HCN atmospheric loss. We also evaluated two different ocean uptake schemes. We found them to be unrealistic, and we need to scale these schemes to obtain good agreement with HCN observations.
Ailish Melissa Graham, Richard J. Pope, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, Matila Pimlott, Wuhu Feng, Vikas Singh, Ying Chen, Oliver Wild, Ranjeet Sokhi, and Gufran Beig
Our manuscript makes use of novel satellite data sets and high-resolution emissions datasets alongside a back trajectory model to investigate the balance of local and external sources influencing NOx air pollution changes in Delhi, with a focus on different emission sectors. We find that in the post-monsoon, NOx, which is mostly from the transport sector, is imported into Delhi. Therefore air quality mitigation strategies in Delhi and the surrounding regions to successfully control this issue.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Chunjing Qiu, Matthew J. McGrath, Philippe Peylin, Glen P. Peters, Philippe Ciais, Rona L. Thompson, Aki Tsuruta, Dominik Brunner, Matthias Kuhnert, Bradley Matthews, Paul I. Palmer, Oksana Tarasova, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, David Bastviken, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Wilfried Winiwarter, Giuseppe Etiope, Tuula Aalto, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Vladislav Bastrikov, Antoine Berchet, Patrick Brockmann, Giancarlo Ciotoli, Giulia Conchedda, Monica Crippa, Frank Dentener, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Diego Guizzardi, Dirk Günther, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Massaer Kouyate, Adrian Leip, Antti Leppänen, Emanuele Lugato, Manon Maisonnier, Alistair J. Manning, Tiina Markkanen, Joe McNorton, Marilena Muntean, Gabriel D. Oreggioni, Prabir K. Patra, Lucia Perugini, Isabelle Pison, Maarit T. Raivonen, Marielle Saunois, Arjo J. Segers, Pete Smith, Efisio Solazzo, Hanqin Tian, Francesco N. Tubiello, Timo Vesala, Guido R. van der Werf, Chris Wilson, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 1197–1268,Short summary
This study updates the state-of-the-art scientific overview of CH4 and N2O emissions in the EU27 and UK in Petrescu et al. (2021a). Yearly updates are needed to improve the different respective approaches and to inform on the development of formal verification systems. It integrates the most recent emission inventories, process-based model and regional/global inversions, comparing them with UNFCCC national GHG inventories, in support to policy to facilitate real-time verification procedures.
Ricardo Dalagnol, Lênio Soares Galvão, Fabien Hubert Wagner, Yhasmin Mendes de Moura, Nathan Gonçalves, Yujie Wang, Alexei Lyapustin, Yan Yang, Sassan Saatchi, and Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Cruz Aragão
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 345–358,Short summary
The AnisoVeg dataset brings 22 years of monthly satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor for South America at 1 km resolution aimed at vegetation applications. It has nadir-normalized data, which is the most traditional approach to correct satellite data but also unique anisotropy data with strong biophysical meaning, explaining 55 % of Amazon forest height. We expect this dataset to help large-scale estimates of vegetation biomass and carbon.
Robert J. Parker, Chris Wilson, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Toby R. Marthews, A. Anthony Bloom, Mark F. Lunt, Nicola Gedney, Simon J. Dadson, Joe McNorton, Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Paul I. Palmer, and Dai Yamazaki
Biogeosciences, 19, 5779–5805,Short summary
Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane, one of the most important climate gases. The JULES land surface model simulates these emissions. We use satellite data to evaluate how well JULES reproduces the methane seasonal cycle over different tropical wetlands. It performs well for most regions; however, it struggles for some African wetlands influenced heavily by river flooding. We explain the reasons for these deficiencies and highlight how future development will improve these areas.
Stijn Naus, Lucas G. Domingues, Maarten Krol, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Luciana V. Gatti, John B. Miller, Emanuel Gloor, Sourish Basu, Caio Correia, Gerbrand Koren, Helen M. Worden, Johannes Flemming, Gabrielle Pétron, and Wouter Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14735–14750,Short summary
We assimilate MOPITT CO satellite data in the TM5-4D-Var inverse modelling framework to estimate Amazon fire CO emissions for 2003–2018. We show that fire emissions have decreased over the analysis period, coincident with a decrease in deforestation rates. However, interannual variations in fire emissions are large, and they correlate strongly with soil moisture. Our results reveal an important role for robust, top-down fire CO emissions in quantifying and attributing Amazon fire intensity.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, N. Luke Abraham, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10657–10676,Short summary
Atmospheric impacts of chlorinated very short-lived substances (Cl-VSLS) over the first two decades of the 21st century are assessed using the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate model. Stratospheric input of Cl from Cl-VSLS is estimated at ~130 ppt in 2019. The use of model set-up with constrained meteorology significantly increases the abundance of Cl-VSLS in the lower stratosphere relative to the free-running set-up. The growth in Cl-VSLS emissions significantly impacted recent HCl and COCl2 trends.
Yajuan Li, Sandip S. Dhomse, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Andreas Chrysanthou, Yuan Xia, and Dong Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10635–10656,Short summary
Chemical transport models forced with (re)analysis meteorological fields are ideally suited for interpreting the influence of important physical processes on the ozone variability. We use TOMCAT forced by ECMWF ERA-Interim and ERA5 reanalysis data sets to investigate the effects of reanalysis forcing fields on ozone changes. Our results show that models forced by ERA5 reanalyses may not yet be capable of reproducing observed changes in stratospheric ozone, particularly in the lower stratosphere.
Matilda A. Pimlott, Richard J. Pope, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry G. Latter, Diane S. Knappett, Dwayne E. Heard, Lucy J. Ventress, Richard Siddans, Wuhu Feng, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10467–10488,Short summary
We present a new method to derive global information of the hydroxyl radical (OH), an important atmospheric oxidant. OH controls the lifetime of trace gases important to air quality and climate. We use satellite observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, methane and water vapour in a simple expression to derive OH around 3–4 km altitude. The derived OH compares well to model and aircraft OH data. We then apply the method to 10 years of satellite data to study the inter-annual variability of OH.
Carlos Alberti, Frank Hase, Matthias Frey, Darko Dubravica, Thomas Blumenstock, Angelika Dehn, Paolo Castracane, Gregor Surawicz, Roland Harig, Bianca C. Baier, Caroline Bès, Jianrong Bi, Hartmut Boesch, André Butz, Zhaonan Cai, Jia Chen, Sean M. Crowell, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dragos Ene, Jonathan E. Franklin, Omaira García, David Griffith, Bruno Grouiez, Michel Grutter, Abdelhamid Hamdouni, Sander Houweling, Neil Humpage, Nicole Jacobs, Sujong Jeong, Lilian Joly, Nicholas B. Jones, Denis Jouglet, Rigel Kivi, Ralph Kleinschek, Morgan Lopez, Diogo J. Medeiros, Isamu Morino, Nasrin Mostafavipak, Astrid Müller, Hirofumi Ohyama, Paul I. Palmer, Mahesh Pathakoti, David F. Pollard, Uwe Raffalski, Michel Ramonet, Robbie Ramsay, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, William Simpson, Wolfgang Stremme, Youwen Sun, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yao Té, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Voltaire A. Velazco, Felix Vogel, Masataka Watanabe, Chong Wei, Debra Wunch, Marcia Yamasoe, Lu Zhang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2433–2463,Short summary
Space-borne greenhouse gas missions require ground-based validation networks capable of providing fiducial reference measurements. Here, considerable refinements of the calibration procedures for the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) are presented. Laboratory and solar side-by-side procedures for the characterization of the spectrometers have been refined and extended. Revised calibration factors for XCO2, XCO and XCH4 are provided, incorporating 47 new spectrometers.
Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Alessio Bozzo, Nicholas Byrne, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Michail Diamantakis, Johannes Flemming, Lesley J. Gray, Robin J. Hogan, Luke Jones, Linus Magnusson, Inna Polichtchouk, Theodore G. Shepherd, Nils Wedi, and Antje Weisheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4277–4302,Short summary
The stratosphere is emerging as one of the keys to improve tropospheric weather and climate predictions. This study provides evidence of the role the stratospheric ozone layer plays in improving weather predictions at different timescales. Using a new ozone modelling approach suitable for high-resolution global models that provide operational forecasts from days to seasons, we find significant improvements in stratospheric meteorological fields and stratosphere–troposphere coupling.
Richard J. Pope, Rebecca Kelly, Eloise A. Marais, Ailish M. Graham, Chris Wilson, Jeremy J. Harrison, Savio J. A. Moniz, Mohamed Ghalaieny, Steve R. Arnold, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4323–4338,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are potent air pollutants which directly impact on human health. In this study, we use satellite nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data to evaluate the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the UK official NOx emissions inventory, with reasonable agreement. We also derived satellite-based NOx emissions for several UK cities. In the case of London and Birmingham, the NAEI NOx emissions are potentially too low by >50%.
Piera Raspollini, Enrico Arnone, Flavio Barbara, Massimo Bianchini, Bruno Carli, Simone Ceccherini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Angelika Dehn, Stefano Della Fera, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Anu Dudhia, Jean-Marie Flaud, Marco Gai, Michael Kiefer, Manuel López-Puertas, David P. Moore, Alessandro Piro, John J. Remedios, Marco Ridolfi, Harjinder Sembhi, Luca Sgheri, and Nicola Zoppetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1871–1901,Short summary
The MIPAS instrument onboard the ENVISAT satellite provided 10 years of measurements of the atmospheric emission al limb that allow for the retrieval of latitude- and altitude-resolved atmospheric composition. We describe the improvements implemented in the retrieval algorithm used for the full mission reanalysis, which allows for the generation of the global distributions of 21 atmospheric constituents plus temperature with increased accuracy with respect to previously generated data.
Zhiqiang Cui, Alan Blyth, Yahui Huang, Gary Lloyd, Thomas Choularton, Keith Bower, Paul Field, Rachel Hawker, and Lindsay Bennett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1649–1667,Short summary
High concentrations of ice particles were observed at temperatures greater than about –8 C. The default scheme of the secondary ice production cannot explain the high concentrations. Relaxing the conditions for secondary ice production or considering dust aerosol alone is insufficient to produce the observed amount of ice particles. It is likely that multi-thermals play an important role in producing very high concentrations of secondary ice particles in some tropical clouds.
Haiyue Tan, Lin Zhang, Xiao Lu, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Yao, Robert J. Parker, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1229–1249,Short summary
Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Understanding methane emissions and concentration growth over China in the past decade is important to support its mitigation. This study analyzes the contributions of methane emissions from different regions and sources over the globe to methane changes over China in 2007–2018. Our results show strong international transport influences and emphasize the need of intensive methane measurements covering eastern China.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Ryan Hossaini, Graham W. Mann, Michelle L. Santee, and Mark Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 903–916,Short summary
Solar flux variations associated with 11-year sunspot cycle is believed to exert important external climate forcing. As largest variations occur at shorter wavelengths such as ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum, associated changes in stratospheric ozone are thought to provide direct evidence for solar climate interaction. Until now, most of the studies reported double-peak structured solar cycle signal (SCS), but relatively new satellite data suggest only single-peak-structured SCS.
Xiao Lu, Daniel J. Jacob, Haolin Wang, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Yuzhong Zhang, Tia R. Scarpelli, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Hannah Nesser, A. Anthony Bloom, Shuang Ma, John R. Worden, Shaojia Fan, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Ritesh Gautam, Deborah Gordon, Michael D. Moran, Frances Reuland, Claudia A. Octaviano Villasana, and Arlyn Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 395–418,Short summary
We evaluate methane emissions and trends for 2010–2017 in the gridded national emission inventories for the United States, Canada, and Mexico by inversion of in situ and satellite methane observations. We find that anthropogenic methane emissions for all three countries are underestimated in the national inventories, largely driven by oil emissions. Anthropogenic methane emissions in the US peak in 2014, in contrast to the report of a steadily decreasing trend over 2010–2017 from the US EPA.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Carlo Arosio, Wuhu Feng, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5711–5729,Short summary
High-quality long-term ozone profile data sets are key to estimating short- and long-term ozone variability. Almost all the satellite (and chemical model) data sets show some kind of bias with respect to each other. This is because of differences in measurement methodologies as well as simplified processes in the models. We use satellite data sets and chemical model output to generate 42 years of ozone profile data sets using a random-forest machine-learning algorithm that is named ML-TOMCAT.
Paul D. Hamer, Virginie Marécal, Ryan Hossaini, Michel Pirre, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Franziska Ziska, Andreas Engel, Stephan Sala, Timo Keber, Harald Bönisch, Elliot Atlas, Kirstin Krüger, Martyn Chipperfield, Valery Catoire, Azizan A. Samah, Marcel Dorf, Phang Siew Moi, Hans Schlager, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16955–16984,Short summary
Bromoform is a stratospheric ozone-depleting gas released by seaweed and plankton transported to the stratosphere via convection in the tropics. We study the chemical interactions of bromoform and its derivatives within convective clouds using a cloud-scale model and observations. Our findings are that soluble bromine gases are efficiently washed out and removed within the convective clouds and that most bromine is transported vertically to the upper troposphere in the form of bromoform.
Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Grant Allen, Tim Arnold, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Hartmut Boesch, Anita L. Ganesan, Aoife Grant, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, Simon J. O'Doherty, Paul I. Palmer, Joseph R. Pitt, Chris Rennick, Daniel Say, Kieran M. Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Dickon Young, and Matt Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16257–16276,Short summary
We present an evaluation of the UK's methane emissions between 2013 and 2020 using a network of tall tower measurement sites. We find emissions that are consistent in both magnitude and trend with the UK's reported emissions, with a declining trend driven by a decrease in emissions from England. The impact of various components of the modelling set-up on these findings are explored through a number of sensitivity studies.
Meike K. Rotermund, Vera Bense, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Andreas Engel, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Peter Hoor, Tilman Hüneke, Timo Keber, Flora Kluge, Benjamin Schreiner, Tanja Schuck, Bärbel Vogel, Andreas Zahn, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15375–15407,Short summary
Airborne total bromine (Brtot) and tracer measurements suggest Brtot-rich air masses persistently protruded into the lower stratosphere (LS), creating a high Brtot region over the North Atlantic in fall 2017. The main source is via isentropic transport by the Asian monsoon and to a lesser extent transport across the extratropical tropopause as quantified by a Lagrange model. The transport of Brtot via Central American hurricanes is also observed. Lastly, the impact of Brtot on LS O3 is assessed.
Chris Wilson, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Manuel Gloor, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Joey McNorton, Luciana V. Gatti, John B. Miller, Luana S. Basso, and Sarah A. Monks
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10643–10669,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted from wetlands like those found in the basin of the Amazon River. Using an atmospheric model and observations from GOSAT, we quantified CH4 emissions from Amazonia during the previous decade. We found that the largest emissions came from a region in the eastern basin and that emissions there were rising faster than in other areas of South America. This finding was supported by CH4 observations made on aircraft within the basin.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Martin Keller, Daven K. Henze, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9545–9572,Short summary
We explore the utility of a weak-constraint (WC) four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation scheme for mitigating systematic errors in methane simulation in the GEOS-Chem model. We use data from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and show that, compared to the traditional 4D-Var approach, the WC scheme improves the agreement between the model and independent observations. We find that the WC corrections to the model provide insight into the source of the errors.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Chunjing Qiu, Philippe Ciais, Rona L. Thompson, Philippe Peylin, Matthew J. McGrath, Efisio Solazzo, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Glen P. Peters, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, David Bastviken, Aki Tsuruta, Wilfried Winiwarter, Prabir K. Patra, Matthias Kuhnert, Gabriel D. Oreggioni, Monica Crippa, Marielle Saunois, Lucia Perugini, Tiina Markkanen, Tuula Aalto, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Chris Wilson, Giulia Conchedda, Dirk Günther, Adrian Leip, Pete Smith, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Antti Leppänen, Alistair J. Manning, Joe McNorton, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2307–2362,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CH4 and N2O emissions in the EU27 and UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with process-based model data and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling them with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and to facilitate real-time verification procedures.
Jasdeep Singh Anand, Alessandro Anav, Marcello Vitale, Daniele Peano, Nadine Unger, Xu Yue, Robert J. Parker, and Hartmut Boesch
Publication in BG not foreseenShort summary
Ozone damages plants, which prevents them from absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. This poses a potential threat to preventing dangerous climate change. In this work, satellite observations of forest cover, ozone, climate, and growing season are combined with an empirical model to estimate the carbon lost due to ozone exposure over Europe. The estimated carbon losses agree well with prior modelled estimates, showing for the first time that satellites can be used to better understand this effect.
Jessica C. A. Baker, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Manuel Gloor, John H. Marsham, Wolfgang Buermann, Humberto R. da Rocha, Antonio D. Nobre, Alessandro Carioca de Araujo, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2279–2300,Short summary
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a vital part of the Amazon water cycle, but it is difficult to measure over large areas. In this study, we compare spatial patterns, seasonality, and recent trends in Amazon ET from a water-budget analysis with estimates from satellites, reanalysis, and global climate models. We find large differences between products, showing that many widely used datasets and climate models may not provide a reliable representation of this crucial variable over the Amazon.
Akash Biswal, Vikas Singh, Shweta Singh, Amit P. Kesarkar, Khaiwal Ravindra, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, Richard J. Pope, Tanbir Singh, and Suman Mor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5235–5251,Short summary
Satellite and surface observations show a reduction in NO2 levels over India during the lockdown compared to business-as-usual years. A substantial reduction, proportional to the population, was observed over the urban areas. The changes in NO2 levels at the surface during the lockdown appear to be present in the satellite observations. However, TROPOMI showed a better correlation with surface NO2 and was more sensitive to the changes than OMI because of the finer resolution.
Xiao Lu, Daniel J. Jacob, Yuzhong Zhang, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Tia R. Scarpelli, Hannah Nesser, Robert M. Yantosca, Jianxiong Sheng, Arlyn Andrews, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, A. Anthony Bloom, and Shuang Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4637–4657,Short summary
We use an analytical solution to the Bayesian inverse problem to quantitatively compare and combine the information from satellite and in situ observations, and to estimate global methane budget and their trends over the 2010–2017 period. We find that satellite and in situ observations are to a large extent complementary in the inversion for estimating global methane budget, and reveal consistent corrections of regional anthropogenic and wetland methane emissions relative to the prior inventory.
Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Oliver Schneising, Michael Hilker, Blanca Fuentes Andrade, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hartmut Boesch, Lianghai Wu, Jochen Landgraf, Ilse Aben, Christian Retscher, Christopher W. O'Dell, and David Crisp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2141–2166,Short summary
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during 2020 in large parts of the world. We have used a small ensemble of satellite retrievals of column-averaged CO2 (XCO2) to find out if a regional-scale reduction of atmospheric CO2 can be detected from space. We focus on East China and show that it is challenging to reliably detect and to accurately quantify the emission reduction, which only results in regional XCO2 reductions of about 0.1–0.2 ppm.
Yuzhong Zhang, Daniel J. Jacob, Xiao Lu, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Tia R. Scarpelli, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jinfeng Chang, A. Anthony Bloom, Shuang Ma, John Worden, Robert J. Parker, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3643–3666,Short summary
We use 2010–2018 satellite observations of atmospheric methane to interpret the factors controlling atmospheric methane and its accelerating increase during the period. The 2010–2018 increase in global methane emissions is driven by tropical and boreal wetlands and tropical livestock (South Asia, Africa, Brazil), with an insignificant positive trend in emissions from the fossil fuel sector. The peak methane growth rates in 2014–2015 are also contributed by low OH and high fire emissions.
Robert J. Parker, Alex Webb, Hartmut Boesch, Peter Somkuti, Rocio Barrio Guillo, Antonio Di Noia, Nikoleta Kalaitzi, Jasdeep S. Anand, Peter Bergamaschi, Frederic Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Coleen Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3383–3412,Short summary
This work presents the latest release of the University of Leicester GOSAT methane data and acts as the definitive description of this dataset. We detail the processing, validation and evaluation involved in producing these data and highlight its many applications. With now over a decade of global atmospheric methane observations, this dataset has helped, and will continue to help, us better understand the global methane budget and investigate how it may respond to a future changing climate.
Robert J. Parker, Chris Wilson, A. Anthony Bloom, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Joe McNorton, Hartmut Boesch, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Biogeosciences, 17, 5669–5691,Short summary
Wetlands contribute the largest uncertainty to the atmospheric methane budget. WetCHARTs is a simple, data-driven model that estimates wetland emissions using observations of precipitation and temperature. We perform the first detailed evaluation of WetCHARTs against satellite data and find it performs well in reproducing the observed wetland methane seasonal cycle for the majority of wetland regions. In regions where it performs poorly, we highlight incorrect wetland extent as a key reason.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Graham W. Mann, Juan Carlos Antuña Marrero, Sarah E. Shallcross, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Lauren Marshall, N. Luke Abraham, and Colin E. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13627–13654,Short summary
We confirm downward adjustment of SO2 emission to simulate the Pinatubo aerosol cloud with aerosol microphysics models. Similar adjustment is also needed to simulate the El Chichón and Agung volcanic cloud, indicating potential missing removal or vertical redistribution process in models. Important inhomogeneities in the CMIP6 forcing datasets after Agung and El Chichón eruptions are difficult to reconcile. Quasi-biennial oscillation plays an important role in modifying stratospheric warming.
Benjamin Birner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Eric J. Morgan, Britton B. Stephens, Marianna Linz, Wuhu Feng, Chris Wilson, Jonathan D. Bent, Steven C. Wofsy, Jeffrey Severinghaus, and Ralph F. Keeling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12391–12408,Short summary
With new high-precision observations from nine aircraft campaigns and 3-D chemical transport modeling, we show that the argon-to-nitrogen ratio (Ar / N2) in the lowermost stratosphere provides a useful constraint on the “age of air” (the time elapsed since entry of an air parcel into the stratosphere). Therefore, Ar / N2 in combination with traditional age-of-air indicators, such as CO2 and N2O, could provide new insights into atmospheric mixing and transport.
Matthew J. Rowlinson, Alexandru Rap, Douglas S. Hamilton, Richard J. Pope, Stijn Hantson, Steve R. Arnold, Jed O. Kaplan, Almut Arneth, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Piers M. Forster, and Lars Nieradzik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10937–10951,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an important greenhouse gas which contributes to anthropogenic climate change; however, the effect of human emissions is uncertain because pre-industrial ozone concentrations are not well understood. We use revised inventories of pre-industrial natural emissions to estimate the human contribution to changes in tropospheric ozone. We find that tropospheric ozone radiative forcing is up to 34 % lower when using improved pre-industrial biomass burning and vegetation emissions.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3839–3862,Short summary
Systematic errors in atmospheric models pose a challenge for inverse modeling studies of methane (CH4) emissions. We evaluated the CH4 simulation in the GEOS-Chem model at the horizontal resolutions of 4° × 5° and 2° × 2.5°. Our analysis identified resolution-dependent biases in the model, which we attributed to discrepancies between the two model resolutions in vertical transport in the troposphere and in stratosphere–troposphere exchange.
Yajuan Li, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Sandip S. Dhomse, Richard J. Pope, Faquan Li, and Dong Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8627–8639,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) exerts important thermal and dynamical effects on atmospheric circulation, climate change as well as the ozone distribution. In this study, we use updated observations and model simulations to investigate the ozone trends and variations over the TP. Wintertime TP ozone variations are largely controlled by tropical to high-latitude transport processes, whereas summertime concentrations are a combined effect of photochemical decay and tropical processes.
Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, Vincenzo Rizi, Marco Iarlori, Irene Cionni, Ilaria Quaglia, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martin Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando Garcia, Patrick Joeckel, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Marion Marchand, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Tatsuya Nagashima, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, David Plummer, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, John Scinocca, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Holger Tost, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this work we analyse the trend in ozone profiles taken at L'Aquila (Italy, 42.4° N) for seventeen years, between 2000 and 2016 and compare them against already available measured ozone trends. We try to understand and explain the observed trends at various heights in light of the simulations from seventeen different model, highlighting the contribution of changes in circulation and chemical ozone loss during this time period.
Amit Misra, Sachchida Tripathi, Harjinder Sembhi, and Hartmut Boesch
Ann. Geophys. Discuss.,
Publication in ANGEO not foreseenShort summary
In this work we validated Copernicus Aerosol Monitoring Service (CAMS) derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) at four sites in Indo-Gangetic Basin and used it to study aerosol climatology and trend in AOD at these sites. We find that sulphate AOD has largest influence on total aerosol climatology. Comparison of CAMS AOD with AERONET AOD shows better correlation when aerosol climatology is dominated by coarse particles. Trend analysis shows largest increase in organic matter and least in sea salt.
James Keeble, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7153–7166,Short summary
The Montreal Protocol was agreed in 1987 to limit and then stop the production of man-made CFCs, which destroy stratospheric ozone. As a result, the atmospheric abundances of CFCs are now declining in the atmosphere. However, the atmospheric abundance of CFC-11 is not declining as expected under complete compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Using the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate model, we explore the impact of future unregulated production of CFC-11 on ozone recovery.
Andreas Chrysanthou, Amanda C. Maycock, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 155–174,Short summary
We perform 50-year-long time-slice experiments using the Met Office HadGEM3 global climate model in order to decompose the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2 in three distinct components, (a) the rapid adjustment, associated with CO2 radiative effects; (b) a global uniform sea surface temperature warming; and (c) sea surface temperature patterns. This demonstrates a potential for fast and slow timescales of the response of the BDC to greenhouse gas forcing.
Cristina Ruiz Villena, Jasdeep S. Anand, Roland J. Leigh, Paul S. Monks, Claire E. Parfitt, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1735–1756,Short summary
We present a new method to derive NO2 concentrations from satellite observations that uses up to 30 times less spectral information than traditional methods. We tested the method using data from existing instruments OMI and TROPOMI and found our results agree with the reference data to 5 % and 11 %, respectively. Our method could allow for simpler instrument designs that can be used in low-cost constellations of small satellites for air quality monitoring at high spatial and temporal resolution.
Clara Orbe, David A. Plummer, Darryn W. Waugh, Huang Yang, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas E. Kinnison, Beatrice Josse, Virginie Marecal, Makoto Deushi, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Slimane Bekki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3809–3840,Short summary
Atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by global-scale winds that are not always properly simulated in computer models. A common approach to correct for this bias is to relax or
nudgeto the observed winds. Here we systematically evaluate how well this technique performs across a large suite of chemistry–climate models in terms of its ability to reproduce key aspects of both the tropospheric and stratospheric circulations.
Alexander T. Archibald, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Fraser Dennison, Sandip S. Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, Catherine Hardacre, Alan J. Hewitt, Richard S. Hill, Colin E. Johnson, James Keeble, Marcus O. Köhler, Olaf Morgenstern, Jane P. Mulcahy, Carlos Ordóñez, Richard J. Pope, Steven T. Rumbold, Maria R. Russo, Nicholas H. Savage, Alistair Sellar, Marc Stringer, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1223–1266,Short summary
Here we present a description and evaluation of the UKCA stratosphere–troposphere chemistry scheme (StratTrop vn 1.0) implemented in the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). UKCA StratTrop represents a substantial step forward compared to previous versions of UKCA. We show here that it is fully suited to the challenges of representing interactions in a coupled Earth system model and identify key areas and components for future development that will make it even better in the future.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Antonio Di Noia, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Lianghai Wu, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Kei Shiomi, Yukio Yoshida, Isamu Morino, David Crisp, Christopher W. O'Dell, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Rigel Kivi, David F. Pollard, Frank Hase, Ralf Sussmann, Yao V. Té, Kimberly Strong, Sébastien Roche, Mahesh K. Sha, Martine De Mazière, Dietrich G. Feist, Laura T. Iraci, Coleen M. Roehl, Christian Retscher, and Dinand Schepers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 789–819,Short summary
We present new satellite-derived data sets of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The data products are column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4. The products cover the years 2003–2018 and are merged Level 2 (satellite footprints) and merged Level 3 (gridded at monthly time and 5° x 5° spatial resolution) products obtained from combining several individual sensor products. We present the merging algorithms and product validation results.
Mark F. Lunt, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Christopher M. Taylor, Hartmut Boesch, and Robert J. Parker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14721–14740,Short summary
Using data from the GOSAT satellite between 2010 and 2016 and a Bayesian inversion approach, we estimate monthly emissions of methane from tropical Africa. We find an increase in methane emissions during this period, driven in part by rising emissions from South Sudan. Using ancillary data we attribute this short-term emissions rise to an increase in the extent of the Sudd wetlands driven by increased outflow from the East African lakes.
Andreas Chrysanthou, Amanda C. Maycock, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Hella Garny, Douglas Kinnison, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Makoto Deushi, Rolando R. Garcia, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Daniele Visioni, and Yousuke Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11559–11586,Short summary
We perform the first multi-model comparison of the impact of nudged meteorology on the stratospheric residual circulation (RC) in chemistry–climate models. Nudging meteorology does not constrain the mean strength of RC compared to free-running simulations, and despite the lack of agreement in the mean circulation, nudging tightly constrains the inter-annual variability in the tropical upward mass flux in the lower stratosphere. In summary, nudging strongly affects the representation of RC.
Kévin Lamy, Thierry Portafaix, Béatrice Josse, Colette Brogniez, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Hassan Bencherif, Laura Revell, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Michaela I. Hegglin, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Ben Liley, Virginie Marecal, Olaf Morgenstern, Andrea Stenke, Guang Zeng, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Neil Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Glauco Di Genova, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rong-Ming Hu, Douglas Kinnison, Michael Kotkamp, Richard McKenzie, Martine Michou, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Daniele Visioni, and Kohei Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10087–10110,Short summary
In this study, we simulate the ultraviolet radiation evolution during the 21st century on Earth's surface using the output from several numerical models which participated in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative. We present four possible futures which depend on greenhouse gases emissions. The role of ozone-depleting substances, greenhouse gases and aerosols are investigated. Our results emphasize the important role of aerosols for future ultraviolet radiation in the Northern Hemisphere.
Richard Coppell, Emanuel Gloor, and Joseph Holden
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Publication in GMD not foreseenShort summary
(1) We developed a new Sphagnum model for ecosystem exchange. (2) The model is implemented in TRIFFID which is part of the JULES land surface model. (3) Outputs compare well to empirical field data. (4) JULES can now better incorporate peatland-climate feedbacks.
Matthew J. Rowlinson, Alexandru Rap, Stephen R. Arnold, Richard J. Pope, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Joe McNorton, Piers Forster, Hamish Gordon, Kirsty J. Pringle, Wuhu Feng, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry L. Latter, and Richard Siddans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8669–8686,Short summary
Wildfires and meteorology have a substantial effect on atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as methane and ozone. During the 1997 El Niño event, unusually large fire emissions indirectly increased global methane through carbon monoxide emission, which decreased the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. There were also large regional changes to tropospheric ozone concentrations, but contrasting effects of fire and meteorology resulted in a small change to global radiative forcing.
Matthias Frey, Mahesh K. Sha, Frank Hase, Matthäus Kiel, Thomas Blumenstock, Roland Harig, Gregor Surawicz, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Kei Shiomi, Jonathan E. Franklin, Hartmut Bösch, Jia Chen, Michel Grutter, Hirofumi Ohyama, Youwen Sun, André Butz, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Dragos Ene, Debra Wunch, Zhensong Cao, Omaira Garcia, Michel Ramonet, Felix Vogel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1513–1530,Short summary
In a 3.5-year long study, the long-term performance of a mobile EM27/SUN spectrometer, used for greenhouse gas observations, is checked with respect to a co-located reference spectrometer. We find that the EM27/SUN is stable on timescales of several years, qualifying it for permanent carbon cycle studies. The performance of an ensemble of 30 EM27/SUN spectrometers was also tested in the framework of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) and found to be very uniform.
Evgenia Galytska, Alexey Rozanov, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip. S. Dhomse, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Wuhu Feng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 767–783,Short summary
In this study we analysed ozone changes in the tropical mid-stratosphere as observed by the SCIAMACHY instrument during 2004–2012. We used simulations from TOMCAT model with different chemical and dynamical forcings to reveal primary causes of ozone changes. We also considered measured NO2 and modelled NOx, NOx, and N2O data. With modelled AoA data we identified seasonal changes in the upwelling speed and explained how those changes affect N2O chemistry which leads to observed ozone changes.
Debora Griffin, Kaley A. Walker, Ingo Wohltmann, Sandip S. Dhomse, Markus Rex, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Gloria L. Manney, Jane Liu, and David Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 577–601,Short summary
Ozone in the stratosphere is important to protect the Earth from UV radiation. Using measurements taken by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment satellite between 2005 and 2013, we examine different methods to calculate the ozone loss in the high Arctic and establish the altitude at which most of the ozone is destroyed. Our results show that the different methods agree within the uncertainties. Recommendations are made on which methods are most appropriate to use.
Joe McNorton, Chris Wilson, Manuel Gloor, Rob J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Wuhu Feng, Ryan Hossaini, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18149–18168,Short summary
Since 2007 atmospheric methane (CH4) has been unexpectedly increasing following a 6-year hiatus. We have used an atmospheric model to attribute regional sources and global sinks of CH4 using observations for the 2003–2015 period. Model results show the renewed growth is best explained by decreased atmospheric removal, decreased biomass burning emissions, and an increased energy sector (mainly from Africa–Middle East and Southern Asia–Oceania) and wetland emissions (mainly from northern Eurasia).
Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Bettina Gier, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Rob G. Detmers, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, André Butz, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, David Crisp, and Christopher O'Dell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17355–17370,Short summary
We present a new satellite data set of column-averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), which covers the time period 2003 to 2016. We used this data set to compute annual mean atmospheric CO2 growth rates. We show that the growth rate is highest during 2015 and 2016 despite nearly constant CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in recent years. The high growth rates are attributed to year 2015-2016 El Nino episodes. We present correlations with fossil fuel emissions and ENSO indices.
Ricardo Dalagnol, Fabien Hubert Wagner, Lênio Soares Galvão, Bruce Walker Nelson, and Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de Aragão
Biogeosciences, 15, 6087–6104,Short summary
We used a time series of MODIS (MAIAC) satellite images from 2000 to 2017 to map the distribution of bamboo-dominated forests in the southwest Amazon and detect when the bamboo populations are suffering massive die-offs. The aim was to test if bamboo die-off is associated with higher fire probability, which could impact other plant species while promoting bamboo dominance. Our findings show 15.5 million ha of bamboo forests which are not directly associated with fire, except in drought years.
Jian-Xiong Sheng, Daniel J. Jacob, Alexander J. Turner, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Joshua Benmergui, A. Anthony Bloom, Claudia Arndt, Ritesh Gautam, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Hartmut Boesch, and Robert J. Parker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12257–12267,Short summary
Analysis of 7 years (2010–2016) of GOSAT methane trends over Canada, the contiguous US, and Mexico suggests that US methane emissions increased by 2.5 ± 1.4 % a−1 over the 7-year period, with contributions from both oil–gas systems and livestock in the Midwest. Mexican emissions show a decrease that can be attributed to a decreasing cattle population. Canadian emissions show year-to-year variability driven by wetland emissions and correlated with wetland areal extent.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, Greg E. Bodeker, Jared Lewis, Kage Nesbit, Sean M. Davis, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, and Martin Dameris
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1473–1490,
Maarten Krol, Marco de Bruine, Lars Killaars, Huug Ouwersloot, Andrea Pozzer, Yi Yin, Frederic Chevallier, Philippe Bousquet, Prabir Patra, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3109–3130,Short summary
The TransCom inter-comparison project regularly carries out studies to quantify errors in simulated atmospheric transport. This paper presents the first results of an age of air (AoA) inter-comparison of six global transport models. Following a protocol, six models simulated five tracers from which atmospheric transport times can easily be deduced. Results highlight that inter-model differences associated with atmospheric transport are still large and require further analysis.
Jens-Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Reinhold Spang, Ines Tritscher, Tobias Wegner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Douglas E. Kinnison, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8647–8666,Short summary
We investigate a discrepancy between model simulations and observations of HCl in the dark polar stratosphere. In early winter, the less-well-studied period of the onset of chlorine activation, observations show a much faster depletion of HCl than simulations of three models. This points to some unknown process that is currently not represented in the models. Various hypotheses for potential causes are investigated that partly reduce the discrepancy. The impact on polar ozone depletion is low.
Richard J. Pope, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Stephen R. Arnold, Norbert Glatthor, Wuhu Feng, Sandip S. Dhomse, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry G. Latter, and Richard Siddans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8389–8408,
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Andreas Engel, Harald Bönisch, Jennifer Ostermöller, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 601–619,Short summary
We present a new method to derive equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), which is based on an improved formulation of the propagation of trends of species with chemical loss from the troposphere to the stratosphere. EESC calculated with the new method shows much better agreement with model-derived ESC. Based on this new formulation, we expect the halogen impact on midlatitude stratospheric ozone to return to 1980 values about 10 years later, then using the current formulation.
Daniel R. Moon, Giorgio S. Taverna, Clara Anduix-Canto, Trevor Ingham, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Paul W. Seakins, Maria-Teresa Baeza-Romero, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 327–338,Short summary
One geoengineering mitigation strategy for global temperature rises is to inject particles into the stratosphere to scatter solar radiation back to space. However, the injection of such particles must not perturb ozone. We measured the rate of uptake of HO2 radicals, an important stratospheric intermediate, onto TiO2 particles. Using the atmospheric model TOMCAT, we showed that surface reactions between HO2 and TiO2 would have a negligible effect on stratospheric concentrations of HO2 and ozone.
Demerval S. Moreira, Karla M. Longo, Saulo R. Freitas, Marcia A. Yamasoe, Lina M. Mercado, Nilton E. Rosário, Emauel Gloor, Rosane S. M. Viana, John B. Miller, Luciana V. Gatti, Kenia T. Wiedemann, Lucas K. G. Domingues, and Caio C. S. Correia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14785–14810,Short summary
Fire in the Amazon forest produces a large amount of smoke that is released into the atmosphere and covers a large portion of South America for about 3 months each year. The smoke affects the energy and CO2 budgets. Using a numerical atmospheric model, we demonstrated that the smoke changes the forest from a source to a sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. The smoke ultimately acts to at least partially compensate for the forest carbon lost due to fire emissions.
Richard Siddans, Diane Knappett, Brian Kerridge, Alison Waterfall, Jane Hurley, Barry Latter, Hartmut Boesch, and Robert Parker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4135–4164,Short summary
This paper describes an algorithm to infer the global atmospheric distribution of the greenhouse gas methane, from measurements made by the infrared, nadir-viewing spectrometer IASI, on board the MetOp polar orbiting satellites. The algorithm has been applied to 9 years of data. Results are presented and validated by comparison to independent measurements.
Sarah A. Monks, Stephen R. Arnold, Michael J. Hollaway, Richard J. Pope, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, Kathryn M. Emmerson, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry L. Latter, Georgina M. Miles, Richard Siddans, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3025–3057,Short summary
The TOMCAT chemical transport model has been updated with the chemical degradation of ethene, propene, toluene, butane and monoterpenes. The tropospheric chemical mechanism is documented and the model is evaluated against surface, balloon, aircraft and satellite data. The model is generally able to capture the main spatial and seasonal features of carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds and reactive nitrogen. However, some model biases are found that require further investigation.
Eduardo Eiji Maeda, Xuanlong Ma, Fabien Hubert Wagner, Hyungjun Kim, Taikan Oki, Derek Eamus, and Alfredo Huete
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 439–454,Short summary
The Amazon River basin continuously transfers massive volumes of water from the land surface to the atmosphere, thereby having massive influence on global climate patterns. Nonetheless, the characteristics of ET across the Amazon basin, as well as the relative contribution of the multiple drivers to this process, are still uncertain. This study carries out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers across the Amazon Basin.
Wenshou Tian, Yuanpu Li, Fei Xie, Jiankai Zhang, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Yongyun Hu, Sen Zhao, Xin Zhou, Yun Yang, and Xuan Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6705–6722,Short summary
Although the principal mechanisms responsible for the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole are well understood, the factors or processes that generate interannual variations in ozone levels in the southern high-latitude stratosphere remain under debate. This study finds that the SST variations across the East Asian marginal seas (5° S–35° N, 100–140° E) could modulate the southern high-latitude stratospheric ozone interannual changes.
Shreeya Verma, Julia Marshall, Mark Parrington, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Sebastien Massart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Christopher Wilson, and Christoph Gerbig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6663–6678,Short summary
Aircraft profiles are a useful reference for validation of satellite-based column-averaged dry air mole fraction data. However, these are available only up to about 9–13 km altitude and therefore need to be extended synthetically into the stratosphere using other sources. In this study, we analyse three different data sources that are available for extension of CH4 profiles by comparing the error introduced by each into the total column and provide recommendations regarding the best approach.
Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Maximilian Reuter, Jens Heymann, Sven Krautwurst, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Rob G. Detmers, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, André Butz, Christian Frankenberg, and Alexander J. Turner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5751–5774,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas and increasing atmospheric concentrations result in global warming. We present a simple method to derive annual methane emission estimates of methane hotspot areas from satellite data. We present results for four source areas. We found that our estimates are in good agreement with other studies/data sets for the Four Corners region in the USA and for Azerbaijan but we also found higher emissions for parts of California and Turkmenistan.
Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Hartmut Bösch, Robert J. Parker, Alex J. Webb, Caio S. C. Correia, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Lucas G. Domingues, Dietrich G. Feist, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Yi Liu, John B. Miller, Isamu Morino, Ralf Sussmann, Kimberly Strong, Osamu Uchino, Jing Wang, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4781–4797,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry and transport and an ensemble Kalman filter to simultaneously infer regional fluxes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) directly from GOSAT retrievals of XCH4:XCO2, using sparse ground-based CH4 and CO2 mole fraction data to anchor the ratio. Our results show that assimilation of GOSAT data significantly reduced the posterior uncertainty and changed the a priori spatial distribution of CH4 emissions.
Jochen Stutz, Bodo Werner, Max Spolaor, Lisa Scalone, James Festa, Catalina Tsai, Ross Cheung, Santo F. Colosimo, Ugo Tricoli, Rasmus Raecke, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Ru-Shan Gao, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Fred L. Moore, Bruce Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steven Wofsy, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1017–1042,Short summary
A new limb-scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument was developed for NASA’s Global Hawk unmanned aerial system during the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment to study trace gases in the tropical tropopause layer. A new technique that uses in situ and DOAS O3 observations together with radiative transfer calculations allows the retrieval of mixing ratios from the slant column densities of BrO and NO2 at high accuracies of 0.5 ppt and 15 ppt, respectively.
Olaf Morgenstern, Michaela I. Hegglin, Eugene Rozanov, Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando R. Garcia, Steven C. Hardiman, Larry W. Horowitz, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Michael E. Manyin, Marion Marchand, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Yousuke Yamashita, Kohei Yoshida, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639–671,Short summary
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). In comparison to earlier such activities, most of these models comprise a whole-atmosphere chemistry, and several of them include an interactive ocean module. This makes them suitable for studying the interactions of tropospheric air quality, stratospheric ozone, and climate. The paper lays the foundation for other studies using the CCMI simulations for scientific analysis.
Bodo Werner, Jochen Stutz, Max Spolaor, Lisa Scalone, Rasmus Raecke, James Festa, Santo Fedele Colosimo, Ross Cheung, Catalina Tsai, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Giorgio S. Taverna, Wuhu Feng, James W. Elkins, David W. Fahey, Ru-Shan Gao, Erik J. Hintsa, Troy D. Thornberry, Free Lee Moore, Maria A. Navarro, Elliot Atlas, Bruce C. Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steve Wofsy, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1161–1186,Short summary
The paper reports on inorganic and organic bromine measured in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the eastern Pacific in early 2013. Bryinorg is found to increase from a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ppt for θ in the range of 350–360 K to 5.11 ± 1.57 ppt for θ=390 ± 400 K, whereas in the subtropical lower stratosphere, it reaches 7.66 ± 2.95 ppt for θ in the range of 390–400 K. Within the TTL, total bromine is found to range from 20.3 ppt to 22.3 ppt.
Tamás Kovács, Wuhu Feng, Anna Totterdill, John M. C. Plane, Sandip Dhomse, Juan Carlos Gómez-Martín, Gabriele P. Stiller, Florian J. Haenel, Christopher Smith, Piers M. Forster, Rolando R. García, Daniel R. Marsh, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 883–898,Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a very potent greenhouse gas, which is present in the atmosphere only through its industrial use, for example as an electrical insulator. To estimate accurately the impact of SF6 emissions on climate we need to know how long it persists in the atmosphere before being removed. Previous estimates of the SF6 lifetime indicate a large degree of uncertainty. Here we use a detailed atmospheric model to calculate a current best estimate of the SF6 lifetime.
Dmitry A. Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Alexander Ganshin, Ruslan Zhuravlev, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Debra Wunch, Dietrich G. Feist, Isamu Morino, Robert J. Parker, Kimberly Strong, Yukio Yoshida, Andrey Bril, Sergey Oshchepkov, Hartmut Boesch, Manvendra K. Dubey, David Griffith, Will Hewson, Rigel Kivi, Joseph Mendonca, Justus Notholt, Matthias Schneider, Ralf Sussmann, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Shuji Aoki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 143–157,
Martyn P. Chipperfield, Qing Liang, Matthew Rigby, Ryan Hossaini, Stephen A. Montzka, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, L. Paul Steele, James D. Happell, Robert C. Rhew, James Butler, Shari A. Yvon-Lewis, Bradley Hall, David Nance, Fred Moore, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, Jeremy J. Harrison, Chris D. Boone, Elliot L. Atlas, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15741–15754,Short summary
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a compound which, when released into the atmosphere, can cause depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Its emissions are controlled under the Montreal Protocol, and its atmospheric abundance is slowly decreasing. However, this decrease is not as fast as expected based on estimates of its emissions and its atmospheric lifetime. We have used an atmospheric model to look at the uncertainties in the CCl4 lifetime and to examine the impact on its atmospheric decay.
Bradley O. Christoffersen, Manuel Gloor, Sophie Fauset, Nikolaos M. Fyllas, David R. Galbraith, Timothy R. Baker, Bart Kruijt, Lucy Rowland, Rosie A. Fisher, Oliver J. Binks, Sanna Sevanto, Chonggang Xu, Steven Jansen, Brendan Choat, Maurizio Mencuccini, Nate G. McDowell, and Patrick Meir
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4227–4255,Short summary
We developed a plant hydraulics model for tropical forests based on established plant physiological theory, and parameterized it by conducting a pantropical hydraulic trait survey. We show that a substantial amount of trait diversity can be represented in the model by a reduced set of trait dimensions. The fully parameterized model is able capture tree-level variation in water status and improves simulations of total ecosystem transpiration, showing how to incorporate hydraulic traits in models.
Richard J. Pope, Nigel A. D. Richards, Martyn P. Chipperfield, David P. Moore, Sarah A. Monks, Stephen R. Arnold, Norbert Glatthor, Michael Kiefer, Tom J. Breider, Jeremy J. Harrison, John J. Remedios, Carsten Warneke, James M. Roberts, Glenn S. Diskin, Lewis G. Huey, Armin Wisthaler, Eric C. Apel, Peter F. Bernath, and Wuhu Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13541–13559,
Anna Totterdill, Tamás Kovács, Wuhu Feng, Sandip Dhomse, Christopher J. Smith, Juan Carlos Gómez-Martín, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Piers M. Forster, and John M. C. Plane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11451–11463,Short summary
In this study we have experimentally determined the infrared absorption cross sections of NF3 and CFC-115, calculated the radiative forcing and efficiency using two radiative transfer models and identified the effect of clouds and stratospheric adjustment. We have also determined their atmospheric lifetimes using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model.
Tamás Kovács, John M. C. Plane, Wuhu Feng, Tibor Nagy, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Pekka T. Verronen, Monika E. Andersson, David A. Newnham, Mark A. Clilverd, and Daniel R. Marsh
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3123–3136,Short summary
This study was completed on D-region atmospheric model development. The sophisticated 3-D Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) and the 1-D Sodynkalä Ion and Neutral Chemistry Model (SIC) were combined in order to provide a detailed, accurate model (WACCM-SIC) that considers the processes taking place in solar proton events. The original SIC model was reduced by mechanism reduction, which provided an accurate sub-mechanism (rSIC, WACCM-rSIC) of the original model.
M. N. Deeter, S. Martínez-Alonso, L. V. Gatti, M. Gloor, J. B. Miller, L. G. Domingues, and C. S. C. Correia
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3999–4012,Short summary
Satellite methods allow biomass burning emissions to be accurately quantified with high spatial and temporal resolution. With that ultimate goal, we analyze satellite retrievals of carbon monoxide from the MOPITT instrument over the Amazon Basin. Validation results for four Amazonian sites indicate a significant negative bias in retrieved lower-tropospheric CO concentrations. The interannual variability of biomass burning emissions from 2000 to 2015 is also studied using the MOPITT record.
Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Christopher D. Boone, Sandip S. Dhomse, Peter F. Bernath, Lucien Froidevaux, John Anderson, and James Russell III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10501–10519,Short summary
HF, the dominant stratospheric fluorine reservoir, results from the atmospheric degradation of anthropogenic species such as CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs. All are strong greenhouse gases, and CFCs and HCFCs deplete stratospheric ozone. We report the comparison of HF global distributions and trends measured by the ACE-FTS and HALOE satellite instruments with the output of SLIMCAT, a chemical transport model. The global HF trends reveal a slowing down in the rate of increase of HF since the 1990s.
R. Hossaini, P. K. Patra, A. A. Leeson, G. Krysztofiak, N. L. Abraham, S. J. Andrews, A. T. Archibald, J. Aschmann, E. L. Atlas, D. A. Belikov, H. Bönisch, L. J. Carpenter, S. Dhomse, M. Dorf, A. Engel, W. Feng, S. Fuhlbrügge, P. T. Griffiths, N. R. P. Harris, R. Hommel, T. Keber, K. Krüger, S. T. Lennartz, S. Maksyutov, H. Mantle, G. P. Mills, B. Miller, S. A. Montzka, F. Moore, M. A. Navarro, D. E. Oram, K. Pfeilsticker, J. A. Pyle, B. Quack, A. D. Robinson, E. Saikawa, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Sala, B.-M. Sinnhuber, S. Taguchi, S. Tegtmeier, R. T. Lidster, C. Wilson, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9163–9187,
Joe McNorton, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Manuel Gloor, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, Garry D. Hayman, Matt Rigby, Paul B. Krummel, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Dickon Young, Ed Dlugokencky, and Steve A. Montzka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7943–7956,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The growth of atmospheric CH4 stalled from 1999 to 2006, with current explanations focussed mainly on changing surface fluxes. We combine models with observations and meteorological data to assess the atmospheric contribution to CH4 changes. We find that variations in mean atmospheric hydroxyl concentration can explain part of the stall in growth. Our study highlights the role of multi-annual variability in atmospheric chemistry in global CH4 trends.
Fabien H. Wagner, Bruno Hérault, Damien Bonal, Clément Stahl, Liana O. Anderson, Timothy R. Baker, Gabriel Sebastian Becker, Hans Beeckman, Danilo Boanerges Souza, Paulo Cesar Botosso, David M. J. S. Bowman, Achim Bräuning, Benjamin Brede, Foster Irving Brown, Jesus Julio Camarero, Plínio Barbosa Camargo, Fernanda C. G. Cardoso, Fabrício Alvim Carvalho, Wendeson Castro, Rubens Koloski Chagas, Jérome Chave, Emmanuel N. Chidumayo, Deborah A. Clark, Flavia Regina Capellotto Costa, Camille Couralet, Paulo Henrique da Silva Mauricio, Helmut Dalitz, Vinicius Resende de Castro, Jaçanan Eloisa de Freitas Milani, Edilson Consuelo de Oliveira, Luciano de Souza Arruda, Jean-Louis Devineau, David M. Drew, Oliver Dünisch, Giselda Durigan, Elisha Elifuraha, Marcio Fedele, Ligia Ferreira Fedele, Afonso Figueiredo Filho, César Augusto Guimarães Finger, Augusto César Franco, João Lima Freitas Júnior, Franklin Galvão, Aster Gebrekirstos, Robert Gliniars, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro Graça, Anthony D. Griffiths, James Grogan, Kaiyu Guan, Jürgen Homeier, Maria Raquel Kanieski, Lip Khoon Kho, Jennifer Koenig, Sintia Valerio Kohler, Julia Krepkowski, José Pires Lemos-Filho, Diana Lieberman, Milton Eugene Lieberman, Claudio Sergio Lisi, Tomaz Longhi Santos, José Luis López Ayala, Eduardo Eijji Maeda, Yadvinder Malhi, Vivian R. B. Maria, Marcia C. M. Marques, Renato Marques, Hector Maza Chamba, Lawrence Mbwambo, Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaço, Hooz Angela Mendivelso, Brett P. Murphy, Joseph J. O'Brien, Steven F. Oberbauer, Naoki Okada, Raphaël Pélissier, Lynda D. Prior, Fidel Alejandro Roig, Michael Ross, Davi Rodrigo Rossatto, Vivien Rossi, Lucy Rowland, Ervan Rutishauser, Hellen Santana, Mark Schulze, Diogo Selhorst, Williamar Rodrigues Silva, Marcos Silveira, Susanne Spannl, Michael D. Swaine, José Julio Toledo, Marcos Miranda Toledo, Marisol Toledo, Takeshi Toma, Mario Tomazello Filho, Juan Ignacio Valdez Hernández, Jan Verbesselt, Simone Aparecida Vieira, Grégoire Vincent, Carolina Volkmer de Castilho, Franziska Volland, Martin Worbes, Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon, and Luiz E. O. C. Aragão
Biogeosciences, 13, 2537–2562,
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, Maarten Krol, Ilse Aben, Frédéric Chevallier, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, John B. Miller, Rob Detmers, Toshinobu Machida, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5043–5062,Short summary
This study investigates the constraint provided by measurements of Xratio (XCH4/XCO2) from space on surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2. We apply the ratio inversion method described in Pandey et al. (2015) to Xratio retrievals from the GOSAT with the TM5-4DVAR inverse modeling system, to constrain the surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010. The results are compared to proxy CH4 inversions using model-derived-XCO2 mixing ratios from CarbonTracker and MACC.
H. Lindqvist, C. W. O'Dell, S. Basu, H. Boesch, F. Chevallier, N. Deutscher, L. Feng, B. Fisher, F. Hase, M. Inoue, R. Kivi, I. Morino, P. I. Palmer, R. Parker, M. Schneider, R. Sussmann, and Y. Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13023–13040,Short summary
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration varies seasonally mainly due to plant photosynthesis in the Northern Hemisphere. We found that the satellite GOSAT can capture this variability from space to within 1ppm. We also found that models can differ by more than 1ppm. This implies that the satellite measurements could be useful in evaluating models and their prior estimates of carbon dioxide sources and sinks.
R. J. Pope, N. H. Savage, M. P. Chipperfield, C. Ordóñez, and L. S. Neal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11201–11215,
A. J. Turner, D. J. Jacob, K. J. Wecht, J. D. Maasakkers, E. Lundgren, A. E. Andrews, S. C. Biraud, H. Boesch, K. W. Bowman, N. M. Deutscher, M. K. Dubey, D. W. T. Griffith, F. Hase, A. Kuze, J. Notholt, H. Ohyama, R. Parker, V. H. Payne, R. Sussmann, C. Sweeney, V. A. Velazco, T. Warneke, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7049–7069,
R. J. Pope, M. P. Chipperfield, N. H. Savage, C. Ordóñez, L. S. Neal, L. A. Lee, S. S. Dhomse, N. A. D. Richards, and T. D. Keslake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5611–5626,
S. A. Monks, S. R. Arnold, L. K. Emmons, K. S. Law, S. Turquety, B. N. Duncan, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, S. Tilmes, J. Langner, J. Mao, Y. Long, J. L. Thomas, S. D. Steenrod, J. C. Raut, C. Wilson, M. P. Chipperfield, G. S. Diskin, A. Weinheimer, H. Schlager, and G. Ancellet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3575–3603,Short summary
Multi-model simulations of Arctic CO, O3 and OH are evaluated using observations. Models show highly variable concentrations but the relative importance of emission regions and types is robust across the models, demonstrating the importance of biomass burning as a source. Idealised tracer experiments suggest that some of the model spread is due to variations in simulated transport from Europe in winter and from Asia throughout the year.
S. Sitch, P. Friedlingstein, N. Gruber, S. D. Jones, G. Murray-Tortarolo, A. Ahlström, S. C. Doney, H. Graven, C. Heinze, C. Huntingford, S. Levis, P. E. Levy, M. Lomas, B. Poulter, N. Viovy, S. Zaehle, N. Zeng, A. Arneth, G. Bonan, L. Bopp, J. G. Canadell, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, R. Ellis, M. Gloor, P. Peylin, S. L. Piao, C. Le Quéré, B. Smith, Z. Zhu, and R. Myneni
Biogeosciences, 12, 653–679,
M. Alexe, P. Bergamaschi, A. Segers, R. Detmers, A. Butz, O. Hasekamp, S. Guerlet, R. Parker, H. Boesch, C. Frankenberg, R. A. Scheepmaker, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, S. C. Wofsy, and E. A. Kort
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 113–133,
M. Reuter, M. Buchwitz, M. Hilker, J. Heymann, O. Schneising, D. Pillai, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, H. Bösch, R. Parker, A. Butz, O. Hasekamp, C. W. O'Dell, Y. Yoshida, C. Gerbig, T. Nehrkorn, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, F. Hase, R. Kivi, R. Sussmann, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13739–13753,Short summary
Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink relies upon bottom-up and global surface flux inverse model estimates using in situ measurements. Our analysis of five satellite data sets comprises a regional inversion designed to be insensitive to potential retrieval biases and transport errors. We show that the satellite-derived sink is larger (1.0±0.3GtC/a) than previous estimates (0.4±0.4GtC/a).
G. D. Hayman, F. M. O'Connor, M. Dalvi, D. B. Clark, N. Gedney, C. Huntingford, C. Prigent, M. Buchwitz, O. Schneising, J. P. Burrows, C. Wilson, N. Richards, and M. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13257–13280,Short summary
Globally, wetlands are a major source of methane, which is the second most important greenhouse gas. We find the JULES wetland methane scheme to perform well in general, although there is a tendency for it to overpredict emissions in the tropics and underpredict them in northern latitudes. Our study highlights novel uses of satellite data as a major tool to constrain land-atmosphere methane flux models in a warming world.
M. O. Johnson, M. Gloor, M. J. Kirkby, and J. Lloyd
Biogeosciences, 11, 6873–6894,Short summary
We present a soil evolution model which incorporates the major processes of pedogenesis: mineral weathering, leaching, erosion, bioturbation, nutrient cycling and organic carbon inputs. We compare the modelled soil properties with soil chronosequences from Hawaii and demonstrate that the model captures well the key components of soil development. The model also highlights the important role that vegetation plays in accelerating the weathering and the release of globally important nutrients.
J. J. Harrison, M. P. Chipperfield, A. Dudhia, S. Cai, S. Dhomse, C. D. Boone, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11915–11933,
C. Wilson, M. P. Chipperfield, M. Gloor, and F. Chevallier
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2485–2500,
S. S. Dhomse, K. M. Emmerson, G. W. Mann, N. Bellouin, K. S. Carslaw, M. P. Chipperfield, R. Hommel, N. L. Abraham, P. Telford, P. Braesicke, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, F. O'Connor, O. Morgenstern, J. A. Pyle, T. Deshler, J. M. Zawodny, and L. W. Thomason
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11221–11246,
L. Kritten, A. Butz, M. P. Chipperfield, M. Dorf, S. Dhomse, R. Hossaini, H. Oelhaf, C. Prados-Roman, G. Wetzel, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9555–9566,
K. J. Wecht, D. J. Jacob, M. P. Sulprizio, G. W. Santoni, S. C. Wofsy, R. Parker, H. Bösch, and J. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8173–8184,
N. M. Fyllas, E. Gloor, L. M. Mercado, S. Sitch, C. A. Quesada, T. F. Domingues, D. R. Galbraith, A. Torre-Lezama, E. Vilanova, H. Ramírez-Angulo, N. Higuchi, D. A. Neill, M. Silveira, L. Ferreira, G. A. Aymard C., Y. Malhi, O. L. Phillips, and J. Lloyd
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1251–1269,
M. R. Raupach, M. Gloor, J. L. Sarmiento, J. G. Canadell, T. L. Frölicher, T. Gasser, R. A. Houghton, C. Le Quéré, and C. M. Trudinger
Biogeosciences, 11, 3453–3475,
B. Dils, M. Buchwitz, M. Reuter, O. Schneising, H. Boesch, R. Parker, S. Guerlet, I. Aben, T. Blumenstock, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, N. M. Deutscher, C. Frankenberg, F. Hase, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Heymann, M. De Mazière, J. Notholt, R. Sussmann, T. Warneke, D. Griffith, V. Sherlock, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1723–1744,
R. L. Thompson, P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, C. Wilson, P. Bergamaschi, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, M. Saunois, M. Chipperfield, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4349–4368,
A. T. Brown, M. P. Chipperfield, N. A. D. Richards, C. Boone, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 267–282,
M. Buchwitz, M. Reuter, H. Bovensmann, D. Pillai, J. Heymann, O. Schneising, V. Rozanov, T. Krings, J. P. Burrows, H. Boesch, C. Gerbig, Y. Meijer, and A. Löscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3477–3500,
R. Hossaini, H. Mantle, M. P. Chipperfield, S. A. Montzka, P. Hamer, F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Krüger, S. Tegtmeier, E. Atlas, S. Sala, A. Engel, H. Bönisch, T. Keber, D. Oram, G. Mills, C. Ordóñez, A. Saiz-Lopez, N. Warwick, Q. Liang, W. Feng, F. Moore, B. R. Miller, V. Marécal, N. A. D. Richards, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11819–11838,
F. Wagner, V. Rossi, C. Stahl, D. Bonal, and B. Hérault
Biogeosciences, 10, 7307–7321,
S. S. Dhomse, M. P. Chipperfield, W. Feng, W. T. Ball, Y. C. Unruh, J. D. Haigh, N. A. Krivova, S. K. Solanki, and A. K. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10113–10123,
R. Locatelli, P. Bousquet, F. Chevallier, A. Fortems-Cheney, S. Szopa, M. Saunois, A. Agusti-Panareda, D. Bergmann, H. Bian, P. Cameron-Smith, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Gloor, S. Houweling, S. R. Kawa, M. Krol, P. K. Patra, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, R. Saito, and C. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9917–9937,
A. T. Brown, M. P. Chipperfield, S. Dhomse, C. Boone, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
D. S. Moreira, S. R. Freitas, J. P. Bonatti, L. M. Mercado, N. M. É. Rosário, K. M. Longo, J. B. Miller, M. Gloor, and L. V. Gatti
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1243–1259,
P. D. Hamer, V. Marécal, R. Hossaini, M. Pirre, N. Warwick, M. Chipperfield, A. A. Samah, N. Harris, A. Robinson, B. Quack, A. Engel, K. Krüger, E. Atlas, K. Subramaniam, D. Oram, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, G. Mills, K. Pfeilsticker, S. Sala, T. Keber, H. Bönisch, L. K. Peng, M. S. M. Nadzir, P. T. Lim, A. Mujahid, A. Anton, H. Schlager, V. Catoire, G. Krysztofiak, S. Fühlbrügge, M. Dorf, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
S. Kreycy, C. Camy-Peyret, M. P. Chipperfield, M. Dorf, W. Feng, R. Hossaini, L. Kritten, B. Werner, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6263–6274,
A. Fraser, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, H. Boesch, A. Cogan, R. Parker, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, R. L. Langenfelds, S. O'Doherty, R. G. Prinn, L. P. Steele, M. van der Schoot, and R. F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5697–5713,
N. A. D. Richards, S. R. Arnold, M. P. Chipperfield, G. Miles, A. Rap, R. Siddans, S. A. Monks, and M. J. Hollaway
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2331–2345,
M. Reuter, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, A. Bril, M. Buchwitz, A. Butz, J. P. Burrows, C. W. O'Dell, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, J. Heymann, N. Kikuchi, S. Oshchepkov, R. Parker, S. Pfeifer, O. Schneising, T. Yokota, and Y. Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1771–1780,
D. A. Belikov, S. Maksyutov, M. Krol, A. Fraser, M. Rigby, H. Bian, A. Agusti-Panareda, D. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, P. Cameron-Smith, M. P. Chipperfield, A. Fortems-Cheiney, E. Gloor, K. Haynes, P. Hess, S. Houweling, S. R. Kawa, R. M. Law, Z. Loh, L. Meng, P. I. Palmer, P. K. Patra, R. G. Prinn, R. Saito, and C. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1093–1114,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalMIPAS ozone retrieval version 8: middle-atmosphere measurementsAtmospheric N2O and CH4 total columns retrieved from low-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra (Bruker VERTEX 70) in the mid-infrared regionA new accurate retrieval algorithm of bromine monoxide columns inside minor volcanic plumes from Sentinel-5P TROPOMI observationsEstimation of anthropogenic and volcanic SO2 emissions from satellite data in the presence of snow/ice on the groundThe IASI NH3 version 4 product: averaging kernels and improved consistencyA physically based correction for stray light in Brewer spectrophotometer data analysisA research product for tropospheric NO2 columns from Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer based on Peking University OMI NO2 algorithmMethane retrievals from airborne HySpex observations in the shortwave infraredFeasibility analysis of optimal terahertz (THz) bands for passive limb sounding of middle and upper atmospheric windRetrieval of temperature and humidity profiles from ground-based high-resolution infrared observations using an adaptive fast iterative algorithmA retrieval of xCO2 from ground-based mid-infrared NDACC solar absorption spectra and comparison to TCCONAirborne observation with a low-cost hyperspectral instrument: Retrieval of NO2 VCD and the satellite sub-grid variability over industrial point sourcesOptimal estimation retrieval of tropospheric ammonia from the Geostationary Interferometric Infrared Sounder on board FengYun-4BStratospheric-trace-gas-profile retrievals from balloon-borne limb imaging of mid-infrared emission spectraLevel0-to-Level1B processor for MethaneAIRDiurnal carbon monoxide observed from a geostationary infrared hyperspectral sounder: first result from GIIRS on board FengYun-4BVertical information of CO from TROPOMI total column measurements in context of the CAMS-IFS data assimilation schemeThe GeoCarb greenhouse gas retrieval algorithm: Simulations and sensitivity to sources of uncertaintyInferring the vertical distribution of CO and CO2 from TCCON total column values using the TARDISS algorithmCH4Net: a deep learning model for monitoring methane super-emitters with Sentinel-2 imageryEstimation of NO2 emission strengths over Riyadh and Madrid from space from a combination of wind-assigned anomalies and a machine learning techniqueMichelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research/Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía version 8 retrieval of nitric oxide and lower-thermospheric temperatureNear-real-time detection of unexpected atmospheric events using principal component analysis on the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) radiancesDifferences in MOPITT surface level CO retrievals and trends from Level 2 and Level 3 products in coastal grid boxesUpdated merged SAGE-CCI-OMPS+ dataset for the evaluation of ozone trends in the stratosphereA non-linear data driven approach to bias correction of XCO2 for OCO-2 NASA ACOS version 10Accounting for meteorological biases in simulated plumes using smarter metricsAccounting for surface reflectance spectral features in TROPOMI methane retrievalsInvestigation of three-dimensional radiative transfer effects for UV–Vis satellite and ground-based observations of volcanic plumesRetrievals of precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical depth from direct sun measurements with EKO MS711 and MS712 spectroradiometersUpdate on the GOSAT TANSO–FTS SWIR Level 2 retrieval algorithmCorrecting 3D cloud effects in XCO2 retrievals from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)Version 8 IMK–IAA MIPAS ozone profiles: nominal observation modeUsing portable low-resolution spectrometers to evaluate Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) biases in North AmericaA new algorithm to generate a priori trace gas profiles for the GGG2020 retrieval algorithmHighly resolved mapping of NO2 vertical column densities from GeoTASO measurements over a megacity and industrial area during the KORUS-AQ campaignAdvances in retrieving XCH4 and XCO from Sentinel-5 Precursor: improvements in the scientific TROPOMI/WFMD algorithmUse of machine learning and principal component analysis to retrieve nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with hyperspectral imagers and reduce noise in spectral fittingUnderstanding the variations and sources of CO, C2H2, C2H6, H2CO, and HCN columns based on 3 years of new ground-based Fourier transform infrared measurements at Xianghe, ChinaDetecting and quantifying methane emissions from oil and gas production: algorithm development with ground-truth calibration based on Sentinel-2 satellite imageryAn improved formula for the complete data fusionTUNER-compliant error estimation for MIPAS: methodologySynergistic retrieval and complete data fusion methods applied to simulated FORUM and IASI-NG measurementsRetrieval of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 from high-resolution FTIR observations at Hefei and comparisons with other independent datasetsEvaluation of the methane full-physics retrieval applied to TROPOMI ocean sun glint measurementsHarmonized retrieval of middle atmospheric ozone from two microwave radiometers in SwitzerlandAssessment of the error budget for stratospheric ozone profiles retrieved from OMPS limb scatter measurementsAlgorithm theoretical basis for ozone and sulfur dioxide retrievals from DSCOVR EPICImpact of 3D cloud structures on the atmospheric trace gas products from UV–Vis sounders – Part 2: Impact on NO2 retrieval and mitigation strategiesTropospheric ozone retrieval by a combination of TROPOMI/S5P measurements with BASCOE assimilated data
Manuel López-Puertas, Maya García-Comas, Bernd Funke, Thomas von Clarmann, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Sylvia Kellmann, Michael Kiefer, Alexandra Laeng, Andrea Linden, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5609–5645,Short summary
This paper describes a new version (V8) of ozone data from MIPAS middle-atmosphere spectra. The dataset comprises high-quality ozone profiles from 20 to 100 km, with pole-to-pole latitude coverage for the day- and nighttime, spanning 2005 until 2012. An exhaustive treatment of errors has been performed. Compared to other satellite instruments, MIPAS ozone shows a positive bias of 5 %–8 % below 70 km. In the upper mesosphere, this new version agrees much better than previous ones (within 10 %).
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Christof Petri, Justus Notholt, Huilin Chen, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5593–5608,Short summary
Atmospheric N2O and CH4 columns are successfully retrieved from low-resolution FTIR spectra recorded by a Bruker VERTEX 70. The 1-year measurements at Sodankylä show that the N2O total columns retrieved from 125HR and VERTEX 70 spectra are −0.3 ± 0.7 % with an R value of 0.93. The relative differences between the CH4 total columns retrieved from the 125HR and VERTEX spectra are 0.0 ± 0.8 % with an R value of 0.87. Such a technique can help to fill the gap in NDACC N2O and CH4 measurements.
Simon Warnach, Holger Sihler, Christian Borger, Nicole Bobrowski, Steffen Beirle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5537–5573,Short summary
BrO inside volcanic gas plumes but can be used in combination with SO2 to characterize the volcanic property and its activity state. High-quality satellite observations can provide a global inventory of this important quantity. This paper investigates how to accurately detect BrO inside volcanic plumes from the satellite UV spectrum. A sophisticated novel non-volcanic background correction scheme is presented, and systematic errors including cross-interference with formaldehyde are minimized.
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Nicolas Theys, and Simon Carn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5575–5592,Short summary
Snow-covered terrain, with its high reflectance in the UV, typically enhances satellite sensitivity to boundary layer pollution. However, a significant fraction of high-quality cloud-free measurements over snow is currently excluded from analyses. In this study, we investigated how satellite SO2 measurements over snow-covered surfaces can be used to improve estimations of annual SO2 emissions.
Lieven Clarisse, Bruno Franco, Martin Van Damme, Tommaso Di Gioacchino, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Simon Whitburn, Lara Noppen, Daniel Hurtmans, Cathy Clerbaux, and Pierre Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5009–5028,Short summary
Ammonia is an important atmospheric pollutant. This article presents version 4 of the algorithm which retrieves ammonia abundances from the infrared measurements of the satellite sounder IASI. A measurement operator is introduced that can emulate the measurements (so-called averaging kernels) and measurement uncertainty is better characterized. Several other changes to the product itself are also documented, most of which improve the temporal consistency of the 2007–2022 IASI NH3 dataset.
Vladimir Savastiouk, Henri Diémoz, and C. Thomas McElroy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4785–4806,Short summary
This paper describes a way to significantly improve ozone measurements at low sun elevations and large ozone amounts when using the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer. The proposed algorithm will allow more uniform ozone measurements across the monitoring network. This will contribute to more reliable trend analysis and support the satellite validation. This research contributes to better understanding the physics of the instrument, and the new algorithm is based on this new knowledge.
Yuhang Zhang, Jintai Lin, Jhoon Kim, Hanlim Lee, Junsung Park, Hyunkee Hong, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, Qin He, Kai Qin, Yongjoo Choi, Yugo Kanaya, Jin Xu, Pinhua Xie, Xin Tian, Sanbao Zhang, Shanshan Wang, Siyang Cheng, Xinghong Cheng, Jianzhong Ma, Thomas Wagner, Robert Spurr, Lulu Chen, Hao Kong, and Mengyao Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4643–4665,Short summary
Our tropospheric NO2 vertical column density product with high spatiotemporal resolution is based on the Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) and named POMINO–GEMS. Strong hotspot signals and NO2 diurnal variations are clearly seen. Validations with multiple satellite products and ground-based, mobile car and surface measurements exhibit the overall great performance of the POMINO–GEMS product, indicating its capability for application in environmental studies.
Philipp Hochstaffl, Franz Schreier, Claas Henning Köhler, Andreas Baumgartner, and Daniele Cerra
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4195–4214,Short summary
The study examines methane enhancements inferred from hyperspectral imaging observations using different retrieval schemes. One of the core challenges is the high spatial and moderate spectral resolution as it makes separation of spectral variations caused by molecular absorption and surface reflectivity challenging. It was found that localized methane enhancements can be detected and quantified from HySpex airborne observations using various retrieval schemes.
Wenyu Wang, Jian Xu, and Zhenzhan Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4137–4153,Short summary
This article presents a study for feasibility analysis of atmospheric wind measurement using a terahertz (THz) passive limb radiometer with high spectral resolution. The simulations show that line-of-sight wind from 40 to 120 km can be obtained better than 10 m s−1 (at most altitudes it is better than 5 m s−1) using the O3, O2, H2O, and OI bands. This study will provide reference for future payload design.
Wei Huang, Lei Liu, Bin Yang, Shuai Hu, Wanying Yang, Zhenfeng Li, Wantong Li, and Xiaofan Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4101–4114,Short summary
To improve the retrieval speed of the AERI optimal estimation (AERIoe) method, a fast-retrieval algorithm named Fast AERIoe is proposed on the basis of the findings that the change in Jacobians during the retrieval process had little effect on the performance of AERIoe. The results of the experiment show that the retrieved profiles from Fast AERIoe are comparable to those of AERIoe and that the retrieval speed is significantly improved, with the average retrieval time reduced by 59 %.
Rafaella Chiarella, Matthias Buschmann, Joshua Laughner, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Geoffrey Toon, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3987–4007,Short summary
The goal is to establish a window and strategy for xCO2 retrieval from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers for NDACC. In the study we describe the spectroscopy of the region, the locations and instruments used, and the methods of calculating the retrieved xCO2. We performed tests to assess the sensitivity to diverse factors and sources of errors while comparing the retrieval to a well-established xCO2 retrieval from TCCON.
Jong-Uk Park, Hyun-Jae Kim, Jin-Soo Park, Jinsoo Choi, Sang Seo Park, Kangho Bae, Jong-Jae Lee, Chang-Keun Song, Soojin Park, Kyuseok Shim, Yeonsoo Cho, and Sang-Woo Kim
The high spatial resolution NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) were measured from the airborne observations using the low-cost Hyperspectral Imaging Sensor (HIS) at three industrial areas in Korea with the newly developed versatile NO2 VCD retrieval algorithm apt to be applied to the instruments with volatile optical/radiometric properties. The airborne HIS observation emphasized the intensifying satellite sub-grid variability of NO2 VCD near the emission sources.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Lu Lee, Chengli Qi, Lieven Clarisse, and Martin Van Damme
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3693–3713,Short summary
This study presents an NH3 retrieval algorithm based on the optimal estimation method for the Geostationary Interferometric Infrared Sounder (GIIRS) on board China’s FengYun-4B satellite (FY-4B/GIIRS). Retrieval results demonstrate the capability of FY-4B/GIIRS in capturing the diurnal NH3 changes in East Asia. This operational geostationary observation by FY-4B/GIIRS represents an important advancement over the twice-per-day observations provided by current low-Earth-orbit (LEO) instruments.
Ethan Runge, Jeff Langille, Daniel Zawada, Adam Bourassa, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3123–3139,Short summary
The Limb Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer Experiment (LIFE) instrument takes vertical images of limb radiance across a wide mid-infrared spectral band from a stratospheric balloon. Measurements are used to infer vertical-trace-gas-profile retrievals of H2O, O3, HNO3, CH4, and N2O. Nearly time-/space-coincident observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments are compared to the LIFE results.
Eamon K. Conway, Amir H. Souri, Joshua Benmergui, Kang Sun, Xiong Liu, Carly Staebell, Christopher Chan Miller, Jonathan Franklin, Jenna Samra, Jonas Wilzewski, Sebastien Roche, Bingkun Luo, Apisada Chulakadabba, Maryann Sargent, Jacob Hohl, Bruce Daube, Iouli Gordon, Kelly Chance, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The work presented here describes the processes required to convert raw sensor data for the MethaneAIR instrument to geometrically calibrated data. Each algorithm is described in detail. MethaneAIR is the airborne simulator for MethaneSAT, a new satellite under development by MethaneSAT LLC, a subsidiary of the EDF. MethaneSAT’s goals are to precisely map over 80 % of the production sources of methane emissions from oil and gas fields across the globe to a high degree of accuracy.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Lu Lee, and Chengli Qi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3059–3083,Short summary
Observations from geostationary orbit provide contiguous coverage with a high temporal resolution, representing an important advancement over current low-Earth-orbit instruments. Using measurements from GIIRS on board China's FengYun satellite, the world’s first geostationary hyperspectral infrared sounder, we showed the first results of diurnal CO in eastern Asia from a geostationary orbit, which will have great potential in improving local and global air quality and climate research.
Tobias Borsdorff, Teresa Campos, Natalie Kille, Kyle J. Zarzana, Rainer Volkamer, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3027–3038,Short summary
ECMWF plans to assimilate TROPOMI CO with their CAMS-IFS model. This will constrain the total column and the vertical CO distribution of the model. To show this, we combine individual TROPOMI CO column retrievals with different vertical sensitivities and obtain a vertical CO concentration profile. We test the approach on three CO pollution events in comparison with CAMS-IFS simulations that do not assimilate TROPOMI CO data and in situ airborne measurements of the BB-FLUX campaign.
Gregory R. McGarragh, Christopher W. O'Dell, Sean M. R. Crowell, Peter Somkuti, Eric B. Burgh, and Berrien Moore III
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases that have been rapidly increasing due to human activity since the industrial revolution leading to global warming and subsequently negative affects on the climate. It is important to measure the concentrations of these gases in order to make climate predictions that drive policy changes to mitigate climate change. GeoCarb aims to measure the concentrations of these gases from space over the Americas at unprecedented spatial and temporal scales.
Harrison A. Parker, Joshua L. Laughner, Geoffrey C. Toon, Debra Wunch, Coleen M. Roehl, Laura T. Iraci, James R. Podolske, Kathryn McKain, Bianca C. Baier, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2601–2625,Short summary
We describe a retrieval algorithm for determining limited information about the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from total column observations from ground-based observations. Our retrieved partial column values compare well with integrated in situ data. The average error for our retrieval is 1.51 ppb (~ 2 %) for CO and 5.09 ppm (~ 1.25 %) for CO2. We anticipate that this approach will find broad application for use in carbon cycle science.
Anna Vaughan, Gonzalo Mateo-García, Luis Gómez-Chova, Vít Růžička, Luis Guanter, and Itziar Irakulis-Loitxate
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas responsible for around 25 % of global warming since the industrial revolution. Consequently identifying and mitigating methane emissions is an important step in combating the climate crisis. We develop a new deep learning model to automatically detect methane plumes from satellite images, and demonstrate that this can be applied to monitor large methane emissions resulting from the oil and gas industry.
Qiansi Tu, Frank Hase, Zihan Chen, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Shuo Chen, Thomas Blumenstock, Fang Liu, Kai Qin, Jason Cohen, Qin He, Song Lin, Hongyan Jiang, and Dianjun Fang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2237–2262,Short summary
Four-year TROPOMI observations are used to derive tropospheric NO2 emissions in two mega(cities) with high anthropogenic activity. Wind-assigned anomalies are calculated, and the emission rates and spatial patterns are estimated based on a machine learning algorithm. The results are in reasonable agreement with previous studies and the inventory. Our method is quite robust and can be used as a simple method to estimate the emissions of NO2 as well as other gases in other regions.
Bernd Funke, Maya García-Comas, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Sylvia Kellmann, Michael Kiefer, Andrea Linden, Manuel López-Puertas, Gabriele P. Stiller, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2167–2196,Short summary
New global nitric oxide (NO) volume-mixing-ratio and lower-thermospheric temperature data products, retrieved from Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) spectra with the IMK-IAA MIPAS data processor, have been released. The dataset covers the entire Envisat mission lifetime and includes retrieval results from all MIPAS observation modes. The data are based on ESA version 8 calibration and were processed using an improved retrieval approach.
Adrien Vu Van, Anne Boynard, Pascal Prunet, Dominique Jolivet, Olivier Lezeaux, Patrice Henry, Claude Camy-Peyret, Lieven Clarisse, Bruno Franco, Pierre-François Coheur, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2107–2127,Short summary
With its near-real-time observations and good horizontal coverage, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument can contribute to the monitoring systems for a systematic and continuous detection of exceptional atmospheric events such as fires, anthropogenic pollution episodes, volcanic eruptions, or industrial releases. In this paper, a new approach is described for the detection and characterization of unexpected events in terms of trace gases using IASI radiance spectra.
Ian Ashpole and Aldona Wiacek
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1923–1949,Short summary
The MOPITT instrument has been measuring atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from space since 2000. Its data products are valuable for CO trend analysis. This paper compares products with different spatial resolutions to identify discrepancies in mean CO amounts and detectable trends for coastal grid boxes. It is found that CO amounts and trends differ significantly between data products for a large number of these grid boxes, essentially due to how the coarser-resolution products are created.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Monika Szelag, Johanna Tamminen, Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Doug Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Daniel Zawada, Michael Kiefer, Alexandra Laeng, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Sheese, Daan Hubert, Michel van Roozendael, Christian Retscher, Robert Damadeo, and Jerry D. Lumpe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1881–1899,Short summary
The paper presents the updated SAGE-CCI-OMPS+ climate data record of monthly zonal mean ozone profiles. This dataset covers the stratosphere and combines measurements by nine limb and occultation satellite instruments (SAGE II, OSIRIS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, GOMOS, ACE-FTS, OMPS-LP, POAM III, and SAGE III/ISS). The update includes new versions of MIPAS, ACE-FTS, and OSIRIS datasets and introduces data from additional sensors (POAM III and SAGE III/ISS) and retrieval processors (OMPS-LP).
William R. Keely, Steffen Mauceri, Sean Crowell, and Christopher W. O'Dell
Measurement errors in satellite observations of CO2 attributed to co-estimated atmospheric variables are corrected using a linear regression on quality filtered data. We propose a non-linear method that improves correction against a set of ground truth proxies, and allows for high throughput of well corrected data.
Pierre J. Vanderbecken, Joffrey Dumont Le Brazidec, Alban Farchi, Marc Bocquet, Yelva Roustan, Élise Potier, and Grégoire Broquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1745–1766,Short summary
Instruments dedicated to monitoring atmospheric gaseous compounds from space will provide images of urban-scale plumes. We discuss here the use of new metrics to compare observed plumes with model predictions that will be less sensitive to meteorology uncertainties. We have evaluated our metrics on diverse plumes and shown that by eliminating some aspects of the discrepancies, they are indeed less sensitive to meteorological variations.
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Mari C. Martinez-Velarte, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1597–1608,Short summary
In the TROPOMI methane data, there are few false methane anomalies that can be misinterpreted as enhancements caused by strong emission sources. These artefacts are caused by features of the underlying surfaces that are not well characterized in the retrieval algorithm. Here we improve the representation of the surface reflectance dependency with wavelength in the forward model, removing the artificial localized CH4 enhancements found in several locations like Siberia, Australia and Algeria.
Thomas Wagner, Simon Warnach, Steffen Beirle, Nicole Bobrowski, Adrian Jost, Janis Puķīte, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1609–1662,Short summary
We investigate 3D effects of volcanic plumes on the retrieval results of satellite and ground-based UV–Vis observations. With its small ground pixels of 3.5 x 5.5 km², the TROPOMI instrument can detect much smaller volcanic plumes than previous instruments. At the same time, 3D effects become important. The effect of horizontal photon paths especially can lead to a strong underestimation of the derived plume contents of up to > 50 %, which can be further increased for strong absorbers like SO2.
Congcong Qiao, Song Liu, Juan Huo, Xihan Mu, Ping Wang, Shengjie Jia, Xuehua Fan, and Minzheng Duan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1539–1549,Short summary
We established a spectral-fitting method to derive precipitable water vapor (PWV) and aerosol optical depth based on a strict radiative transfer theory by the spectral measurements of direct sun from EKO MS711 and MS712 spectroradiometers. The retrievals were compared with that of the colocated CE-318 photometer; the results showed a high degree of consistency. In the PWV inversion, a strong water vapor absorption band around 1370 nm is introduced to retrieve PWV in a relatively dry atmosphere.
Yu Someya, Yukio Yoshida, Hirofumi Ohyama, Shohei Nomura, Akihide Kamei, Isamu Morino, Hitoshi Mukai, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Joshua L. Laughner, Voltaire A. Velazco, Benedikt Herkommer, Yao Té, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Rigel Kivi, Minqiang Zhou, Young Suk Oh, Nicholas M. Deutscher, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1477–1501,Short summary
The updated retrieval algorithm for the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite level 2 product is presented. The main changes in the algorithm from the previous one are the treatment of cirrus clouds, the degradation model of the sensor, solar irradiance, and gas absorption coefficient tables. The retrieval results showed improvements in fitting accuracy and an increase in the data amount over land. On the other hand, there are still large biases of XCO2 which should be corrected over the ocean.
Steffen Mauceri, Steven Massie, and Sebastian Schmidt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1461–1476,Short summary
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 makes space-based measurements of reflected sunlight. Using a retrieval algorithm these measurements are converted to CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. However, the converted CO2 concentrations contain errors for observations close to clouds. Using a simple machine learning approach, we developed a model to correct these remaining errors. The model is able to reduce errors over land and ocean by 20 % and 40 %, respectively.
Michael Kiefer, Thomas von Clarmann, Bernd Funke, Maya García-Comas, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Michael Höpfner, Sylvia Kellmann, Alexandra Laeng, Andrea Linden, Manuel López-Puertas, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1443–1460,Short summary
A new ozone data set, derived from radiation measurements of the space-borne instrument MIPAS, is presented. It consists of more than 2 million single ozone profiles from 2002–2012, covering virtually all latitudes and altitudes between 5 and 70 km. Progress in data calibration and processing methods allowed for significant improvement of the data quality, compared to previous data versions. Hence, the data set will help to better understand e.g. the time evolution of ozone in the stratosphere.
Nasrin Mostafavi Pak, Jacob K. Hedelius, Sébastien Roche, Liz Cunningham, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, Coleen Roehl, Joshua Laughner, Geoffrey Toon, Paul Wennberg, Harrison Parker, Colin Arrowsmith, Joseph Mendonca, Pierre Fogal, Tyler Wizenberg, Beatriz Herrera, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, Felix Vogel, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1239–1261,Short summary
Ground-based remote sensing instruments in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) measure greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Consistency between TCCON measurements is crucial to accurately infer changes in atmospheric composition. We use portable remote sensing instruments (EM27/SUN) to evaluate biases between TCCON stations in North America. We also improve the retrievals of EM27/SUN instruments and evaluate the previous (GGG2014) and newest (GGG2020) retrieval algorithms.
Joshua L. Laughner, Sébastien Roche, Matthäus Kiel, Geoffrey C. Toon, Debra Wunch, Bianca C. Baier, Sébastien Biraud, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Thomas Laemmel, Kathryn McKain, Pierre-Yves Quéhé, Constantina Rousogenous, Britton B. Stephens, Kaley Walker, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1121–1146,Short summary
Observations using sunlight to measure surface-to-space total column of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere need an initial guess of the vertical distribution of those gases to start from. We have developed an approach to provide those initial guess profiles that uses readily available meteorological data as input. This lets us make these guesses without simulating them with a global model. The profiles generated this way match independent observations well.
Gyo-Hwang Choo, Kyunghwa Lee, Hyunkee Hong, Ukkyo Jeong, Wonei Choi, and Scott J. Janz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 625–644,Short summary
This study discusses the morning and afternoon distribution of NO2 emissions in large cities and industrial areas in South Korea, one of the largest NO2 emitters around the world, using GeoTASO, an airborne remote sensing instrument developed to support geostationary satellite missions. NO2 measurements from GeoTASO were compared with those from ground-based remote sensing instruments including Pandora and in situ sensors.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Jonas Hachmeister, Steffen Vanselow, Maximilian Reuter, Matthias Buschmann, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 669–694,Short summary
Methane and carbon monoxide are important constituents of the atmosphere in the context of climate change and air pollution. We present the latest advances in the TROPOMI/WFMD algorithm to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric methane and carbon monoxide abundances from space. The changes in the latest product version are described in detail, and the resulting improvements are demonstrated. An overview of the products is provided including a discussion of annual increases and validation results.
Joanna Joiner, Sergey Marchenko, Zachary Fasnacht, Lok Lamsal, Can Li, Alexander Vasilkov, and Nickolay Krotkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 481–500,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important trace gas for both air quality and climate. NO2 affects satellite ocean color products. A new ocean color instrument – OCI (Ocean Color Instrument) – will be launched in 2024 on a NASA satellite. We show that it will be possible to measure NO2 from OCI even though it was not designed for this. The techniques developed here, based on machine learning, can also be applied to instruments already in space to speed up algorithms and reduce the effects of noise.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Pucai Wang, Corinne Vigouroux, Qichen Ni, Christian Hermans, Bart Dils, Nicolas Kumps, Weidong Nan, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 273–293,Short summary
The ground-based FTIR measurements at Xianghe provide carbon monoxide (CO), acetylene (C2H2), ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns between June 2018 and November 2021. The retrieval strategies, information, and uncertainties of these five important trace gases are presented and discussed. This study provides insight into the time series, variations, and correlations of these five species in northern China.
Zhan Zhang, Evan D. Sherwin, Daniel J. Varon, and Adam R. Brandt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7155–7169,Short summary
This work developed a multi-band–multi-pass–multi-comparison-date Sentinel-2 methane retrieval algorithm, and the method was calibrated by data from a controlled release test. To our knowledge, this is the first study that validates the performance of a Sentinel-2 methane detection algorithm by calibration with a ground-truth testing. It illustrates the potential for additional validation with systematic future experiments wherein algorithms can be tuned to meet different detection expectations.
Simone Ceccherini, Nicola Zoppetti, and Bruno Carli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7039–7048,Short summary
A new formula of the complete data fusion that, differently from the original one, does not contain matrices that can be singular is discussed. We show that the new formula is a generalization of the original one and analytically and numerically, using a real IASI ozone measurement, derive the errors made with the old formula when the generalized inverse of singular matrices is used. An operational version of the new formula that includes interpolation and coincidence errors is also provided.
Thomas von Clarmann, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Bernd Funke, Michael Kiefer, Anne Kleinert, Gabriele P. Stiller, Andrea Linden, and Sylvia Kellmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6991–7018,Short summary
Errors of profiles of temperature and mixing ratios retrieved from spectra recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding are estimated. All known and quantified sources of uncertainty are considered. Some ongoing uncertaities contribute to both the random and to the systematic errors. In some cases, one source of uncertainty propagates onto the error budget via multiple pathways. Problems arise when the correlations of errors to be propagated are unknown.
Marco Ridolfi, Cecilia Tirelli, Simone Ceccherini, Claudio Belotti, Ugo Cortesi, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6723–6737,Short summary
Synergistic retrieval (SR) and complete data fusion (CDF) methods exploit the complementarity of coinciding remote-sensing measurements. We assess the performance of the SR and CDF methods on the basis of synthetic measurements of the FORUM and IASI-NG missions. In the case of perfectly matching measurements, SR and CDF results differ by less than 1 / 10 of the error due to measurement noise. In the case of a realistic mismatch, the two methods show differences in the order of their error bars.
Xiangyu Zeng, Wei Wang, Cheng Liu, Changgong Shan, Yu Xie, Peng Wu, Qianqian Zhu, Minqiang Zhou, Martine De Mazière, Emmanuel Mahieu, Irene Pardo Cantos, Jamal Makkor, and Alexander Polyakov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6739–6754,Short summary
CFC-11 and CFC-12, which are classified as ozone-depleting substances, also have high global warming potentials. This paper describes obtaining the CFC-11 and CFC-12 total columns from the solar spectra based on ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at Hefei, China. The seasonal variation and annual trend of the two gases are analyzed, and then the data are compared with other independent datasets.
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Mari C. Martinez-Velarte, Andre Butz, Otto P. Hasekamp, Lianghai Wu, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6585–6603,Short summary
The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) performs observations over ocean in every orbit, enhancing the monitoring capabilities of methane from space. In the sun glint geometry the mirror-like reflection at the water surface provides a signal that is high enough to retrieve methane with high accuracy and precision. We present 4 years of methane concentrations over the ocean, and we assess its quality. We also show the importance of ocean observations to quantify total CH4 emissions.
Eric Sauvageat, Eliane Maillard Barras, Klemens Hocke, Alexander Haefele, and Axel Murk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6395–6417,Short summary
We present new harmonized ozone time series from two ground-based microwave radiometers in Switzerland. The new series consist of hourly ozone profiles in the middle atmosphere (~ 20–70 km) from 2009 until 2021. Cross-validation of the new data series shows the benefit of the harmonization process compared to the previous versions. Comparisons with collocated satellite observations is used to further validate these time series for long-term ozone monitoring over central Europe.
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Victor Gorshelev, Alexandra Laeng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5949–5967,Short summary
This paper characterizes the uncertainties affecting the ozone profiles retrieved at the University of Bremen through OMPS limb satellite observations. An accurate knowledge of the uncertainties is relevant for the validation of the product and to correctly interpret the retrieval results. We investigate several sources of uncertainties, estimate a total random and systematic component, and verify the consistency of the combined OMPS-MLS total uncertainty.
Xinzhou Huang and Kai Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5877–5915,Short summary
This paper describes the algorithm for O3 and SO2 retrievals from DSCOVR EPIC. Algorithm advances, including the improved O3 profile representation and the regulated direct fitting inversion technique, improve the accuracy of O3 and SO2 from the multi-channel measurements of DSCOVR EPIC. A thorough error analysis is provided to quantify O3 and SO2 retrieval uncertainties due to various error sources and simplified algorithm physics treatments.
Huan Yu, Claudia Emde, Arve Kylling, Ben Veihelmann, Bernhard Mayer, Kerstin Stebel, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5743–5768,Short summary
In this study, we have investigated the impact of 3D clouds on the tropospheric NO2 retrieval from UV–visible sensors. We applied standard NO2 retrieval methods including cloud corrections to synthetic data generated by the 3D radiative transfer model. A sensitivity study was done for synthetic data, and dependencies on various parameters were investigated. Possible mitigation strategies were investigated and compared based on 3D simulations and observed data.
Klaus-Peter Heue, Diego Loyola, Fabian Romahn, Walter Zimmer, Simon Chabrillat, Quentin Errera, Jerry Ziemke, and Natalya Kramarova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5563–5579,Short summary
To retrieve tropospheric ozone column information, we subtract stratospheric column data of BASCOE from TROPOMI/S5P total ozone columns. The new S5P-BASCOE data agree well with existing tropospheric data like OMPS-MERRA-2. The data are also compared to ozone soundings. The tropospheric ozone columns show the expected temporal and spatial patterns. We will also apply the algorithm to future UV nadir missions like Sentinel 4 or 5 or to recent and ongoing missions like GOME_2 or OMI.
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Methane emissions are responsible for a lot of the warming caused by the greenhouse effect, much of which comes from a small number of point sources. We can identify methane point sources by analysing satellite data, but it requires a lot of time invested by experts and is prone to very high errors. Here, we produce a neural network that can automatically identify methane point sources and estimate the mass of methane that is being released per hour and are able to do so with far smaller errors.
Methane emissions are responsible for a lot of the warming caused by the greenhouse effect, much...