Articles | Volume 8, issue 1
Research article 13 Jan 2015
Research article | 13 Jan 2015
Development and validation of inexpensive, automated, dynamic flux chambers
B. B. Almand-Hunter et al.
No articles found.
Sarah Waldo, Jake J. Beaulieu, William Barnett, D. Adam Balz, Michael J. Vanni, Tanner Williamson, and John T. Walker
Biogeosciences, 18, 5291–5311,Short summary
Human-made reservoirs impact the carbon cycle. In particular, the breakdown of organic matter in reservoir sediments can result in large emissions of greenhouse gases (especially methane) to the atmosphere. This study takes an intensive look at the patterns in greenhouse gas emissions from a single reservoir in Ohio (United States) and the role of water temperature, precipitation, and algal blooms in emissions. We saw a "spring burst" of elevated emissions that challenged our assumptions.
Zhiyong Wu, Leiming Zhang, John T. Walker, Paul A. Makar, Judith A. Perlinger, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5093–5105,Short summary
A community dry deposition algorithm for modeling the gaseous dry deposition process in chemistry transport models was extended to include an additional 12 oxidized volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide based on their physicochemical properties and was then evaluated using field flux measurements over a mixed forest. This study provides a useful tool that is needed in chemistry transport models with increasing complexity for simulating an important atmospheric process.
Havala O. T. Pye, Athanasios Nenes, Becky Alexander, Andrew P. Ault, Mary C. Barth, Simon L. Clegg, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Christopher J. Hennigan, Hartmut Herrmann, Maria Kanakidou, James T. Kelly, I-Ting Ku, V. Faye McNeill, Nicole Riemer, Thomas Schaefer, Guoliang Shi, Andreas Tilgner, John T. Walker, Tao Wang, Rodney Weber, Jia Xing, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4809–4888,Short summary
Acid rain is recognized for its impacts on human health and ecosystems, and programs to mitigate these effects have had implications for atmospheric acidity. Historical measurements indicate that cloud and fog droplet acidity has changed in recent decades in response to controls on emissions from human activity, while the limited trend data for suspended particles indicate acidity may be relatively constant. This review synthesizes knowledge on the acidity of atmospheric particles and clouds.
Xi Chen, Mingjie Xie, Michael D. Hays, Eric Edgerton, Donna Schwede, and John T. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6829–6846,
Xi Chen, John T. Walker, and Chris Geron
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3893–3908,Short summary
The MARGA instrument is a powerful research tool for investigating atmospheric chemistry and the exchange of gases and particles between the atmosphere and biosphere. Our study examines the operating characteristics of the instrument with a focus on the software used to calculate air concentrations. We show that more accurate measurements may be obtained by calibrating the instrument with a range of standards in addition to the single internal standard used in online concentration calculations.
Ian C. Rumsey and John T. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2581–2592,Short summary
The performance of the MARGA (Monitor of AeRosols and GAses in ambient air) instrument in measuring speciated nitrogen and sulfur fluxes is evaluated for the first time. The results demonstrate that the MARGA instrument can be used to make accurate measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur deposition. These measurements are urgently needed to evaluate chemical transport models and develop risk assessments and mitigation strategies to protect ecosystems from nutrient and acidic deposition.
Nicholas Clements, Michael P. Hannigan, Shelly L. Miller, Jennifer L. Peel, and Jana B. Milford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7469–7484,Short summary
Coarse and fine particulate matter were monitored in Denver and Greeley, Colorado from 2009 to early 2012 as part of the Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study. The study assessed spatial and temporal variability of PM10−2.5 and PM2.5, relationships between pollutants and meteorology, and source patterns in urban and rural environments in semi-arid northeastern Colorado. In future studies, health impacts of PM10−2.5 in urban and rural Colorado communities will be assessed.
F. Yu, G. Luo, S. C. Pryor, P. R. Pillai, S. H. Lee, J. Ortega, J. J. Schwab, A. G. Hallar, W. R. Leaitch, V. P. Aneja, J. N. Smith, J. T. Walker, O. Hogrefe, and K. L. Demerjian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13993–14003,Short summary
The role of low-volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF) in the atmosphere is assessed. An empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low-volatility organics significantly overpredicts NPF in the summer. Two different schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America.
R. Piedrahita, Y. Xiang, N. Masson, J. Ortega, A. Collier, Y. Jiang, K. Li, R. P. Dick, Q. Lv, M. Hannigan, and L. Shang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3325–3336,
I. C. Rumsey, K. A. Cowen, J. T. Walker, T. J. Kelly, E. A. Hanft, K. Mishoe, C. Rogers, R. Proost, G. M. Beachley, G. Lear, T. Frelink, and R. P. Otjes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5639–5658,
M. Xie, K. C. Barsanti, M. P. Hannigan, S. J. Dutton, and S. Vedal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7381–7393,
J. O. Bash, E. J. Cooter, R. L. Dennis, J. T. Walker, and J. E. Pleim
Biogeosciences, 10, 1635–1645,
J. T. Walker, M. R. Jones, J. O. Bash, L. Myles, T. Meyers, D. Schwede, J. Herrick, E. Nemitz, and W. Robarge
Biogeosciences, 10, 981–998,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsApplication of a mobile laboratory using a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) for characterisation of volatile organic compounds and atmospheric trace gasesDevelopment of a laser-photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of nitrous acid and hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphereCalibration and assessment of electrochemical low-cost sensors in remote alpine harsh environmentsIntercomparison of IBBCEAS, NitroMAC and FTIR analyses for HONO, NO2 and CH2O measurements during the reaction of NO2 with H2O vapour in the simulation chamber CESAMImpact of ozone and inlet design on the quantification of isoprene-derived organic nitrates by thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS)The Berkeley Environmental Air-quality and CO2 Network: field calibrations of sensor temperature dependence and assessment of network scale CO2 accuracyIodide CIMS and m∕z 62: the detection of HNO3 as NO3− in the presence of PAN, peroxyacetic acid and ozoneAirborne Mid-Infrared Cavity enhanced Absorption spectrometer (AMICA)Ethane measurement by Picarro CRDS G2201-i in laboratory and field conditions: potential and limitationsOn-line solid phase microextraction derivatization for the sensitive determination of multi-oxygenated volatile compounds in airNew photolytic converter for improving aircraft measurements of NO2 via chemiluminescenceThermal dissociation cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for measuring NO2, RO2NO2, and RONO2 in the atmosphereInternal consistency of the IAGOS ozone and carbon monoxide measurements for the last 25 yearsTesting the altitude attribution and vertical resolution of AirCore measurements with a new spiking methodIn situ observations of stratospheric HCl using three-mirror integrated cavity output spectroscopyAn Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Sampling Platform for Atmospheric Water Vapor Isotopes in Polar EnvironmentsLong-term NOx measurements in the remote marine tropical troposphereStudy on the measurement of isoprene by differential optical absorption spectroscopyAirborne measurements of oxygen concentration from the surface to the lower stratosphere and pole to poleImprovements to a laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measuring SO2 – impact on accuracy and precisionThe improved comparative reactivity method (ICRM): measurements of OH reactivity under high-NOx conditions in ambient airObserving system simulation experiments double scientific return of surface-atmosphere synthesisReal-world measurement and mechanical-analysis-based verification of NOx and CO2 emissions from an in-use heavy-duty vehicleAn improved method for atmospheric 14CO measurementsCharacterization of a chemical modulation reactor (CMR) for the measurement of atmospheric concentrations of hydroxyl radicals with a laser-induced fluorescence instrumentComparison of ozone measurement methods in biomass burning smoke: an evaluation under field and laboratory conditionsIn situ observations of greenhouse gases over Europe during the CoMet 1.0 campaign aboard the HALO aircraftCompact and lightweight mid-infrared laser spectrometer for balloon-borne water vapor measurements in the UTLSIntroducing the extended volatility range proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (EVR PTR-MS)Use of an unmanned aircraft system to quantify NOx emissions from a natural gas boilerStationary and portable multipollutant monitors for high-spatiotemporal-resolution air quality studies including online calibrationUAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) – a versatile instrument for trace gas measurements on airborne platformsUnderstanding balloon-borne frost point hygrometer measurements after contamination by mixed-phase cloudsDevelopment of a small unmanned aircraft system to derive CO2 emissions of anthropogenic point sourcesAn in situ gas chromatograph with automatic detector switching between PTR- and EI-TOF-MS: isomer-resolved measurements of indoor airFacility level measurement of offshore oil and gas installations from a medium-sized airborne platform: method development for quantification and source identification of methane emissionsEvaluation and optimization of ICOS atmosphere station data as part of the labeling processOzone deposition to a coastal sea: comparison of eddy covariance observations with reactive air–sea exchange modelsA cavity-enhanced ultraviolet absorption instrument for high-precision, fast-time-response ozone measurementsMass spectrometric multiple soil-gas flux measurement system with a portable high-resolution mass spectrometer (MULTUM) coupled to an automatic chamber for continuous field observationsSimultaneous detection of atmospheric HONO and NO2 utilising an IBBCEAS system based on an iterative algorithmAutonomous airborne mid-infrared spectrometer for high-precision measurements of ethane during the NASA ACT-America studiesBromine Speciation in Volcanic Plumes: New in-situ Derivatization LC-MS Method for the Determination of Gaseous Hydrogen Bromide by Gas Diffusion Denuder SamplingA novel injection technique: using a field-based quantum cascade laser for the analysis of gas samples derived from static chambersMeasurement of NOx and NOy with a thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer (TD-CRDS): instrument characterisation and first deploymentA compact QCL spectrometer for mobile, high-precision methane sensing aboard dronesA compact incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for trace detection of nitrogen oxides, iodine oxide and glyoxal at levels below parts per billion for field applicationsA compact, high-purity source of HONO validated by Fourier transform infrared and thermal-dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopySimultaneous leaf-level measurement of trace gas emissions and photosynthesis with a portable photosynthesis systemCapturing temporal heterogeneity in soil nitrous oxide fluxes with a robust and low-cost automated chamber apparatus
Rebecca L. Wagner, Naomi J. Farren, Jack Davison, Stuart Young, James R. Hopkins, Alastair C. Lewis, David C. Carslaw, and Marvin D. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6083–6100,Short summary
We describe the use of a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) in a mobile laboratory to provide on-road, high spatial and temporal measurements of CO2, CH4, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases. Results are presented that highlight the potential of this platform for developing characterisation methods of different emissions sources in complex urban areas.
Brandon Bottorff, Emily Reidy, Levi Mielke, Sebastien Dusanter, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6039–6056,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl (OH) radicals, the primary oxidant in the atmosphere. Accurate measurements of HONO are thus important to understand the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. A new instrument capable of measuring atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) with high sensitivity is presented, utilizing laser photofragmentation of ambient HONO and subsequent detection of the OH radical fragment.
Federico Dallo, Daniele Zannoni, Jacopo Gabrieli, Paolo Cristofanelli, Francescopiero Calzolari, Fabrizio de Blasi, Andrea Spolaor, Dario Battistel, Rachele Lodi, Warren Raymond Lee Cairns, Ann Mari Fjæraa, Paolo Bonasoni, and Carlo Barbante
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6005–6021,Short summary
Our work showed how the adoption of low-cost technology could be useful in environmental research and monitoring. We focused our work on tropospheric ozone, but we also showed how to make a general purpose low-cost sensing system which may be adapted and optimised to be used in many other case studies. Given the importance of providing quality data, we put a lot of effort in the sensor's calibration, and we believe that our results show how to exploit the potential of the low-cost technology.
Hongming Yi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Aline Gratien, Vincent Michoud, Edouard Pangui, Jean-Francois Doussin, and Weidong Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5701–5715,Short summary
HONO and NO2 play a crucial role in the atmospheric oxidation capacity that affects the regional air quality and global climate. Accurate measurements of HONO are challenging due to the drawback of existing detection methods. Calibration-free high-sensitivity direct, simultaneous measurements of NO2, HONO and CH2O with UV-IBBCEAS provide accurate and fast quantitative analysis of their concentration variation within their lifetime by intercomparison with NOx, FTIR and NitroMAC sensors.
Patrick Dewald, Raphael Dörich, Jan Schuladen, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5501–5519,Short summary
Organic nitrates generated from the reaction between isoprene and the nitrate radical (ISOP-NITs) were detected via their thermal dissociation in heated quartz inlets to nitrogen dioxide monitored by cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent dissociation profiles of ISOP-NITs in the presence of ozone (O3) are broad in contrast to narrow profiles of common reference compounds. We demonstrate that this broadening is caused by O3-assisted reactions of ISOP-NITs on quartz surfaces.
Erin R. Delaria, Jinsol Kim, Helen L. Fitzmaurice, Catherine Newman, Paul J. Wooldridge, Kevin Worthington, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5487–5500,Short summary
The use of a dense network of low-cost CO2 sensors is an attractive option for measuring CO2 emissions in cities. However, these low-cost sensors are also subject to uncertainties. Here, we describe a novel method of field calibration for correcting temperature-related errors in the CO2 sensors deployed in the BEACO2N network. We show that with this temperature correction, we can achieve a sufficiently low network error to allow for the evaluation of CO2 emissions at a neighborhood scale.
Raphael Dörich, Philipp Eger, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5319–5332,Short summary
We demonstrate in laboratory experiments that the formation of IOx anions (formed in reactions of I− with O3) or acetate anions (formed e.g. by the reaction of I− with peracetic acid) results in unexpected sensitivity of an iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (I-CIMS) to HNO3 at a mass-to-charge ratio of 62. This helps explain observations of apparent high daytime levels of N2O5. Airborne measurements using I-CIMS confirm these conclusions.
Corinna Kloss, Vicheith Tan, J. Brian Leen, Garrett L. Madsen, Aaron Gardner, Xu Du, Thomas Kulessa, Johannes Schillings, Herbert Schneider, Stefanie Schrade, Chenxi Qiu, and Marc von Hobe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5271–5297,Short summary
We describe the innovative analyzer
AMICAfor airborne trace gas measurements by infrared spectroscopy. Its design makes it robust and allows for sensitive measurements. AMICA has been used on two different aircraft for measuring gases including carbonyl sulfide, carbon monoxide and ozone. With fairly simple adaptions, AMICA can measure many stable trace gases that absorb light in the infrared.
Sara M. Defratyka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Camille Yver-Kwok, Daniel Loeb, James France, Jon Helmore, Nigel Yarrow, Valérie Gros, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5049–5069,Short summary
We consider the possibility of using the CRDS Picarro G2201-i instrument, originally designed for isotopic CH4 and CO2, for measurements of ethane : methane in near-source conditions. The work involved laboratory tests, a controlled release experiment and mobile measurements. We show the potential of determining ethane : methane with 50 ppb ethane uncertainty. The instrument can correctly estimate the ratio in CH4 enhancements of 1 ppm and more, as can be found at strongly emitting sites.
Esther Borrás, Luis A. Tortajada-Genaro, Milagro Ródenas, Teresa Vera, Thomas Speak, Paul Seakins, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, and Amalia Muñoz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4989–4999,Short summary
This work presents promising results in the characterization of specific atmospheric pollutants (oxygenated VOCs) present at very low but highly relevant concentrations. We carried out this research at EUPHORE facilities within the framework of the EUROCHAMP project. A new analytical method, with high robustness and precision, also clean in the use of solvents, low cost, and easily adaptable for use in mobile laboratories for air quality monitoring, is presented.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Uwe Parchatka, Ivan Tadic, Birger Bohn, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Hartwig Harder, Flora Kluge, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Florian Obersteiner, Martin Zöger, Raphael Doerich, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
NO2 plays a central role in the atmospheric photochemical processes and requires accurate measurements. This research presents NO2 data obtained via chemiluminescence using a photolytic converter from airborne studies around Cabo Verde and laboratory investigations. We show the limits and error-proneness of a conventional blue light converter in aircraft measurements affected by humidity and NO levels and suggest the use of a new quartz converter for more reliable results.
Chunmeng Li, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Tianyu Zhai, Shiyi Chen, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4033–4051,Short summary
We present a feasible instrument for the measurement of NO2, total peroxy nitrates (PNs, RO2NO2), and total alkyl nitrates (ANs, RONO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument samples sequentially from three channels at different temperature settings and then measures spectra using one cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer. The concentrations are determined by spectral fitting and corrected using the lookup table method conveniently. The instrument will promote the study of PNs and ANs.
Romain Blot, Philippe Nedelec, Damien Boulanger, Pawel Wolff, Bastien Sauvage, Jean-Marc Cousin, Gilles Athier, Andreas Zahn, Florian Obersteiner, Dieter Scharffe, Hervé Petetin, Yasmine Bennouna, Hannah Clark, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3935–3951,Short summary
A lack of information about temporal changes in measurement uncertainties is an area of concern for long-term trend studies of the key compounds which have a direct or indirect impact on climate change. The IAGOS program has measured O3 and CO within the troposphere and lower stratosphere for more than 25 years. In this study, we demonstrated that the IAGOS database can be treated as one continuous program and is therefore appropriate for studies of long-term trends.
Thomas Wagenhäuser, Andreas Engel, and Robert Sitals
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3923–3934,Short summary
AirCore samplers are increasingly deployed to weather balloons to collect continuous atmospheric samples. We introduce a technique that can be used in situ to evaluate different data processing methods that are required to derive vertical trace gas profiles from AirCore measurements after sample recovery. Results from two test flights with a specific AirCore configuration provide evidence for systematic deviations in altitude attribution for the upper levels, which can be empirically corrected.
Jordan Wilkerson, David S. Sayres, Jessica B. Smith, Norton Allen, Marco Rivero, Mike Greenberg, Terry Martin, and James G. Anderson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3597–3613,Short summary
The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects life from harmful UV light, but chlorine-based pollution threatens to damage it. We developed an instrument that couples a laser with highly reflective mirrors and advanced electronics to measure an important residue of this pollution: hydrogen chloride. Our instrument has an improved, more modern layout that we successfully tested in flight. This paves the way for future, advanced techniques that seek to evaluate the health of Earth’s ozone layer.
Kevin S. Rozmiarek, Bruce H. Vaughn, Tyler R. Jones, Valerie Morris, William B. Skorski, Abigail G. Hughes, Jack Elston, Sonja Wahl, Anne-Katrine Faber, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We have designed an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sampling platform for operation in extreme polar environments that is capable of sampling atmospheric water vapor for subsequent measurement of water isotopes. During flight, we measure location, temperature, humidity, and pressure to determine the height of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) using algorithms, allowing for strategic decision making by the pilot to collect samples in glass flasks contained in the nose cone of the UAV.
Simone T. Andersen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Beth S. Nelson, Luis Neves, Katie A. Read, Chris Reed, Martyn Ward, Matthew J. Rowlinson, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3071–3085,Short summary
NOx has been measured in remote marine air via chemiluminescence detection using two different methods for NO2 to NO photolytic conversion: (a) internal diodes and a reaction chamber made of Teflon-like barium-doped material, which causes a NO2 artefact, and (b) external diodes and a quartz photolysis cell. Once corrections are made for the artefact of (a), the two converters are shown to give comparable NO2 mixing ratios, giving confidence in the quantitative measurement of NOx at low levels.
Song Gao, Shanshan Wang, Chuanqi Gu, Jian Zhu, Ruifeng Zhang, Yanlin Guo, Yuhao Yan, and Bin Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2649–2657,
Britton B. Stephens, Eric J. Morgan, Jonathan D. Bent, Ralph F. Keeling, Andrew S. Watt, Stephen R. Shertz, and Bruce C. Daube
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2543–2574,Short summary
We describe methods used to make high-precision global-scale airborne measurements of atmospheric oxygen concentrations over a period of 20 years in order to study the global carbon cycle. Our techniques include an in situ vacuum ultraviolet absorption instrument and a pressure- and flow-controlled, cryogenically dried, glass flask sampler. We have deployed these instruments in 15 airborne research campaigns spanning from the Earth’s surface to the lower stratosphere and from pole to pole.
Pamela S. Rickly, Lu Xu, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, and Andrew W. Rollins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2429–2439,Short summary
Key improvements have been made to an in situ laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measuring SO2 in polluted and pristine environments. Laser linewidth is reduced, rapid laser tuning is implemented, and fluorescence bandpass filters are optimized. These improvements have led to a 50 % reduction in instrument detection limit. The influence of aromatic compounds was also investigated and determined to not bias SO2 measurements.
Wenjie Wang, Jipeng Qi, Jun Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Sihang Wang, Suxia Yang, Jonathan Williams, Vinayak Sinha, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2285–2298,Short summary
We designed a new reactor for measurements of OH reactivity (i.e., OH radical loss frequency) based on the comparative reactivity method under high-NOx conditions, such as in cities. We performed a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the new reactor. The new reactor was used in the field and performed well in measuring OH reactivity in air influenced by upwind cities.
Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Sreenath Paleri, Matthias Sühring, Brian Butterworth, Christopher Florian, Matthias Mauder, David M. Plummer, Luise Wanner, Ke Xu, and Ankur R. Desai
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Key Points: (i) Integrative observing system design can multiply the scientific return of surface-atmosphere field measurements. (ii) Catalyzing numerical simulations and first-principles machine learning open up observing system simulation experiments to novel applications. (iii) Use cases include natural climate solutions, emission inventory validation, urban air quality, and industry leak detection.
Hiroo Hata, Kazuo Kokuryo, Takehiko Ogata, Masahiko Kugata, Koichi Yanai, Megumi Okada, Chikage Funakubo, Minoru Yamazaki, and Junya Hoshi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2115–2126,Short summary
The authors conducted the measurement of real-world CO2 and NOx emissions from one heavy-duty vehicle. The results showed that NOx emissions increased in colder seasons because of the deactivation of after-treatment tools. We proposed an estimation model of vehicle emissions based on the classical mechanic theory. The model explained the emission behavior of CO2 and NOx well, and thus, we concluded that the proposed model will be applied to the evaluation of vehicular emission inventories.
Vasilii V. Petrenko, Andrew M. Smith, Edward M. Crosier, Roxana Kazemi, Philip Place, Aidan Colton, Bin Yang, Quan Hua, and Lee T. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2055–2063,Short summary
This paper presents an improved methodology for measurements of atmospheric concentration of carbon-14-containing carbon monoxide (14CO), as well as a 1-year dataset that demonstrates the methodology. Atmospheric 14CO concentration measurements are useful for improving the understanding of spatial and temporal variability of hydroxyl radical concentrations. Key improvements over prior methods include a greatly reduced air sample size and accurate procedural blank characterization.
Changmin Cho, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Hendrik Fuchs, Hans-Peter Dorn, Marvin Glowania, Frank Holland, Franz Rohrer, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1851–1877,Short summary
This study describes the implementation and characterization of the chemical modulation reactor (CMR) used in the laser-induced fluorescence instrument of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The CMR allows for interference-free OH radical measurement in ambient air. During a field campaign in a rural environment, the observed interference was mostly below the detection limit of the instrument and fully explained by the known ozone interference.
Russell W. Long, Andrew Whitehill, Andrew Habel, Shawn Urbanski, Hannah Halliday, Maribel Colón, Surender Kaushik, and Matthew S. Landis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1783–1800,Short summary
This manuscript details field and laboratory-based evaluations of ozone monitoring methods in smoke. UV photometry, the most widely used measurement method for ozone in ambient air, was shown to suffer from a severe positive interference when operated in the presence of smoke, while chemiluminescence-based methods were shown to be free of interferences. The results detailed in this paper will provide monitoring agencies with the tools needed to address smoke-related ozone measurement challenges.
Michał Gałkowski, Armin Jordan, Michael Rothe, Julia Marshall, Frank-Thomas Koch, Jinxuan Chen, Anna Agusti-Panareda, Andreas Fix, and Christoph Gerbig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1525–1544,Short summary
We present results of atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases, performed over Europe in 2018 aboard German research aircraft HALO as part of the CoMet 1.0 (Carbon Dioxide and Methane Mission). In our analysis, we describe data quality, discuss observed mixing ratios and show an example of describing a regional methane source using stable isotopic composition based on the collected air samples. We also quantitatively compare our results to selected global atmospheric modelling systems.
Manuel Graf, Philipp Scheidegger, André Kupferschmid, Herbert Looser, Thomas Peter, Ruud Dirksen, Lukas Emmenegger, and Béla Tuzson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1365–1378,Short summary
Water vapor is the most important natural greenhouse gas. The accurate and frequent measurement of its abundance, especially in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), is technically challenging. We developed and characterized a mid-IR absorption spectrometer for highly accurate water vapor measurements in the UTLS. The instrument is sufficiently small and lightweight (3.9 kg) to be carried by meteorological balloons, which enables frequent and cost-effective soundings.
Felix Piel, Markus Müller, Klaus Winkler, Jenny Skytte af Sätra, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1355–1363,Short summary
Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments are widely used in the atmospheric community for measuring organic trace substances in the Earth's atmosphere. Some of these substances
stickonto and slowly come off surfaces in the PTR-MS analyzer, which makes it impossible to measure rapid changes in the atmosphere. Herein, we present a new type of PTR-MS instrument with a specially treated surface that mitigates this problem.
Brian Gullett, Johanna Aurell, William Mitchell, and Jennifer Richardson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 975–981,Short summary
Aerial emission sampling of four natural gas boiler stack plumes was conducted using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) equipped with a lightweight sensor–sampling system for nitrogen oxide pollutant measurements. The results were compared to simultaneous measurements from the stacks using conventional gas extraction methods. The emission values between the two methods varied by less than 6 %, demonstrating the accuracy of UAS-based pollutant measurements against a known source concentration.
Colby Buehler, Fulizi Xiong, Misti Levy Zamora, Kate M. Skog, Joseph Kohrman-Glaser, Stefan Colton, Michael McNamara, Kevin Ryan, Carrie Redlich, Matthew Bartos, Brandon Wong, Branko Kerkez, Kirsten Koehler, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 995–1013,Short summary
In this paper we develop a stationary and portable low-cost multipollutant monitor capable of measuring a variety of human-health- and climate-related pollutants. While traditional reference instrumentation is sparsely spaced, these monitors can be deployed as a network to gain insight into the spatial and temporal variability within an urban setting, or in other targeted studies. We also implement an online calibration system to address long-term drift of sensors and adjust calibrations.
Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, Dale F. Hurst, Geoff S. Dutton, Bradley D. Hall, J. David Nance, Ben R. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura P. Wolton, Audra McClure-Begley, James W. Elkins, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Laurel A. Watts, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Bruce C. Daube, Jasna V. Pittman, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric Kort, Glenn S. Diskin, and T. Paul Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We built UCATS to study atmospheric chemistry and transport. It has measured chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen with gas chromatography, as well as ozone and water vapor. UCATS has been part of missions to study the tropical tropopause, transport of air into the stratosphere, greenhouse gases, transport, and chemistry in the troposphere, and ozone chemistry. Its design, capabilities, and some results are shown and described here.
Teresa Jorge, Simone Brunamonti, Yann Poltera, Frank G. Wienhold, Bei P. Luo, Peter Oelsner, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bhupendra B. Singh, Susanne Körner, Ruud Dirksen, Manish Naja, Suvarna Fadnavis, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 239–268,Short summary
Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers are crucial for the monitoring of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. We found that when traversing a mixed-phase cloud with big supercooled droplets, the intake tube of the instrument collects on its inner surface a high percentage of these droplets. The newly formed ice layer will sublimate at higher levels and contaminate the measurement. The balloon is also a source of contamination, but only at higher levels during the ascent.
Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Sven Krautwurst, Konstantin Gerilowski, Matthias Lindauer, Dagmar Kubistin, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 153–172,Short summary
CO2 measurements from a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) can provide a cost-effective way to complement and validate satellite-based measurements of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We introduce an sUAS which is capable of determining atmospheric CO2 mass fluxes from its own sensor data. We show results of validation flights at the ICOS atmospheric station in Steinkimmen and from demonstration flights downwind a CO2-emitting natural gas processing facility.
Megan S. Claflin, Demetrios Pagonis, Zachary Finewax, Anne V. Handschy, Douglas A. Day, Wyatt L. Brown, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose L. Jimenez, Paul J. Ziemann, Joost de Gouw, and Brian M. Lerner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 133–152,Short summary
We have developed a field-deployable gas chromatograph with thermal desorption preconcentration and detector switching between two high-resolution mass spectrometers for in situ measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This system combines chromatography with both proton transfer and electron ionization to offer fast time response and continuous molecular speciation. This technique was applied during the 2018 ATHLETIC campaign to characterize VOC emissions in an indoor environment.
James L. France, Prudence Bateson, Pamela Dominutti, Grant Allen, Stephen Andrews, Stephane Bauguitte, Max Coleman, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Rebecca E. Fisher, Langwen Huang, Anna E. Jones, James Lee, David Lowry, Joseph Pitt, Ruth Purvis, John Pyle, Jacob Shaw, Nicola Warwick, Alexandra Weiss, Shona Wilde, Jonathan Witherstone, and Stuart Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 71–88,Short summary
Measuring emission rates of methane from installations is tricky, and it is even more so when those installations are located offshore. Here, we show the aircraft set-up and demonstrate an effective methodology for surveying emissions from UK and Dutch offshore oil and gas installations. We present example data collected from two campaigns to demonstrate the challenges and solutions encountered during these surveys.
Camille Yver-Kwok, Carole Philippon, Peter Bergamaschi, Tobias Biermann, Francescopiero Calzolari, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Paolo Cristofanelli, Marc Delmotte, Juha Hatakka, Michal Heliasz, Ove Hermansen, Kateřina Komínková, Dagmar Kubistin, Nicolas Kumps, Olivier Laurent, Tuomas Laurila, Irene Lehner, Janne Levula, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Per Marklund, Jean-Marc Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Stephen M. Platt, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Bert Scheeren, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Paul Smith, Martin Steinbacher, Gabriela Vítková, and Simon Wyss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 89–116,Short summary
The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a pan-European research infrastructure which provides harmonized and high-precision scientific data on the carbon cycle and the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. All stations have to undergo a rigorous assessment before being labeled, i.e., receiving approval to join the network. In this paper, we present the labeling process for the ICOS atmospheric network through the 23 stations that were labeled between November 2017 and November 2019.
David C. Loades, Mingxi Yang, Thomas G. Bell, Adam R. Vaughan, Ryan J. Pound, Stefan Metzger, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6915–6931,Short summary
The loss of ozone to the sea surface was measured from the south coast of the UK and was found to be more rapid than previous observations over the open ocean. This is likely a consequence of different chemistry and biology in coastal environments. Strong winds appeared to speed up the loss of ozone. A better understanding of what influences ozone loss over the sea will lead to better model estimates of total ozone in the troposphere.
Reem A. Hannun, Andrew K. Swanson, Steven A. Bailey, Thomas F. Hanisco, T. Paul Bui, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6877–6887,Short summary
We have developed a cavity-enhanced absorption instrument to measure ozone in the atmosphere. The detection technique enables highly sensitive measurements in fast averaging times. The compact, robust instrument is suitable for operation in varied field environments, including aboard research aircraft. We have successfully flown the instrument and demonstrated its performance capabilities with measurements of ozone deposition rates over the coastal Pacific Ocean.
Noriko Nakayama, Yo Toma, Yusuke Iwai, Hiroshi Furutani, Toshinobu Hondo, Ryusuke Hatano, and Michisato Toyoda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6657–6673,Short summary
We developed a field-deployable multiple soil-gas flux measurement system using a portable high-resolution mass spectrometer (MULTUM) combined with an automated flux chamber. The current system is capable of simultaneous quantification of O2, N2O, CH4, and CO2 concentrations every 2.5 min within a single sample, yielding hourly flux data. We applied the system to 5 d continuous soil–atmosphere field flux observations and interesting responses in N2O and CO2 upon rainfall events were observed.
Ke Tang, Min Qin, Wu Fang, Jun Duan, Fanhao Meng, Kaidi Ye, Helu Zhang, Pinhua Xie, Yabai He, Wenbin Xu, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6487–6499,Short summary
We present an improved instrument for the simultaneous detection of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The robustness of the system is verified by simulating the influence of the relative change in light intensity on the measurement results. The instrument's capability to make fast high-sensitivity measurements of HONO and NO2 is of great significance for understanding the source of HONO and studying its role in atmospheric chemistry.
Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, James G. Walega, Alan Fried, Joshua DiGangi, Hannah Halliday, Yonghoon Choi, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, Ben Miller, Kenneth J. Davis, Zachary Barkley, and Michael D. Obland
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6095–6112,Short summary
The present study describes an autonomously operated instrument for high-precision (20–40 parts per trillion in 1 s) measurements of ethane during actual airborne operations on a small aircraft platform (NASA's King Air B200). This paper discusses the dynamic nature of airborne performance due to various aircraft-induced perturbations, methods devised to identify such events, and solutions we have enacted to circumvent these perturbations.
Alexandra Gutmann, Nicole Bobrowski, Marcello Liotta, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Motivated by the special interest in bromine chemistry in volcanic plumes, the study presented here describes a new method for the quantitative collection of gaseous hydrogen bromide in gas diffusion denuders. The hydrogen bromide reacted during sampling with appropriate epoxides applied to the denuder walls. The denuder sampling assembly was successfully deployed in the volcanic plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua.
Anne R. Wecking, Vanessa M. Cave, Lìyĭn L. Liáng, Aaron M. Wall, Jiafa Luo, David I. Campbell, and Louis A. Schipper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5763–5777,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a relevant greenhouse gas emitted from soils to the atmosphere. Human activities, e.g. intensive farming, have contributed to the increase in atmospheric N2O concentrations with time. Therefore, measurements of N2O are crucial to understanding climate change. Our study developed a new technique that enables N2O measurement at small (point) and large (paddock) scales by using a single analyser. Using this new method will accelerate and advance N2O measurements in future.
Nils Friedrich, Ivan Tadic, Jan Schuladen, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Frank Drewnick, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5739–5761,Short summary
We present a new instrument for the measurement of NOx and NOy based on a combination of the thermal dissociation of NOy to NOx and cavity ring-down spectroscopic detection of NO2. It features a denuder to separate the contributions of gas-phase and particulate nitrates to NOy. We provide a detailed characterization of the instrument and briefly outline results from first deployments.
Béla Tuzson, Manuel Graf, Jonas Ravelid, Philipp Scheidegger, André Kupferschmid, Herbert Looser, Randulph Paulo Morales, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4715–4726,Short summary
We describe a lightweight (2 kg) mid-IR laser spectrometer for airborne, in situ atmospheric methane (CH4) measurements. The instrument, based on an open-path circular multipass cell, provides fast response (1 Hz) and sub-parts-per-billion precision. It can easily be mounted on a drone, giving access to highly resolved 4D (spatial and temporal) data. The performance was assessed during field deployments involving artificial CH4 releases and vertical concentration gradients in the PBL.
Albane Barbero, Camille Blouzon, Joël Savarino, Nicolas Caillon, Aurélien Dommergue, and Roberto Grilli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4317–4331,Short summary
In this paper, we present a compact, affordable and robust instrument for in situ measurements of different trace gases: NOx, IO, CHOCHO and O3 with very low detection limits. The device weighs 15 kg and has a total electrical power consumption of < 300 W. Its very low detection limits and its design make it suitable for field applications to address different questions such as how to better constrain the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and study the chemistry of highly reactive species.
Nicholas J. Gingerysty and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4159–4167,Short summary
The generation of clean calibration gases is critical for accurate ambient air measurements. Here, we describe a source of HONO vapour dynamically generated from reaction of HCl and NaNO2. The output was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermal-dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS) and was stable, tuneable, and > 95 % pure. We show how generation of unwanted side products (NO, NO2, and ClNO) can be avoided.
Mj Riches, Daniel Lee, and Delphine K. Farmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4123–4139,Short summary
This paper presents a thorough characterization of a leaf emission sampling technique coupling a portable photosynthesis system with different trace gas analyzers. We provide several case studies using both online and offline gas analyzers to measure different types of leaf emissions. We further highlight both the capabilities and pitfalls of this method.
Nathaniel C. Lawrence and Steven J. Hall
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4065–4078,Short summary
Soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, are highly variable over space and time. Existing approaches for automated N2O emission measurements are costly and often incompatible with flooded soils. We describe and validate a robust and low-cost apparatus for replicated measurement of soil N2O emissions at subdaily resolution over large spatial gradients (> 100 m). High-frequency measurements are critical for constraining and mitigating the soil N2O source.
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