Articles | Volume 8, issue 8
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species
S. E. Bush
Dept. of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
F. M. Hopkins
Dept. of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, California, USA
J. T. Randerson
Dept. of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, California, USA
Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
J. R. Ehleringer
Dept. of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
Global Change and Sustainability Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
No articles found.
Isis Frausto-Vicencio, Sajjan Heerah, Aaron G. Meyer, Harrison A. Parker, Manvendra Dubey, and Francesca M. Hopkins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4521–4543,Short summary
Wildfires are increasing in the western USA, making it critical to understand the impacts of greenhouse gases and air pollutants on the atmosphere. We used a ground-based remote sensing technique to measure the greenhouse gases and aerosol in the atmosphere. We isolate a large smoke plume from a nearby wildfire and calculate variables to understand the fuel properties and combustion phases. We find that a significant amount of methane is emitted from the 2020 California wildfire season.
Alison R. Marklein, Deanne Meyer, Marc L. Fischer, Seongeun Jeong, Talha Rafiq, Michelle Carr, and Francesca M. Hopkins
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1151–1166,Short summary
Dairy cow farms produce half of California's (CA) methane (CH4) emissions. Current CH4 emission inventories lack regional variation in management and are inadequate to assess CH4 mitigation measures. We develop a spatial database of CH4 emissions for CA dairy farms including farm-scale herd demographics and management data. This database is useful to predict CH4 emission reductions from mitigation efforts, to compare with atmospheric CH4 observations and to attribute emissions to specific farms.
Ryan Bares, Logan Mitchell, Ben Fasoli, David R. Bowling, Douglas Catharine, Maria Garcia, Byron Eng, Jim Ehleringer, and John C. Lin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1291–1308,Short summary
We overview two near-surface trace gas measurement networks with the aim of describing procedures, locations, and data structure with sufficient detail to serve as an in-depth method reference. Additionally, we developed a novel method for quantifying measurement uncertainty produced by these networks providing insight into appropriate applications of the data and differences in data collection methods. This uncertainty metric is broadly applicable to many trace gas and air quality datasets.
Richard P. Fiorella, Ryan Bares, John C. Lin, James R. Ehleringer, and Gabriel J. Bowen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8529–8547,Short summary
Fossil fuel combustion produces water; where fossil fuel combustion is concentrated in urban areas, this humidity source may represent ~ 10 % of total humidity. In turn, this water vapor addition may alter urban meteorology, though the contribution of combustion vapor is difficult to measure. Using stable water isotopes, we estimate that up to 16 % of urban humidity may arise from combustion when the atmosphere is stable during winter, and develop recommendations for application in other cities.
Valerie Carranza, Talha Rafiq, Isis Frausto-Vicencio, Francesca M. Hopkins, Kristal R. Verhulst, Preeti Rao, Riley M. Duren, and Charles E. Miller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 653–676,Short summary
We present a GIS-based approach to mapping methane emissions in areas with dense, complex source mixtures. The Vista-LA database classifies >33 000 potential methane-emitting features concentrated on <1% of the land area in California's South Coast Air Basin. The database is used for planning and analysis of atmospheric measurements, including airborne remote sensing campaigns and on-road mobile surveys focused on methane "hot-spot" detection, and development of a regional emissions inventory.
Henrique F. Duarte, Brett M. Raczka, Daniel M. Ricciuto, John C. Lin, Charles D. Koven, Peter E. Thornton, David R. Bowling, Chun-Ta Lai, Kenneth J. Bible, and James R. Ehleringer
Biogeosciences, 14, 4315–4340,Short summary
We evaluate the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest site that is subjected to water stress each summer. We found that, after calibration, CLM was able to reasonably simulate the observed fluxes of energy and carbon, carbon stocks, carbon isotope ratios, and ecosystem response to water stress. This study demonstrates that carbon isotopes can expose structural weaknesses in CLM and provide a key constraint that may guide future model development.
Kristal R. Verhulst, Anna Karion, Jooil Kim, Peter K. Salameh, Ralph F. Keeling, Sally Newman, John Miller, Christopher Sloop, Thomas Pongetti, Preeti Rao, Clare Wong, Francesca M. Hopkins, Vineet Yadav, Ray F. Weiss, Riley M. Duren, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8313–8341,Short summary
We present the first carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) measurements from an extensive surface network as part of the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project. We describe methods that are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from complex urban environments. CO2 and CH4 levels are spatially and temporally variable, with urban sites showing significant enhancements relative to background. In 2015, the median afternoon enhancement near downtown Los Angeles was ~15 ppm CO2 and ~80 ppb CH4.
Kaniska Mallick, Ivonne Trebs, Eva Boegh, Laura Giustarini, Martin Schlerf, Darren T. Drewry, Lucien Hoffmann, Celso von Randow, Bart Kruijt, Alessandro Araùjo, Scott Saleska, James R. Ehleringer, Tomas F. Domingues, Jean Pierre H. B. Ometto, Antonio D. Nobre, Osvaldo Luiz Leal de Moraes, Matthew Hayek, J. William Munger, and Steven C. Wofsy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4237–4264,Short summary
While quantifying vegetation water use over multiple plant function types in the Amazon Basin, we found substantial biophysical control during drought as well as a water-stress period and dominant climatic control during a water surplus period. This work has direct implication in understanding the resilience of the Amazon forest in the spectre of frequent drought menace as well as the role of drought-induced plant biophysical functioning in modulating the water-carbon coupling in this ecosystem.
Weiwei Fu, James T. Randerson, and J. Keith Moore
Biogeosciences, 13, 5151–5170,Short summary
Global NPP and EP are reduced considerably for RCP8.5. Negative response of NPP and EP to stratification increases reflects a bottom-up control. Models with dynamic phytoplankton community structure show larger declines in EP than in NPP driven by phytoplankton community composition shifts. Projections of the NPP response to climate change depend on the phytoplankton community structure, the efficiency of the biological pump and the levels of regenerated production.
Chris D. Jones, Vivek Arora, Pierre Friedlingstein, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, John Dunne, Heather Graven, Forrest Hoffman, Tatiana Ilyina, Jasmin G. John, Martin Jung, Michio Kawamiya, Charlie Koven, Julia Pongratz, Thomas Raddatz, James T. Randerson, and Sönke Zaehle
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2853–2880,Short summary
How the carbon cycle interacts with climate will affect future climate change and how society plans emissions reductions to achieve climate targets. The Coupled Climate Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) is an endorsed activity of CMIP6 and aims to quantify these interactions and feedbacks in state-of-the-art climate models. This paper lays out the experimental protocol for modelling groups to follow to contribute to C4MIP. It is a contribution to the CMIP6 GMD Special Issue.
G. O. Mouteva, S. M. Fahrni, G. M. Santos, J. T. Randerson, Y.-L. Zhang, S. Szidat, and C. I. Czimczik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3729–3743,Short summary
We describe a stepwise uncertainty analysis of 14C measurements of organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of aerosols. Using the Swiss_4S thermal-optical protocol with a newly established trapping setup, we show that we can efficiently isolate and trap each carbon fraction and perform 14C analysis of ultra-small OC and EC samples with high accuracy and low 14C blanks. Our study presents a first step towards the development of a common protocol for OC and EC 14C measurements.
S. Veraverbeke, B. M. Rogers, and J. T. Randerson
Biogeosciences, 12, 3579–3601,Short summary
We developed a statistical model of daily carbon consumption by fire for Alaska at 450m resolution between 2001 and 2012. We used field measurements from black spruce forests in Alaska to build nonlinear multiplicative models predicting carbon consumption by fire in response to environmental variables. Our analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the spatial heterogeneity within fuels and consumption when extrapolating emissions in space and time.
F. Sedano and J. T. Randerson
Biogeosciences, 11, 3739–3755,
C. de Linage, J. S. Famiglietti, and J. T. Randerson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2089–2102,
K. E. O. Todd-Brown, J. T. Randerson, F. Hopkins, V. Arora, T. Hajima, C. Jones, E. Shevliakova, J. Tjiputra, E. Volodin, T. Wu, Q. Zhang, and S. D. Allison
Biogeosciences, 11, 2341–2356,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsEthylene oxide monitor with part-per-trillion precision for in situ measurementsDevelopment of an automated pump-efficiency measuring system for ozonesondes utilizing an airbag-type flowmeterShort-term variability of atmospheric helium revealed through a cryo-enrichment methodUsing tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy for ambient hydrogen chloride detection: HCl-TILDASNew methods for the calibration of optical resonators: integrated calibration by means of optical modulation (ICOM) and narrow-band cavity ring-down (NB-CRD)A modular field system for near-surface, vertical profiling of the atmospheric composition in harsh environments using cavity ring-down spectroscopyField comparison of two novel open-path instruments that measure dry deposition and emission of ammonia using flux-gradient and eddy covariance methodsDevelopment of multi-channel whole-air sampling equipment onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle for investigating volatile organic compounds' vertical distribution in the planetary boundary layerElectrochemical sensors on board a Zeppelin NT: in-flight evaluation of low-cost trace gas measurementsEvaluating the performance of a Picarro G2207-i analyser for high-precision atmospheric O2 measurementsAirborne flux measurements of ammonia over the southern Great Plains using chemical ionization mass spectrometryOptical receiver characterizations and corrections for ground-based and airborne measurements of spectral actinic flux densitiesDevelopment and validation of a new in situ technique to measure total gaseous chlorine in airTrue eddy accumulation – Part 1: Solutions to the problem of non-vanishing mean vertical wind velocityTrue eddy accumulation – Part 2: Theory and experiment of the short-time eddy accumulation methodChemical ionization mass spectrometry utilizing ammonium ions (NH4+ CIMS) for measurements of organic compounds in the atmosphereDirect measurement of N2O5 heterogeneous uptake coefficients on ambient aerosols via an aerosol flow tube system: design, characterization and performanceOnline measurements of cycloalkanes based on NO+ chemical ionization in proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)Intercomparison of in situ measurements of ambient NH3: instrument performance and application under field conditionsA lightweight broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer for NO2 measurement on uncrewed aerial vehiclesOn the development of a new prototype PTR-ToF-MS instrument and its application to the detection of atmospheric aminesLow-complexity methods to mitigate the impact of environmental variables on low-cost UAS-based atmospheric carbon dioxide measurementsComparison of airborne measurements of NO, NO2, HONO, NOy, and CO during FIREX-AQDevelopment of a broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of ambient NO3, NO2, and H2OImprovements of a low-cost CO2 commercial nondispersive near-infrared (NDIR) sensor for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) atmospheric mapping applicationsDevelopment and testing of a novel sulfur dioxide sondeTemperature-dependent sensitivity of iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometersA quadcopter unmanned aerial system (UAS)-based methodology for measuring biomass burning emission factorsAir quality observations onboard commercial and targeted Zeppelin flights in Germany – a platform for high-resolution trace-gas and aerosol measurements within the planetary boundary layerPerformance of open-path lasers and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic systems in agriculture emissions researchMetrology for low-cost CO2 sensors applications: the case of a steady-state through-flow (SS-TF) chamber for CO2 fluxes observationsA relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) LOPAP system for flux measurements of nitrous acid (HONO)Fill dynamics and sample mixing in the AirCoreIRIS analyser assessment reveals sub-hourly variability of isotope ratios in carbon dioxide at Baring Head, New Zealand's atmospheric observatory in the Southern OceanA versatile vacuum ultraviolet ion source for reduced pressure bipolar chemical ionization mass spectrometryDesign and characterization of a semi-open dynamic chamber for measuring biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plantsFirst eddy covariance flux measurements of semi-volatile organic compounds with the PTR3-TOF-MSAn unmanned aerial vehicle sampling platform for atmospheric water vapor isotopes in polar environmentsNovel approach to observing system simulation experiments improves information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurementsUAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) – a versatile instrument for trace gas measurements on airborne platformsModification of a conventional photolytic converter for improving aircraft measurements of NO2 via chemiluminescenceBromine speciation in volcanic plumes: new in situ derivatization LC-MS method for the determination of gaseous hydrogen bromide by gas diffusion denuder samplingApplication of a mobile laboratory using a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) for characterisation of volatile organic compounds and atmospheric trace gasesDevelopment of a laser-photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of nitrous acid and hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphereCalibration and assessment of electrochemical low-cost sensors in remote alpine harsh environmentsIntercomparison of IBBCEAS, NitroMAC and FTIR analyses for HONO, NO2 and CH2O measurements during the reaction of NO2 with H2O vapour in the simulation chamber CESAMImpact of ozone and inlet design on the quantification of isoprene-derived organic nitrates by thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS)The Berkeley Environmental Air-quality and CO2 Network: field calibrations of sensor temperature dependence and assessment of network scale CO2 accuracyIodide CIMS and m∕z 62: the detection of HNO3 as NO3− in the presence of PAN, peroxyacetic acid and ozoneAirborne Mid-Infrared Cavity enhanced Absorption spectrometer (AMICA)
Tara I. Yacovitch, Christoph Dyroff, Joseph R. Roscioli, Conner Daube, J. Barry McManus, and Scott C. Herndon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1915–1921,Short summary
Ethylene oxide is a toxic, carcinogenic compound used in the medical and bulk sterilization industry. Here we describe a precise and fast laser-based ethylene oxide monitor. We report months-long concentrations at a Massachusetts site, and we show how they suggest a potential emission source 35 km away. This source, and another, is confirmed by driving the instrument downwind of the sites, where concentrations were tens to tens of thousands of times greater than background levels.
Tatsumi Nakano and Takashi Morofuji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1583–1595,Short summary
We have developed a system that can automatically measure the pump efficiency of the ECC-type ozonesonde. Operational measurement for 13 years by this system revealed that the efficiency fluctuates in each and slightly increases over time. Those can affect the estimation of total ozone amount by up to 4 %. This result indicates that it is necessary to understand the tendency of the pump correction factor of each ozonesonde in order to detect the actual atmospheric change with high accuracy.
Benjamin Birner, Eric Morgan, and Ralph F. Keeling
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1551–1561,Short summary
Atmospheric variations of helium (He) and CO2 are strongly linked due to the co-release of both gases from natural-gas burning. This implies that atmospheric He measurements may be a potentially powerful tool for verifying reported anthropogenic natural-gas usage. Here, we present the development and initial results of a novel measurement system of atmospheric He that paves the way for establishing a global monitoring network in the future.
John W. Halfacre, Jordan Stewart, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Christoph Dyroff, Tara I. Yacovitch, Michael Flynn, Stephen J. Andrews, Steven S. Brown, Patrick R. Veres, and Pete M. Edwards
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1407–1429,Short summary
This study details a new sampling method for the optical detection of hydrogen chloride (HCl). HCl is an important atmospheric reservoir for chlorine atoms, which can affect nitrogen oxide cycling and the lifetimes of volatile organic compounds and ozone. However, HCl has a high affinity for interacting with surfaces, thereby preventing fast, quantitative measurements. The sampling technique in this study minimizes these surface interactions and provides a high-quality measurement of HCl.
Henning Finkenzeller, Denis Pöhler, Martin Horbanski, Johannes Lampel, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1343–1356,Short summary
Optical resonators enhance the light path in compact instruments, thereby improving their sensitivity. Determining the established path length in the instrument is a prerequisite for the accurate determination of trace gas concentrations but can be a significant complication in the use of such resonators. Here we show two calibration techniques which are relatively simple and free of consumables but still provide accurate calibrations. This facilitates the use of optical resonators.
Andrew W. Seidl, Harald Sodemann, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 769–790,Short summary
It is challenging to make field measurements of stable water isotopes in the Arctic. To this end, we present a modular stable-water-isotope analyzer profiling system. The system operated for a 2-week field campaign on Svalbard during the Arctic winter. We evaluate the system’s performance and analyze any potential impact that the field conditions might have had on the isotopic measurements and the system's ability to resolve isotope gradients in the lowermost layer of the atmosphere.
Daan Swart, Jun Zhang, Shelley van der Graaf, Susanna Rutledge-Jonker, Arjan Hensen, Stijn Berkhout, Pascal Wintjen, René van der Hoff, Marty Haaima, Arnoud Frumau, Pim van den Bulk, Ruben Schulte, Margreet van Zanten, and Thomas van Goethem
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 529–546,Short summary
During a 5-week comparison campaign, we tested two set-ups to measure half hourly ammonia fluxes. The eddy covariance and flux gradient systems showed very similar results when the upwind terrain was both homogeneous and free of obstacles. We discuss the technical performance and practical limitations of both systems. Measurements from these instruments can facilitate the study of processes behind ammonia deposition, an important contributor to eutrophication and acidificationin natural areas.
Suding Yang, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, Xuena Yu, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Xiaofeng Huang, Dongmei Zhang, Haibin Xu, Shuchen Lin, Hefan Liu, Miao Feng, Danlin Song, Qinwen Tan, Jinhui Cui, Lifan Wang, Ying Chen, Wenjie Wang, Haijiong Sun, Mengdi Song, Liuwei Kong, Yi Liu, Linhui Wei, Xianwu Zhu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 501–512,Short summary
Vertical observation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential to study the spatial distribution and evolution patterns of VOCs in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). This paper describes multi-channel whole-air sampling equipment onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for near-continuous VOC vertical observation. Vertical profiles of VOCs and trace gases during the evolution of the PBL in south-western China have been successfully obtained by deploying the newly developed UAV system.
Tobias Schuldt, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Christian Wesolek, Franz Rohrer, Benjamin Winter, Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Ralf Tillmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 373–386,Short summary
We report in situ measurements of air pollutant concentrations within the planetary boundary layer on board a Zeppelin NT in Germany. We highlight the in-flight evaluation of electrochemical sensors that were installed inside a hatch box located on the bottom of the Zeppelin. Results from this work emphasize the potential of these sensors for other in situ airborne applications, e.g., on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
Leigh S. Fleming, Andrew C. Manning, Penelope A. Pickers, Grant L. Forster, and Alex J. Etchells
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 387–401,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric O2 can help constrain the carbon cycle processes and quantify fossil fuel CO2 emissions; however, measurement of atmospheric O2 is very challenging, and existing analysers are complex systems to build and maintain. We have tested a new O2 analyser (Picarro Inc. G2207-i) in the laboratory and at Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory. We have found that the G2207-i does not perform as well as an existing O2 analyser from Sable Systems Inc.
Siegfried Schobesberger, Emma L. D'Ambro, Lejish Vettikkat, Ben H. Lee, Qiaoyun Peng, David M. Bell, John E. Shilling, Manish Shrivastava, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome Fast, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 247–271,Short summary
We present a new, highly sensitive technique for measuring atmospheric ammonia, an important trace gas that is emitted mainly by agriculture. We deployed the instrument on an aircraft during research flights over rural Oklahoma. Due to its fast response, we could analyze correlations with turbulent winds and calculate ammonia emissions from nearby areas at 1 to 2 km resolution. We observed high spatial variability and point sources that are not resolved in the US National Emissions Inventory.
Birger Bohn and Insa Lohse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 209–233,Short summary
Optical receivers for solar spectral actinic radiation are designed for angle-independent sensitivities within a hemisphere. Remaining imperfections can be compensated for by receiver-specific corrections based on laboratory characterizations and radiative transfer calculations of spectral radiance distributions. The corrections cover a wide range of realistic atmospheric conditions and were applied to ground-based and airborne measurements in a wavelength range 280–660 nm.
Teles C. Furlani, RenXi Ye, Jordan Stewart, Leigh R. Crilley, Peter M. Edwards, Tara F. Kahan, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 181–193,Short summary
This study describes a new technique to measure total gaseous chlorine, which is the sum of gas-phase chlorine-containing chemicals. The method converts any chlorine-containing molecule to hydrogen chloride that can be detected in real time using a cavity ring-down spectrometer. The new method was validated through laboratory experiments, as well as by making measurements of ambient outdoor air and indoor air during cleaning with a chlorine-based cleaner.
Anas Emad and Lukas Siebicke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 29–40,Short summary
The true eddy accumulation (TEA) method enables measuring atmospheric exchange with slow-response gas analyzers. TEA is formulated assuming ideal conditions with a zero mean vertical wind velocity during the averaging interval. This core assumption is rarely valid under field conditions. Here, we extend the TEA equation to accommodate nonideal conditions. The new equation allows constraining the systematic error term in the measured fluxes and the possibility to minimize or remove it.
Anas Emad and Lukas Siebicke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 41–55,Short summary
A new micrometeorological method to measure atmospheric exchange is proposed, and a prototype sampler is evaluated. The new method, called short-time eddy accumulation, is a variant of the eddy accumulation method, which is suited for use with slow gas analyzers. The new method enables adaptive time-varying accumulation intervals, which brings many advantages to flux measurements such as an improved dynamic range and the ability to run eddy accumulation in a continuous flow-through mode.
Lu Xu, Matthew M. Coggon, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Jessica B. Gilman, Michael A. Robinson, Martin Breitenlechner, Aaron Lamplugh, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, J. Andrew Neuman, Gordon A. Novak, Patrick R. Veres, Steven S. Brown, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7353–7373,Short summary
We describe the development and operation of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer using an ammonium–water cluster (NH4+·H2O) as a reagent ion. NH4+·H2O is a highly versatile reagent ion for measurements of a wide range of oxygenated organic compounds. The major product ion is the cluster with NH4+ produced via ligand-switching reactions. The instrumental sensitivities of analytes depend on the binding energy of the analyte–NH4+ cluster; sensitivities can be estimated using voltage scanning.
Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, Tianyu Zhai, Chunmeng Li, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7019–7037,Short summary
N2O5 is an important reservoir of atmospheric nitrogen, on whose interface reaction ambient particles can largely influence the fate of nitrogen oxides and air quality. In this study, we develop an approach to enable the reactions of N2O5 on ambient particles directly in a tube reactor, deriving the reaction rates with high accuracy by means of a chemistry model. Its successful application helps complement the data scarcity and to fill the knowledge gap between laboratory and field results.
Yubin Chen, Bin Yuan, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Caihong Wu, Xin Song, Yibo Huangfu, Xiao-Bing Li, Yijia Liao, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6935–6947,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate that selective online measurements of cycloalkanes can be achieved using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry with NO+ chemical ionization (NO+ PTR-ToF-MS), with fast response and low detection limits. Applications of this method in both urban air and emission sources will be shown.
Marsailidh M. Twigg, Augustinus J. C. Berkhout, Nicholas Cowan, Sabine Crunaire, Enrico Dammers, Volker Ebert, Vincent Gaudion, Marty Haaima, Christoph Häni, Lewis John, Matthew R. Jones, Bjorn Kamps, John Kentisbeer, Thomas Kupper, Sarah R. Leeson, Daiana Leuenberger, Nils O. B. Lüttschwager, Ulla Makkonen, Nicholas A. Martin, David Missler, Duncan Mounsor, Albrecht Neftel, Chad Nelson, Eiko Nemitz, Rutger Oudwater, Celine Pascale, Jean-Eudes Petit, Andrea Pogany, Nathalie Redon, Jörg Sintermann, Amy Stephens, Mark A. Sutton, Yuk S. Tang, Rens Zijlmans, Christine F. Braban, and Bernhard Niederhauser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6755–6787,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) gas in the atmosphere impacts the environment, human health, and, indirectly, climate. Historic NH3 monitoring was labour intensive, and the instruments were complicated. Over the last decade, there has been a rapid technology development, including “plug-and-play” instruments. This study is an extensive field comparison of the currently available technologies and provides evidence that for routine monitoring, standard operating protocols are required for datasets to be comparable.
Caroline C. Womack, Steven S. Brown, Steven J. Ciciora, Ru-Shan Gao, Richard J. McLaughlin, Michael A. Robinson, Yinon Rudich, and Rebecca A. Washenfelder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6643–6652,Short summary
We present a new miniature instrument to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. NO2 contributes to the formation of pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, and its concentration can vary widely near sources. We developed this lightweight (3.05 kg) low-power (<35 W) instrument to measure NO2 on uncrewed aircraft vehicles (UAVs) and demonstrate that it has the accuracy and precision needed for atmospheric field measurements.
Alexander Håland, Tomáš Mikoviny, Elisabeth Emilie Syse, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6297–6307,Short summary
PTR-MS is widely used in atmospheric sciences for the detection of non-methane organic trace gases. The two most widely used types of PTR-MS instruments differ in their ion source and drift tube design. We herein present a new prototype PTR-MS instrument that hybridizes these designs and combines a conventional hollow cathode glow discharge ion source with a focusing ion–molecule reactor. We also show how this new instrument performs in detecting atmospheric amines.
Gustavo Britto Hupsel de Azevedo, Bill Doyle, Christopher A. Fiebrich, and David Schvartzman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5599–5618,Short summary
Strong changes in pressure, temperature, and humidity occur when small scientific aircraft ascend through the atmosphere to measure carbon dioxide. These strong changes can produce errors in the carbon dioxide measurements. To avoid these errors, we present a low-cost and simple correction method. This low-complexity method allows more researchers to study atmospheric carbon dioxide, reducing entry barriers in this field.
Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, J. Andrew Neuman, Steven S. Brown, Hannah M. Allen, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Matthew M. Coggon, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hongyu Guo, Hannah A. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Christopher D. Holmes, L. Gregory Huey, Jose L. Jimenez, Aaron D. Lamplugh, Young Ro Lee, Jakob Lindaas, Richard H. Moore, Benjamin A. Nault, John B. Nowak, Demetrios Pagonis, Pamela S. Rickly, Michael A. Robinson, Andrew W. Rollins, Vanessa Selimovic, Jason M. St. Clair, David Tanner, Krystal T. Vasquez, Patrick R. Veres, Carsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Caroline C. Womack, Lu Xu, Kyle J. Zarzana, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4901–4930,Short summary
Understanding fire emission impacts on the atmosphere is key to effective air quality management and requires accurate measurements. We present a comparison of airborne measurements of key atmospheric species in ambient air and in fire smoke. We show that most instruments performed within instrument uncertainties. In some cases, further work is needed to fully characterize instrument performance. Comparing independent measurements using different techniques is important to assess their accuracy.
Woohui Nam, Changmin Cho, Begie Perdigones, Tae Siek Rhee, and Kyung-Eun Min
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4473–4487,Short summary
We describe our vibration-resistant instrument for measuring ambient NO3, NO2, and H2O based on cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy. By simultaneous retrieval of H2O with the other species using a measured H2O absorption spectrum, direct quantifications among all species are possible without any pre-treatment for H2O. Our instrument achieves the effective light path to ~101.5 km, which allows the sensitive measurements of NO3 and NO2 as 1.41 pptv and 6.92 ppbv (1σ) in 1 s.
Yunsong Liu, Jean-Daniel Paris, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Panayiota Antoniou, Christos Constantinides, Maximilien Desservettaz, Christos Keleshis, Olivier Laurent, Andreas Leonidou, Carole Philippon, Panagiotis Vouterakos, Pierre-Yves Quéhé, Philippe Bousquet, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4431–4442,Short summary
This paper details laboratory-based and field developments of a cost-effective and compacted UAV CO2 sensor system to address the challenge of measuring CO2 with sufficient precision and acquisition frequency. We assess its performance extensively through laboratory and field tests and provide a case study in an urban area (Nicosia, Cyprus). We therefore expect that this portable system will be widely used for measuring CO2 emission and distribution in natural or urban environments.
Subin Yoon, Alexander Kotsakis, Sergio L. Alvarez, Mark G. Spychala, Elizabeth Klovenski, Paul Walter, Gary Morris, Ernesto Corrales, Alfredo Alan, Jorge A. Diaz, and James H. Flynn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4373–4384,Short summary
SO2 is adverse to human health and the environment. A single SO2 sonde was developed to provide direct SO2 measurement with a greater vertical extent, a lower limit of detection, and less uncertainty relative to the previous dual-sonde method. The single sonde was tested in the field near volcanoes and anthropogenic sources where the sonde measured SO2 ranging from 0.5 to 940 ppb. This lighter-weight payload can be a great candidate to attach to small drones and unmanned aerial vehicles.
Michael A. Robinson, J. Andrew Neuman, L. Gregory Huey, James M. Roberts, Steven S. Brown, and Patrick R. Veres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4295–4305,Short summary
Iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is commonly used in atmospheric chemistry laboratory studies and field campaigns. Deployment of the NOAA iodide CIMS instrument in the summer of 2021 indicated a significant and overlooked temperature dependence of the instrument sensitivity. This work explores which analytes are influenced by this phenomena. Additionally, we recommend controls to reduce this effect for future field deployments.
Roland Vernooij, Patrik Winiger, Martin Wooster, Tercia Strydom, Laurent Poulain, Ulrike Dusek, Mark Grosvenor, Gareth J. Roberts, Nick Schutgens, and Guido R. van der Werf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4271–4294,Short summary
Landscape fires are a substantial emitter of greenhouse gases and aerosols. Previous studies have indicated savanna emission factors to be highly variable. Improving fire emission estimates, and understanding future climate- and human-induced changes in fire regimes, requires in situ measurements. We present a drone-based method that enables the collection of a large amount of high-quality emission factor measurements that do not have the biases of aircraft or surface measurements.
Ralf Tillmann, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Franz Rohrer, Benjamin Winter, Christian Wesolek, Tobias Schuldt, Anne C. Lange, Philipp Franke, Elmar Friese, Michael Decker, Robert Wegener, Morten Hundt, Oleg Aseev, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3827–3842,Short summary
We report in situ measurements of air pollutant concentrations within the planetary boundary layer on board a Zeppelin in Germany. The low costs of commercial flights provide an affordable and efficient method to improve our understanding of changes in emissions in space and time. The experimental setup expands the capabilities of this platform and provides insights into primary and secondary pollution observations and planetary boundary layer dynamics which determine air quality significantly.
Mei Bai, Zoe Loh, David W. T. Griffith, Debra Turner, Richard Eckard, Robert Edis, Owen T. Denmead, Glenn W. Bryant, Clare Paton-Walsh, Matthew Tonini, Sean M. McGinn, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3593–3610,Short summary
The open-path laser (OPL) and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) are used in agricultural research, but their error in emissions research has not been the focus of studies. We conducted trace gas release trials and herd and paddock emission studies to compare their applicability and performance. The OP-FTIR has better stability in stable conditions than OPL. The CH4 OPL accurately detects the low background level of CH4, but the NH3 OPL only detects background values >10 ppbv.
Roger Curcoll, Josep-Anton Morguí, Armand Kamnang, Lídia Cañas, Arturo Vargas, and Claudia Grossi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2807–2818,Short summary
Low-cost air enquirer kits, including CO2 and environmental parameter sensors, have been designed, built, and tested in a new steady-state through-flow chamber for simultaneous measurements of CO2 fluxes in soil and CO2 concentrations in air. A CO2 calibration and multiparametric fitting reduced the total uncertainty of CO2 concentration by 90 %. This system allows continuous measurement of CO2 fluxes and CO2 ambient air, with low cost (EUR 1200), low energy demand (<5 W), and low maintenance.
Lisa von der Heyden, Walter Wißdorf, Ralf Kurtenbach, and Jörg Kleffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1983–2000,Short summary
A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system based on the LOPAP technique for the quantification of vertical fluxes of nitrous acid (HONO) was developed and tested in a field campaign. Typical diurnal variations of the HONO fluxes were observed with low, partly negative fluxes during night-time and higher positive fluxes around noon. The highest correlation of the HONO flux was observed with the product of the NO2 photolysis frequency and the NO2 concentration.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1903–1916,Short summary
The AirCore collects a continuous air sample in a long tube that can be read later when the captured air is slowly pushed through an analyzer. Much of the variation of gas composition encountered during collection is preserved, like having up to ~ 100 separate air samples. This is illustrated through examples of actual flights, and the analysis algorithm is described. The AirCore provides access to air as high as the mid stratosphere, enabling validation for satellite air composition soundings.
Peter Sperlich, Gordon W. Brailsford, Rowena C. Moss, John McGregor, Ross J. Martin, Sylvia Nichol, Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher, Beata Bukosa, Magda Mandic, C. Ian Schipper, Paul Krummel, and Alan D. Griffiths
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1631–1656,Short summary
We tested an in situ analyser for carbon and oxygen isotopes in atmospheric CO2 at Baring Head, New Zealand’s observatory for Southern Ocean baseline air. The analyser was able to resolve regional signals of the terrestrial carbon cycle, although the analysis of small events was limited by analytical uncertainty. Further improvement of the instrument performance would be desirable for the robust analysis of distant signals and to resolve the small variability in Southern Ocean baseline air.
Martin Breitenlechner, Gordon A. Novak, J. Andrew Neuman, Andrew W. Rollins, and Patrick R. Veres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1159–1169,Short summary
We coupled a new ion source to a commercially available state-of-the-art trace gas analyzer. The instrument is particularly well suited for conducting high-altitude observations, addressing the challenges of low ambient pressures and a complex sample matrix. The new instrument and ion source provides significant advantages to more traditional modes of operation, without sacrificing the sensitivity and flexibility of this technique.
Jianqiang Zeng, Yanli Zhang, Huina Zhang, Wei Song, Zhenfeng Wu, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 79–93,Short summary
The emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from plant leaves is an essential part of biosphere–atmosphere interactions. Here we demonstrate how a dynamic chamber for measuring branch-scale BVOC emissions could be characterized both in the lab for adsorptive losses and in the field for ambient–enclosure environmental differences. The results also imply emission factors for terpenes might be underestimated if measured using dynamic chambers without certified transfer efficiencies.
Lukas Fischer, Martin Breitenlechner, Eva Canaval, Wiebke Scholz, Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Thomas G. Karl, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 8019–8039,Short summary
Ecosystems emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are then oxidized in the atmosphere, contributing to ozone and secondary aerosol formation. While flux measurements of BVOCs are state of the art, flux measurements of the less volatile oxidation products are difficult to achieve due to inlet losses. Here we present first flux measurements, utilizing a novel PTR3 instrument in combination with a specially designed wall-less inlet we put on top of the Hyytiälä tower in Finland.
Kevin S. Rozmiarek, Bruce H. Vaughn, Tyler R. Jones, Valerie Morris, William B. Skorski, Abigail G. Hughes, Jack Elston, Sonja Wahl, Anne-Katrine Faber, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7045–7067,Short summary
We have designed an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sampling platform for operation in extreme polar environments that is capable of sampling atmospheric water vapor for subsequent measurement of water isotopes. During flight, we measure location, temperature, humidity, and pressure to determine the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using algorithms, allowing for strategic decision-making by the pilot to collect samples in glass flasks contained in the nose cone of the UAV.
Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Sreenath Paleri, Matthias Sühring, Brian J. Butterworth, Christopher Florian, Matthias Mauder, David M. Plummer, Luise Wanner, Ke Xu, and Ankur R. Desai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6929–6954,Short summary
The key points are the following. (i) Integrative observing system design can multiply the information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurements. (ii) Catalyzing numerical simulations and first-principles machine learning open up observing system simulation experiments to novel applications. (iii) Use cases include natural climate solutions, emission inventory validation, urban air quality, and industry leak detection.
Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, Dale F. Hurst, Geoff S. Dutton, Bradley D. Hall, J. David Nance, Ben R. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura P. Wolton, Audra McClure-Begley, James W. Elkins, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Laurel A. Watts, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Bruce C. Daube, Yenny Gonzalez Ramos, Roisin Commane, Gregory W. Santoni, Jasna V. Pittman, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric Kort, Glenn S. Diskin, and T. Paul Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6795–6819,Short summary
We built UCATS to study atmospheric chemistry and transport. It has measured trace gases including CFCs, N2O, SF6, CH4, CO, and H2 with gas chromatography, as well as ozone and water vapor. UCATS has been part of missions to study the tropical tropopause; transport of air into the stratosphere; greenhouse gases, transport, and chemistry in the troposphere; and ozone chemistry, on both piloted and unmanned aircraft. Its design, capabilities, and some results are shown and described here.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Uwe Parchatka, Ivan Tadic, Birger Bohn, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Hartwig Harder, Flora Kluge, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Florian Obersteiner, Martin Zöger, Raphael Doerich, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6759–6776,Short summary
NO2 plays a central role in atmospheric photochemical processes and requires accurate measurements. This research presents NO2 data obtained via chemiluminescence using a photolytic converter from airborne studies around Cabo Verde and laboratory investigations. We show the limits and error-proneness of a conventional blue light converter in aircraft measurements affected by humidity and NO levels and suggest the use of an alternative quartz converter for more reliable results.
Alexandra Gutmann, Nicole Bobrowski, Marcello Liotta, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6395–6406,Short summary
Motivated by a special interest in bromine chemistry in volcanic plumes, the study presented here describes a new method for the quantitative collection of gaseous hydrogen bromide in gas diffusion denuders. The hydrogen bromide reacted during sampling with appropriate epoxides applied to the denuder walls. The denuder sampling assembly was successfully deployed in the volcanic plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua.
Rebecca L. Wagner, Naomi J. Farren, Jack Davison, Stuart Young, James R. Hopkins, Alastair C. Lewis, David C. Carslaw, and Marvin D. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6083–6100,Short summary
We describe the use of a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) in a mobile laboratory to provide on-road, high spatial and temporal measurements of CO2, CH4, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases. Results are presented that highlight the potential of this platform for developing characterisation methods of different emissions sources in complex urban areas.
Brandon Bottorff, Emily Reidy, Levi Mielke, Sebastien Dusanter, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6039–6056,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl (OH) radicals, the primary oxidant in the atmosphere. Accurate measurements of HONO are thus important to understand the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. A new instrument capable of measuring atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) with high sensitivity is presented, utilizing laser photofragmentation of ambient HONO and subsequent detection of the OH radical fragment.
Federico Dallo, Daniele Zannoni, Jacopo Gabrieli, Paolo Cristofanelli, Francescopiero Calzolari, Fabrizio de Blasi, Andrea Spolaor, Dario Battistel, Rachele Lodi, Warren Raymond Lee Cairns, Ann Mari Fjæraa, Paolo Bonasoni, and Carlo Barbante
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6005–6021,Short summary
Our work showed how the adoption of low-cost technology could be useful in environmental research and monitoring. We focused our work on tropospheric ozone, but we also showed how to make a general purpose low-cost sensing system which may be adapted and optimised to be used in many other case studies. Given the importance of providing quality data, we put a lot of effort in the sensor's calibration, and we believe that our results show how to exploit the potential of the low-cost technology.
Hongming Yi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Aline Gratien, Vincent Michoud, Edouard Pangui, Jean-Francois Doussin, and Weidong Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5701–5715,Short summary
HONO and NO2 play a crucial role in the atmospheric oxidation capacity that affects the regional air quality and global climate. Accurate measurements of HONO are challenging due to the drawback of existing detection methods. Calibration-free high-sensitivity direct, simultaneous measurements of NO2, HONO and CH2O with UV-IBBCEAS provide accurate and fast quantitative analysis of their concentration variation within their lifetime by intercomparison with NOx, FTIR and NitroMAC sensors.
Patrick Dewald, Raphael Dörich, Jan Schuladen, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5501–5519,Short summary
Organic nitrates generated from the reaction between isoprene and the nitrate radical (ISOP-NITs) were detected via their thermal dissociation in heated quartz inlets to nitrogen dioxide monitored by cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent dissociation profiles of ISOP-NITs in the presence of ozone (O3) are broad in contrast to narrow profiles of common reference compounds. We demonstrate that this broadening is caused by O3-assisted reactions of ISOP-NITs on quartz surfaces.
Erin R. Delaria, Jinsol Kim, Helen L. Fitzmaurice, Catherine Newman, Paul J. Wooldridge, Kevin Worthington, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5487–5500,Short summary
The use of a dense network of low-cost CO2 sensors is an attractive option for measuring CO2 emissions in cities. However, these low-cost sensors are also subject to uncertainties. Here, we describe a novel method of field calibration for correcting temperature-related errors in the CO2 sensors deployed in the BEACO2N network. We show that with this temperature correction, we can achieve a sufficiently low network error to allow for the evaluation of CO2 emissions at a neighborhood scale.
Raphael Dörich, Philipp Eger, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5319–5332,Short summary
We demonstrate in laboratory experiments that the formation of IOx anions (formed in reactions of I− with O3) or acetate anions (formed e.g. by the reaction of I− with peracetic acid) results in unexpected sensitivity of an iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (I-CIMS) to HNO3 at a mass-to-charge ratio of 62. This helps explain observations of apparent high daytime levels of N2O5. Airborne measurements using I-CIMS confirm these conclusions.
Corinna Kloss, Vicheith Tan, J. Brian Leen, Garrett L. Madsen, Aaron Gardner, Xu Du, Thomas Kulessa, Johannes Schillings, Herbert Schneider, Stefanie Schrade, Chenxi Qiu, and Marc von Hobe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5271–5297,Short summary
We describe the innovative analyzer
AMICAfor airborne trace gas measurements by infrared spectroscopy. Its design makes it robust and allows for sensitive measurements. AMICA has been used on two different aircraft for measuring gases including carbonyl sulfide, carbon monoxide and ozone. With fairly simple adaptions, AMICA can measure many stable trace gases that absorb light in the infrared.
Briber, B. M., Hutyra, L. R., Dunn, A. L., Raciti, S. M., and Munger, J. W.: Variations in atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios across a Boston, MA urban to rural gradient, Land, 2, 304–327, 2013.
Brioude, J., Angevine, W. M., Ahmadov, R., Kim, S.-W., Evan, S., McKeen, S. A., Hsie, E.-Y., Frost, G. J., Neuman, J. A., Pollack, I. B., Peischl, J., Ryerson, T. B., Holloway, J., Brown, S. S., Nowak, J. B., Roberts, J. M., Wofsy, S. C., Santoni, G. W., Oda, T., and Trainer, M.: Top-down estimate of surface flux in the Los Angeles Basin using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: assessing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and CO2 and their impacts, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3661–3677, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-3661-2013, 2013.
Brondfield, M. N., Hutyra, L. R., Gately, C. K., Raciti, S. M., and Peterson, S. A.: Modeling and validation of on-road CO2 emissions inventories at the urban regional scale, Environ. Pollut., 170, 113–123, 2012.
Bukowiecki, N., Dommen, J., Prevot, A. S. H., Richter, R., Weingartner, E., and Baltensperger, U.: A mobile pollutant measurement laboratory – measuring gas phase and aerosol ambient concentrations with high spatial and temporal resolution, Atmos. Environ., 36, 5569–5579, 2002.
Canadell, J. G., Le Quere, C., Raupach, M. R., Field, C. B., Buitenhuis, E. T., Ciais, P., Conway, T. J., Gillett, N. P., Houghton, R. A., and Marland, G.: Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks, Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci., 104, 18866–18870, 2007.
Crosson, E. R.: A cavity ring-down analyzer for measuring atmospheric levels of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor, Appl. Phys. B, 92, 403–408, 2008.
Dhakal, S: GHG emissions from urbanization and opportunities from urban carbon mitigation, Curr. Op. Environ. Sustain., 2, 277–283, 2010.
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EPA: Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2010.
Farrell, P., Culling, D., and Leifer, I.: Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 1. A mobile surface platform for source investigations, Atmos. Environ., 74, 422–431, 2013.
Fleming, Z. L., Monks, P. S., and Manning, A. J.: Review: Untangling the influence of air-mass history in interpreting observed atmospheric composition, Atmos. Res., 104–105, 1–39, 2012.
Gurney, K. R., Mendoza, D. L., Zhou, Y., Fischer, M. L., Miller, C. C., Geethakumar, S., and de la Rue du Can, S.: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 5535–5541, 2009.
Gurney, K. R., Razlivanov, I., Song, Y., Zhou, Y., Benes, B., and Abdul-Massih, M.: Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions on the building/street scale for a large U.S. city, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 12194–12202, 2012.
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Herndon, S. C., Jayne, J. T., Zahniser, M. S., Worsnop, D. R., Knighton, B., Alwine, E., Lamb, B. K., Zavala, M., Nelson, D. D., McManus, J. B., Shorter, J. H., Canagaratna, M. R., Onasch, T. B., and Kolb, C. E.: Characterization of urban pollutant emission fluxes and ambient concentration distributions using a mobile laboratory with rapid response instrumentation, Faraday Discuss., 130, 327–339, 2005.
Hopkins, F. M., Bush, S. E., Ehleringer, J. R., Lai, C. T., Kort, E. A., Blake, D. R., and Randerson, J. T.: Spatial patterns and source attribution of urban methane sources in the Los Angeles Basin, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., in revision, 2015.
Hussein, T., Johansson, C., Karlsson, H., and Hansson, H: Factors affecting non-tailpipe aerosol emissions from paved roads: On-road measurements in Stockholm, Sweden, Atmos. Environ., 42, 688–702, 2008.
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Jackson, R. B., Down, A., Phillips, N. G., Ackley, R. C., Cook, C. W., Plata, D. L., and Zhao, K.: Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 2051–2058, 2014.
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Kolb, C. E., Herndon, S. C., McManus, J. B., Shorter, J. H., Zahniser, M. S., Nelson, D. D., Jayne, J. T., Canagaratna, M. R., and Worsnop, D. R.: Mobile laboratory with rapid response instruments for real-time measurements of urban and regional trace gas and particulate distributions and emissions source characteristics, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 5694–5703, 2004.
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Kort, E. A., Frankenberg, C., Miller, C. E., and Oda, T.: Space-based observations of megacity carbon dioxide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L17806, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052738, 2012.
Lauvaux, T., Miles, N. L., Richarson, S. J., Deng, A., Stauffer, D. R., Davis, K., Jacobson, G., Rella, C., Calonder, G.-P., and DeCola, P. L.: Urban emissions of CO2 from Davos, Switzerland: The first real-time monitoring system using an atmospheric inversion technique, J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol., 52, 2654–2668, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-B-038.1, 2013.
Leifer, I., Culling, D., Schneising, O., Farrell, P., Buchwitz, M., and Burrows, J. P.: Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions, Atmos. Environ., 74, 432–441, 2013.
Lietzke, B. and Vogt, R.: Variability of CO2 concentrations and fluxes in and above an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ., 74, 60–72, 2013.
McKain, K., Wofsy, S. C., Nehrkorn, T., Eluszkiewicz, J., Ehleringer, J. R., and Stephens, B. B.: Assessment of ground-based atmospheric observations for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from an urban region, Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci., 109, 8423–8428, 2012.
Miller, S. M., Wofsy, S. C., Michalak, A. M., Kort, E. A., Andrews, A. E., Biraud, S. C., Dlugokencky, E. J., Eluszkiewicz, J., Fischer, M. L., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Miller, B. R., Miller, J. B., Montzka, S. A., Nehrkorn, T., and Sweeney, C.: Anthropogenic emissons of methane in the United States, Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci., 110, 20018–20022, 2013.
Moore, T. O: Application of a mobile flux lab for the atmospheric measurement of emissions (FLAME), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, 2009.
Nehrkorn, T., Henderson, J., Leidner, M., Mountain, M., and Eluszkiewicz, J.: WRF simulations of the urban circulation in the Salt Lake City area for CO2 modeling, J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol., 52, 323–340, 2013.
Newman, S., Jeong, S., Fischer, M. L., Xu, X., Haman, C. L., Lefer, B., Alvarez, S., Rappenglueck, B., Kort, E. A., Andrews, A. E., Peischl, J., Gurney, K. R., Miller, C. E., and Yung, Y. L.: Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin megacity during spring 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4359–4372, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-4359-2013, 2013.
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Pirjola, L., Kupiainen, K. J., Perhoniemi, P., Tervahattu, H., and Vesala, H.: Non-exhaust measurement system of the mobile laboratory SNIFFER, Atmos. Environ., 43, 4703–4713, 2009.
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van der Werf, G. R., Randerson, J. T., Giglio, L., Collatz, G. J., Mu, M., Kasibhatla, P. S., Morton, D. C., DeFries, R. S., Jin, Y., and van Leeuwen, T. T.: Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11707–11735, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-11707-2010, 2010.
van Leeuwen, T. T. and van der Werf, G. R.: Spatial and temporal variability in the ratio of trace gases emitted from biomass burning, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3611–3629, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-3611-2011, 2011.
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