Articles | Volume 10, issue 6
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Thin ice clouds in the Arctic: cloud optical depth and particle size retrieved from ground-based thermal infrared radiometry
Centre d'Applications et de Recherches en Télédétection, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada
Norman T. O'Neill
Centre d'Applications et de Recherches en Télédétection, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada
David D. Turner
Global Systems Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Edwin W. Eloranta
Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
No articles found.
Seyed Ali Sayedain, Norman T. O'Neill, James King, Patrick L. Hayes, Daniel Bellamy, Richard Washington, Sebastian Engelstaedter, Andy Vicente-Luis, Jill Bachelder, and Malo Bernhard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4115–4135,Short summary
We used (columnar) ground-based remote sensing (RS) tools and surface measurements to characterize local (drainage-basin) dust plumes at a site in the Yukon. Plume height, particle size, and column-to-surface ratios enabled insights into how satellite RS could be used to analyze Arctic-wide dust transport. This helps modelers refine dust impacts in their climate change simulations. It is an important step since local dust is a key source of dust deposition on snow in the sensitive Arctic region.
Volker Wulfmeyer, Christoph Senff, Florian Späth, Andreas Behrendt, Diego Lange, Robert M. Banta, W. Alan Brewer, Andreas Wieser, and David D. Turner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
A simultaneous deployment of Doppler, temperature, and water-vapor lidar systems is used to provide profiles of molecular destruction rates and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation in the convective boundary layer (CBL). The results can be used for the parameterization of turbulent variables, TKE budget analyses, and the verification of weather forecast and climate models.
Sunil Baidar, Timothy J. Wagner, David D. Turner, and W. Alan Brewer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3715–3726,Short summary
This paper provides a new method to retrieve wind profiles from coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) measurements. It takes advantage of layer-to-layer correlation in wind profiles to provide continuous profiles of up to 3 km by filling in the gaps where the CDL signal is too small to retrieve reliable results by itself. Comparison with the current method and collocated radiosonde wind measurements showed excellent agreement with no degradation in results where the current method gives valid results.
Liviu Ivănescu and Norman T. O'Neill
The starphotometers complex infrastructure prohibits calibration campaigns. On-site calibration procedures appear as the only practical solution. A multi-star approach overcomes site-specific sky stability problems. Star selection strategies were proposed for mitigating some sources of errors. Data processing strategies and instrument design improvements appear necessary.
Melody Sandells, Nick Rutter, Kirsty Wivell, Richard Essery, Stuart Fox, Chawn Harlow, Ghislain Picard, Alexandre Roy, Alain Royer, and Peter Toose
Satellite microwave observations are used for weather forecasting. In Arctic regions this is complicated by natural emission from the snow. By simulating airborne observations from in situ measurements of snow, this study shows how snow properties affect the signal within the atmosphere. Fresh snowfall between flights changed the airborne measurements. Good knowledge of snow layering and structure can be used to account for the effects of snow, and could unlock these data to improve forecasts.
Maria P. Cadeddu, Virendra P. Ghate, David D. Turner, and Thomas E. Surleta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3453–3470,Short summary
We analyze the variability in marine boundary layer moisture at the Eastern North Atlantic site on a monthly and daily temporal scale and examine its fundamental role in the control of boundary layer cloudiness and precipitation. The study also highlights the complex interaction between large-scale and local processes controlling the boundary layer moisture and the importance of the mesoscale spatial distribution of vapor to support convection and precipitation.
Norman T. O'Neill, Keyvan Ranjbar, Liviu Ivănescu, Thomas F. Eck, Jeffrey S. Reid, David M. Giles, Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, and Jai Prakash Chaubey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1103–1120,Short summary
Aerosols are atmospheric particles that vary in size (radius) from a fraction of a micrometer (µm) to around 20 µm. They tend to be either smaller than 1 µm (like smoke or pollution) or larger than 1 µm (like dust or sea salt). Their optical effect (scattering and absorbing sunlight) can be divided into FM (fine-mode) and CM (coarse-mode) parts using a cutoff radius around 1 µm or a spectral (color) technique. We present and validate a theoretical link between the types of FM and CM divisions.
Bianca Adler, James M. Wilczak, Jaymes Kenyon, Laura Bianco, Irina V. Djalalova, Joseph B. Olson, and David D. Turner
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 597–619,Short summary
Rapid changes in wind speed make the integration of wind energy produced during persistent orographic cold-air pools difficult to integrate into the electrical grid. By evaluating three versions of NOAA’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh model, we demonstrate how model developments targeted during the second Wind Forecast Improvement Project improve the forecast of a persistent cold-air pool event.
Gianluca Di Natale, David D. Turner, Giovanni Bianchini, Massimo Del Guasta, Luca Palchetti, Alessandro Bracci, Luca Baldini, Tiziano Maestri, William Cossich, Michele Martinazzo, and Luca Facheris
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7235–7258,Short summary
In this paper, we describe a new approach to test the consistency of the precipitating ice cloud optical and microphysical properties in Antarctica, Dome C, retrieved from hyperspectral measurements in the far-infrared, with the reflectivity detected by a co-located micro rain radar operating at 24 GHz. The retrieved ice crystal sizes were found in accordance with the direct measurements of an optical imager, also installed at Dome C, which can collect the falling ice particles.
William J. Shaw, Larry K. Berg, Mithu Debnath, Georgios Deskos, Caroline Draxl, Virendra P. Ghate, Charlotte B. Hasager, Rao Kotamarthi, Jeffrey D. Mirocha, Paytsar Muradyan, William J. Pringle, David D. Turner, and James M. Wilczak
Wind Energ. Sci., 7, 2307–2334,Short summary
This paper provides a review of prominent scientific challenges to characterizing the offshore wind resource using as examples phenomena that occur in the rapidly developing wind energy areas off the United States. The paper also describes the current state of modeling and observations in the marine atmospheric boundary layer and provides specific recommendations for filling key current knowledge gaps.
Outi Meinander, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavel Amosov, Elena Aseyeva, Cliff Atkins, Alexander Baklanov, Clarissa Baldo, Sarah L. Barr, Barbara Barzycka, Liane G. Benning, Bojan Cvetkovic, Polina Enchilik, Denis Frolov, Santiago Gassó, Konrad Kandler, Nikolay Kasimov, Jan Kavan, James King, Tatyana Koroleva, Viktoria Krupskaya, Markku Kulmala, Monika Kusiak, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Michał Laska, Jerome Lasne, Marek Lewandowski, Bartłomiej Luks, James B. McQuaid, Beatrice Moroni, Benjamin Murray, Ottmar Möhler, Adam Nawrot, Slobodan Nickovic, Norman T. O’Neill, Goran Pejanovic, Olga Popovicheva, Keyvan Ranjbar, Manolis Romanias, Olga Samonova, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Kerstin Schepanski, Ivan Semenkov, Anna Sharapova, Elena Shevnina, Zongbo Shi, Mikhail Sofiev, Frédéric Thevenet, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Mikhail Timofeev, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Andreas Uppstu, Darya Urupina, György Varga, Tomasz Werner, Olafur Arnalds, and Ana Vukovic Vimic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11889–11930,Short summary
High-latitude dust (HLD) is a short-lived climate forcer, air pollutant, and nutrient source. Our results suggest a northern HLD belt at 50–58° N in Eurasia and 50–55° N in Canada and at >60° N in Eurasia and >58° N in Canada. Our addition to the previously identified global dust belt (GDB) provides crucially needed information on the extent of active HLD sources with both direct and indirect impacts on climate and environment in remote regions, which are often poorly understood and predicted.
Heather Guy, David D. Turner, Von P. Walden, Ian M. Brooks, and Ryan R. Neely
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5095–5115,Short summary
Fog formation is highly sensitive to near-surface temperatures and humidity profiles. Passive remote sensing instruments can provide continuous measurements of the vertical temperature and humidity profiles and liquid water content, which can improve fog forecasts. Here we compare the performance of collocated infrared and microwave remote sensing instruments and demonstrate that the infrared instrument is especially sensitive to the onset of thin radiation fog.
Peng Xian, Jianglong Zhang, Norm T. O'Neill, Travis D. Toth, Blake Sorenson, Peter R. Colarco, Zak Kipling, Edward J. Hyer, James R. Campbell, Jeffrey S. Reid, and Keyvan Ranjbar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9915–9947,Short summary
The study provides baseline Arctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth climatology, trend, and extreme event statistics from 2003 to 2019 using a combination of aerosol reanalyses, remote sensing, and ground observations. Biomass burning smoke has an overwhelming contribution to black carbon (an efficient climate forcer) compared to anthropogenic sources. Burning's large interannual variability and increasing summer trend have important implications for the Arctic climate.
Peng Xian, Jianglong Zhang, Norm T. O'Neill, Jeffrey S. Reid, Travis D. Toth, Blake Sorenson, Edward J. Hyer, James R. Campbell, and Keyvan Ranjbar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9949–9967,Short summary
The study provides a baseline Arctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth climatology, trend, and extreme event statistics from 2003 to 2019 using a combination of aerosol reanalyses, remote sensing, and ground observations. Biomass burning smoke has an overwhelming contribution to black carbon (an efficient climate forcer) compared to anthropogenic sources. Burning's large interannual variability and increasing summer trend have important implications for the Arctic climate.
Joëlle Voglimacci-Stephanopoli, Anna Wendleder, Hugues Lantuit, Alexandre Langlois, Samuel Stettner, Andreas Schmitt, Jean-Pierre Dedieu, Achim Roth, and Alain Royer
The Cryosphere, 16, 2163–2181,Short summary
Changes in the state of the snowpack in the context of observed global warming must be considered to improve our understanding of the processes within the cryosphere. This study aims to characterize an arctic snowpack using the TerraSAR-X satellite. Using a high-spatial-resolution vegetation classification, we were able to quantify the variability in snow depth, as well as the topographic soil wetness index, which provided a better understanding of the electromagnetic wave–ground interaction.
James B. Duncan Jr., Laura Bianco, Bianca Adler, Tyler Bell, Irina V. Djalalova, Laura Riihimaki, Joseph Sedlar, Elizabeth N. Smith, David D. Turner, Timothy J. Wagner, and James M. Wilczak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2479–2502,Short summary
In this study, several ground-based remote sensing instruments are used to estimate the height of the convective planetary boundary layer, and their performance is compared against independent boundary layer depth estimates obtained from radiosondes launched as part of the CHEESEHEAD19 field campaign. The impact of clouds (particularly boundary layer clouds) on the estimation of the boundary layer depth is also investigated.
Keyvan Ranjbar, Norm T. O'Neill, and Yasmin Aboel-Fetouh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1757–1760,Short summary
We argue that the illustration employed by Huang et al. (2015) to demonstrate the transport of Asian dust to the high Arctic was, in fact, largely a cloud event and that the actual impact of Asian dust was measurable but much weaker than what they proposed and had occurred a day earlier (in agreement with the transport model they had employed to predict the transport path to the high Arctic).
Irina V. Djalalova, David D. Turner, Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak, James Duncan, Bianca Adler, and Daniel Gottas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 521–537,Short summary
In this paper we investigate the synergy obtained by combining active (radio acoustic sounding system – RASS) and passive (microwave radiometer) remote sensing observations to obtain temperature vertical profiles through a radiative transfer model. Inclusion of the RASS observations leads to more accurate temperature profiles from the surface to 5 km above ground, well above the maximum height of the RASS observations themselves (2000 m), when compared to the microwave radiometer used alone.
Julien Meloche, Alexandre Langlois, Nick Rutter, Alain Royer, Josh King, Branden Walker, Philip Marsh, and Evan J. Wilcox
The Cryosphere, 16, 87–101,Short summary
To estimate snow water equivalent from space, model predictions of the satellite measurement (brightness temperature in our case) have to be used. These models allow us to estimate snow properties from the brightness temperature by inverting the model. To improve SWE estimate, we proposed incorporating the variability of snow in these model as it has not been taken into account yet. A new parameter (coefficient of variation) is proposed because it improved simulation of brightness temperature.
Alain Royer, Alexandre Roy, Sylvain Jutras, and Alexandre Langlois
The Cryosphere, 15, 5079–5098,Short summary
Dense spatially distributed networks of autonomous instruments for continuously measuring the amount of snow on the ground are needed for operational water resource and flood management and the monitoring of northern climate change. Four new-generation non-invasive sensors are compared. A review of their advantages, drawbacks and accuracy is discussed. This performance analysis is intended to help researchers and decision-makers choose the one system that is best suited to their needs.
Heather Guy, Ian M. Brooks, Ken S. Carslaw, Benjamin J. Murray, Von P. Walden, Matthew D. Shupe, Claire Pettersen, David D. Turner, Christopher J. Cox, William D. Neff, Ralf Bennartz, and Ryan R. Neely III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15351–15374,Short summary
We present the first full year of surface aerosol number concentration measurements from the central Greenland Ice Sheet. Aerosol concentrations here have a distinct seasonal cycle from those at lower-altitude Arctic sites, which is driven by large-scale atmospheric circulation. Our results can be used to help understand the role aerosols might play in Greenland surface melt through the modification of cloud properties. This is crucial in a rapidly changing region where observations are sparse.
Liviu Ivănescu, Konstantin Baibakov, Norman T. O'Neill, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, and Karl-Heinz Schulz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6561–6599,Short summary
Starphotometry seeks to provide accurate measures of nocturnal optical depth (OD). It is driven by a need to characterize aerosols and their radiative forcing effects during a very data-sparse period. A sub-0.01 OD error is required to adequately characterize key aerosol parameters. We found approaches for sufficiently mitigating errors to achieve the 0.01 standard. This renders starphotometry the equal of daytime techniques and opens the door to exploiting its distinct star-pointing advantages.
Konstantin Baibakov, Samuel LeBlanc, Keyvan Ranjbar, Norman T. O'Neill, Mengistu Wolde, Jens Redemann, Kristina Pistone, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, Tak W. Chan, Michael J. Wheeler, Leonid Nichman, Connor Flynn, and Roy Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10671–10687,Short summary
We find that the airborne measurements of the vertical extinction due to aerosols (aerosol optical depth, AOD) obtained in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) can significantly exceed ground-based values. This can have an effect on estimating the AOSR radiative impact and is relevant to satellite validation based on ground-based measurements. We also show that the AOD can marginally increase as the plumes are being transported away from the source and the new particles are being formed.
Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Rob K. Newsom, Larry K. Berg, Heng Xiao, Po-Lun Ma, and David D. Turner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4403–4424,Short summary
Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height is a critical parameter in atmospheric models. Continuous PBL height measurements from remote sensing measurements are important to understand various boundary layer mechanisms, especially during daytime and evening transition periods. Due to several limitations in existing methodologies to detect PBL height from a Doppler lidar, in this study, a machine learning (ML) approach is tested. The ML model is observed to improve the accuracy by over 50 %.
David D. Turner and Ulrich Löhnert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3033–3048,Short summary
Temperature and humidity profiles in the lowest couple of kilometers near the surface are very important for many applications. Passive spectral radiometers are commercially available, and observations from these instruments have been used to get these profiles. However, new active lidar systems are able to measure partial profiles of water vapor. This paper investigates how the derived profiles of water vapor and temperature are improved when the active and passive observations are combined.
Alex Mavrovic, Renato Pardo Lara, Aaron Berg, François Demontoux, Alain Royer, and Alexandre Roy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1117–1131,Short summary
This paper presents a new probe that measures soil microwave permittivity in the frequency range of satellite L-band sensors. The probe capacities will allow for validation and calibration of the models used to estimate landscape physical properties from raw microwave satellite datasets. Our results show important discrepancies between model estimates and instrument measurements that will need to be addressed.
Bing Pu, Paul Ginoux, Huan Guo, N. Christina Hsu, John Kimball, Beatrice Marticorena, Sergey Malyshev, Vaishali Naik, Norman T. O'Neill, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Juliette Paireau, Joseph M. Prospero, Elena Shevliakova, and Ming Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 55–81,Short summary
Dust emission initiates when surface wind velocities exceed a threshold depending on soil and surface characteristics and varying spatially and temporally. Climate models widely use wind erosion thresholds. The climatological monthly global distribution of the wind erosion threshold, Vthreshold, is retrieved using satellite and reanalysis products and improves the simulation of dust frequency, magnitude, and the seasonal cycle in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land–atmosphere model.
Laura Bianco, Irina V. Djalalova, James M. Wilczak, Joseph B. Olson, Jaymes S. Kenyon, Aditya Choukulkar, Larry K. Berg, Harindra J. S. Fernando, Eric P. Grimit, Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Julie K. Lundquist, Paytsar Muradyan, Mikhail Pekour, Yelena Pichugina, Mark T. Stoelinga, and David D. Turner
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4803–4821,Short summary
During the second Wind Forecast Improvement Project, improvements to the parameterizations were applied to the High Resolution Rapid Refresh model and its nested version. The impacts of the new parameterizations on the forecast of 80 m wind speeds and power are assessed, using sodars and profiling lidars observations for comparison. Improvements are evaluated as a function of the model’s initialization time, forecast horizon, time of the day, season, site elevation, and meteorological phenomena.
Nick Rutter, Melody J. Sandells, Chris Derksen, Joshua King, Peter Toose, Leanne Wake, Tom Watts, Richard Essery, Alexandre Roy, Alain Royer, Philip Marsh, Chris Larsen, and Matthew Sturm
The Cryosphere, 13, 3045–3059,Short summary
Impact of natural variability in Arctic tundra snow microstructural characteristics on the capacity to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) from Ku-band radar was assessed. Median values of metrics quantifying snow microstructure adequately characterise differences between snowpack layers. Optimal estimates of SWE required microstructural values slightly less than the measured median but tolerated natural variability for accurate estimation of SWE in shallow snowpacks.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Allan K. Bertram, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Aude Boivin-Rioux, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Rachel Y. W. Chang, Joannie Charette, Jai P. Chaubey, Robert J. Christensen, Ana Cirisan, Douglas B. Collins, Betty Croft, Joelle Dionne, Greg J. Evans, Christopher G. Fletcher, Martí Galí, Roya Ghahreman, Eric Girard, Wanmin Gong, Michel Gosselin, Margaux Gourdal, Sarah J. Hanna, Hakase Hayashida, Andreas B. Herber, Sareh Hesaraki, Peter Hoor, Lin Huang, Rachel Hussherr, Victoria E. Irish, Setigui A. Keita, John K. Kodros, Franziska Köllner, Felicia Kolonjari, Daniel Kunkel, Luis A. Ladino, Kathy Law, Maurice Levasseur, Quentin Libois, John Liggio, Martine Lizotte, Katrina M. Macdonald, Rashed Mahmood, Randall V. Martin, Ryan H. Mason, Lisa A. Miller, Alexander Moravek, Eric Mortenson, Emma L. Mungall, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maryam Namazi, Ann-Lise Norman, Norman T. O'Neill, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Lynn M. Russell, Johannes Schneider, Hannes Schulz, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Ralf M. Staebler, Nadja S. Steiner, Jennie L. Thomas, Knut von Salzen, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Megan D. Willis, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jun-Wei Xu, and Jacqueline D. Yakobi-Hancock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2527–2560,Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing considerable environmental change with climate warming, illustrated by the dramatic decrease in sea-ice extent. It is important to understand both the natural and perturbed Arctic systems to gain a better understanding of how they will change in the future. This paper summarizes new insights into the relationships between Arctic aerosol particles and climate, as learned over the past five or so years by a large Canadian research consortium, NETCARE.
Ian G. McKendry, Andreas Christen, Sung-Ching Lee, Madison Ferrara, Kevin B. Strawbridge, Norman O'Neill, and Andrew Black
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 835–846,Short summary
Wildfire smoke in July 2015 had a significant impact on air quality, radiation, and energy budgets across British Columbia. With lighter smoke, a wetland and forested site showed enhanced photosynthetic activity (taking in carbon dioxide). However, with dense smoke the forested site became a strong source. These results suggest that smoke during the growing season potentially plays an important role in the carbon budget, and this effect will likely increase as climate changes.
Michael Prince, Alexandre Roy, Ludovic Brucker, Alain Royer, Youngwook Kim, and Tianjie Zhao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2055–2067,Short summary
This paper presents the weekly polar-gridded Aquarius passive L-band surface freeze–thaw product (FT-AP) distributed on the EASE-Grid 2.0 with a resolution of 36 km. To evaluate the product, we compared it with the resampled 37 GHz FT Earth Science Data Record during the overlapping period between 2011 and 2014. The FT-AP ensures, with the SMAP mission that is still in operation, an L-band passive FT monitoring continuum with NASA’s space-borne radiometers, for a period beginning in August 2011.
Fanny Larue, Alain Royer, Danielle De Sève, Alexandre Roy, and Emmanuel Cosme
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5711–5734,Short summary
A data assimilation scheme was developed to improve snow water equivalent (SWE) simulations by updating meteorological forcings and snowpack states using passive microwave satellite observations. A chain of models was first calibrated to simulate satellite observations over northeastern Canada. The assimilation was then validated over 12 stations where daily SWE measurements were acquired during 4 winters (2012–2016). The overall SWE bias is reduced by 68 % compared to original SWE simulations.
Alex Mavrovic, Alexandre Roy, Alain Royer, Bilal Filali, François Boone, Christoforos Pappas, and Oliver Sonnentag
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 195–208,Short summary
To improve microwave satellite and airborne observation products in forest environments, a precise and reliable estimation of the permittivity of trees is required. We developed a probe suitable to measure the permittivity of tree trunks at L band in the field. The system is easily transportable in the field, low energy consuming, operational at low temperatures and weatherproof. The permittivity of seven tree species in both frozen and thawed states was measured, showing important contrast.
Dean B. Atkinson, Mikhail Pekour, Duli Chand, James G. Radney, Katheryn R. Kolesar, Qi Zhang, Ari Setyan, Norman T. O'Neill, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5499–5514,Short summary
We use in situ measurements of particle light extinction to assess the performance of a typical aerosol remote retrieval method. The retrieved fine-mode fraction of extinction, a property commonly used to characterize the anthropogenic influence on the aerosol optical depth, compares well with the in situ measurements as does the retrieved effective fine-mode radius, which characterizes the average size of the particles that contribute most to scattering.
Claire Pettersen, Ralf Bennartz, Aronne J. Merrelli, Matthew D. Shupe, David D. Turner, and Von P. Walden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4715–4735,Short summary
A novel method for classifying Arctic precipitation using ground based remote sensors is presented. The classification reveals two distinct, primary regimes of precipitation over the central Greenland Ice Sheet: snowfall coupled to deep, fully glaciated ice clouds or to shallow, mixed-phase clouds. The ice clouds are associated with low-pressure storm systems from the southeast, while the mixed-phase clouds slowly propagate from the southwest along a quiescent flow.
Robert A. Stillwell, Ryan R. Neely III, Jeffrey P. Thayer, Matthew D. Shupe, and David D. Turner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 835–859,Short summary
This work focuses on making unambiguous measurements of Arctic cloud phase and assessing those measurements within the context of cloud radiative effects. It is found that effects related to lidar data recording systems can cause retrieval ambiguities that alter the interpretation of cloud phase in as much as 30 % of the available data. This misinterpretation of cloud-phase data can cause a misinterpretation of the effect of cloud phase on the surface radiation budget by as much as 10 to 30 %.
Peter Toose, Alexandre Roy, Frederick Solheim, Chris Derksen, Tom Watts, Alain Royer, and Anne Walker
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 39–51,Short summary
Radio-frequency interference (RFI) can significantly contaminate the measured radiometric signal of current spaceborne L-band passive microwave radiometers used for monitoring essential climate variables. A 385-channel hyperspectral L-band radiometer system was designed with the means to quantify the strength and type of RFI. The compact design makes it ideal for mounting on both surface and airborne platforms to be used for calibrating and validating measurement from spaceborne sensors.
Norman T. O'Neill, Konstantin Baibakov, Sareh Hesaraki, Liviu Ivanescu, Randall V. Martin, Chris Perro, Jai P. Chaubey, Andreas Herber, and Thomas J. Duck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12753–12765,
Claire Pettersen, Ralf Bennartz, Mark S. Kulie, Aronne J. Merrelli, Matthew D. Shupe, and David D. Turner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4743–4756,Short summary
We examined four summers of data from a ground-based atmospheric science instrument suite at Summit Station, Greenland, to isolate the signature of the ice precipitation. By using a combination of instruments with different specialities, we identified a passive microwave signature of the ice precipitation. This ice signature compares well to models using synthetic data characteristic of the site.
Andrew M. Dzambo, David D. Turner, and Eli J. Mlawer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1613–1626,Short summary
Radiosondes are used to characterize the humidity in the middle and upper troposphere, but suffer from a solar radiation induced dry bias. This work investigates the accuracy of two published correction algorithms using comparisons with other instruments.
Alexandre Roy, Alain Royer, Olivier St-Jean-Rondeau, Benoit Montpetit, Ghislain Picard, Alex Mavrovic, Nicolas Marchand, and Alexandre Langlois
The Cryosphere, 10, 623–638,
K. Baibakov, N. T. O'Neill, L. Ivanescu, T. J. Duck, C. Perro, A. Herber, K.-H. Schulz, and O. Schrems
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3789–3809,
C. Papasodoro, E. Berthier, A. Royer, C. Zdanowicz, and A. Langlois
The Cryosphere, 9, 1535–1550,Short summary
Located at the far south (~62.5° N) of the Canadian Arctic, Grinnell and Terra Nivea Ice Caps are good climate proxies in this scarce data region. Multiple data sets (in situ, airborne and spaceborne) reveal changes in area, elevation and mass over the past 62 years. Ice wastage sharply accelerated during the last decade for both ice caps, as illustrated by the strongly negative mass balance of Terra Nivea over 2007-2014 (-1.77 ± 0.36 m a-1 w.e.). Possible climatic drivers are also discussed.
E. Spinei, A. Cede, J. Herman, G. H. Mount, E. Eloranta, B. Morley, S. Baidar, B. Dix, I. Ortega, T. Koenig, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 793–809,Short summary
This paper presents ground-based direct-sun and airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of O2O2 absorption optical depths under atmospheric conditions in two wavelength regions (335-–390nm and 435--490nm). Our results show that laboratory-measured σ(O2O2) is applicable for observations over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Temperature dependence of σ(O2O2) is about 9±2.5% from 231K to 275K.
K. C. Kaku, J. S. Reid, N. T. O'Neill, P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, and T. F. Eck
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3399–3412,
G. Picard, A. Royer, L. Arnaud, and M. Fily
The Cryosphere, 8, 1105–1119,
K. Van Tricht, I. V. Gorodetskaya, S. Lhermitte, D. D. Turner, J. H. Schween, and N. P. M. Van Lipzig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1153–1167,
G. Maschwitz, U. Löhnert, S. Crewell, T. Rose, and D. D. Turner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2641–2658,
M. P. Cadeddu, J. C. Liljegren, and D. D. Turner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2359–2372,
G. Picard, L. Brucker, A. Roy, F. Dupont, M. Fily, A. Royer, and C. Harlow
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1061–1078,
A. Roy, A. Royer, B. Montpetit, P. A. Bartlett, and A. Langlois
The Cryosphere, 7, 961–975,
P. Cottle, K. Strawbridge, I. McKendry, N. O'Neill, and A. Saha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4515–4527,
G. de Boer, T. Hashino, G. J. Tripoli, and E. W. Eloranta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1733–1749,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalDeep convective cloud system size and structure across the global tropics and subtropicsA neural-network-based method for generating synthetic 1.6 µm near-infrared satellite imagesNumerical model generation of test frames for pre-launch studies of EarthCARE's retrieval algorithms and data management systemSegmentation of polarimetric radar imagery using statistical textureRetrieval of surface solar irradiance from satellite imagery using machine learning: pitfalls and perspectivesRetrieving 3D distributions of atmospheric particles using Atmospheric Tomography with 3D Radiative Transfer – Part 2: Local optimizationParticle inertial effects on radar Doppler spectra simulationDetection of aerosol and cloud features for the EarthCARE atmospheric lidar (ATLID): the ATLID FeatureMask (A-FM) productEvaluation of Four Ground-based Retrievals of Cloud Droplet Number Concentration in Marine Stratocumulus with Aircraft In Situ MeasurementsA unified synergistic retrieval of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation from EarthCARE: the ACM-CAP productOptical and microphysical properties of ice crystals in Arctic clouds from lidar observationsIncorporating EarthCARE observations into a multi-lidar cloud climate record: the ATLID (Atmospheric Lidar) cloud climate productIntroduction to EarthCARE synthetic data using a global storm-resolving simulationValidation of a camera-based intra-hour irradiance nowcasting model using synthetic cloud dataLiquid cloud optical property retrieval and associated uncertainties using multi-angular and bispectral measurements of the airborne radiometer OSIRISGlobal evaluation of Doppler velocity errors of EarthCARE cloud-profiling radar using a global storm-resolving simulationCloud and precipitation microphysical retrievals from the EarthCARE Cloud Profiling Radar: the C-CLD productCloud mask algorithm from the EarthCARE Multi-Spectral Imager: the M-CM productsAcross-track extension of retrieved cloud and aerosol properties for the EarthCARE mission: the ACMB-3D productInsights into 3D cloud radiative transfer effects for the Orbiting Carbon ObservatoryEvaluation of polarimetric ice microphysical retrievals with OLYMPEX campaign dataRetrieving 3D distributions of atmospheric particles using Atmospheric Tomography with 3D Radiative Transfer – Part 1: Model description and Jacobian calculationSimulation and sensitivity analysis for cloud and precipitation measurements via spaceborne millimeter-wave radarThe Virga-Sniffer – a new tool to identify precipitation evaporation using ground-based remote-sensing observationsCloud top heights and aerosol columnar properties from combined EarthCARE lidar and imager observations: the AM-CTH and AM-ACD productsNear-global distributions of overshooting tops derived from Terra and Aqua MODIS observationsClimatology of estimated liquid water content and scaling factor for warm clouds using radar–microwave radiometer synergyOptimizing cloud motion estimation on the edge with phase correlation and optical flowA semi-Lagrangian method for detecting and tracking deep convective clouds in geostationary satellite observationsCloud optical and physical properties retrieval from EarthCARE multi-spectral imager: the M-COP productsThe CHROMA cloud-top pressure retrieval algorithm for the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) satellite missionHigh-spatial-resolution retrieval of cloud droplet size distribution from polarized observations of the cloudbowEvaluation of the spectral misalignment on the Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer/multi-spectral imager cloud productRetrieval of terahertz ice cloud properties from airborne measurements based on the irregularly shaped Voronoi ice scattering modelsLatent heating profiles from GOES-16 and its impacts on precipitation forecastsA CO2-independent cloud mask from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) radiances for climate applicationsRetrieval of ice water path from the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MWHS) aboard FengYun-3B (FY-3B) satellite polarimetric measurements based on a deep neural networkIntercomparison of Sentinel-5P TROPOMI cloud products for tropospheric trace gas retrievalsImproved spectral processing for a multi-mode pulse compression Ka–Ku-band cloud radar systemUncertainty-bounded estimates of ash cloud properties using the ORAC algorithm: application to the 2019 Raikoke eruptionIce water path retrievals from Meteosat-9 using quantile regression neural networksAn optimal estimation algorithm for the retrieval of fog and low cloud thermodynamic and micro-physical propertiesIdentifying cloud droplets beyond lidar attenuation from vertically pointing cloud radar observations using artificial neural networksSegmentation-based multi-pixel cloud optical thickness retrieval using a convolutional neural networkTop-of-the-atmosphere reflected shortwave radiative fluxes from GOES-ROptimizing radar scan strategies for tracking isolated deep convection using observing system simulation experimentsA kriging-based analysis of cloud liquid water content using CloudSat dataHigh-resolution satellite-based cloud detection for the analysis of land surface effects on boundary layer cloudsRetrievals of ice microphysical properties using dual-wavelength polarimetric radar observations during stratiform precipitation eventsThe surface longwave cloud radiative effect derived from space lidar observations
Eric M. Wilcox, Tianle Yuan, and Hua Song
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5387–5401,Short summary
A new database is constructed from over 20 years of satellite records that comprises millions of deep convective clouds and spans the global tropics and subtropics. The database is a collection of clouds ranging from isolated cells to giant cloud systems. The cloud database provides a means of empirically studying the factors that determine the spatial structure and coverage of convective cloud systems, which are strongly related to the overall radiative forcing by cloud systems.
Florian Baur, Leonhard Scheck, Christina Stumpf, Christina Köpken-Watts, and Roland Potthast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5305–5326,Short summary
Near-infrared satellite images have information on clouds that is complementary to what is available from the visible and infrared parts of the spectrum. Using this information for data assimilation and model evaluation requires a fast, accurate forward operator to compute synthetic images from numerical weather prediction model output. We discuss a novel, neural-network-based approach for the 1.6 µm near-infrared channel that is suitable for this purpose and also works for other solar channels.
Zhipeng Qu, David P. Donovan, Howard W. Barker, Jason N. S. Cole, Mark W. Shephard, and Vincent Huijnen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4927–4946,Short summary
The EarthCARE satellite mission Level 2 algorithm development requires realistic 3D cloud and aerosol scenes along the satellite orbits. One of the best ways to produce these scenes is to use a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model to simulate atmospheric conditions at 250 m horizontal resolution. This paper describes the production and validation of three EarthCARE test scenes.
Adrien Guyot, Jordan P. Brook, Alain Protat, Kathryn Turner, Joshua Soderholm, Nicholas F. McCarthy, and Hamish McGowan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4571–4588,Short summary
We propose a new method that should facilitate the use of weather radars to study wildfires. It is important to be able to identify the particles emitted by wildfires on radar, but it is difficult because there are many other echoes on radar like clear air, the ground, sea clutter, and precipitation. We came up with a two-step process to classify these echoes. Our method is accurate and can be used by fire departments in emergencies or by scientists for research.
Hadrien Verbois, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Vadim Becquet, Benoit Gschwind, and Philippe Blanc
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4165–4181,Short summary
Solar surface irradiance (SSI) estimations inferred from satellite images are essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the solar resource, which is crucial in many fields. This study examines the recent data-driven methods for inferring SSI from satellite images and explores their strengths and weaknesses. The results suggest that while these methods show great promise, they sometimes dramatically underperform and should probably be used in conjunction with physical approaches.
Jesse Loveridge, Aviad Levis, Larry Di Girolamo, Vadim Holodovsky, Linda Forster, Anthony B. Davis, and Yoav Y. Schechner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3931–3957,Short summary
We test a new method for measuring the 3D spatial variations of water within clouds, using measurements of reflections of the Sun's light observed at multiple angles by satellites. This is a great improvement on older methods, which typically assume that clouds occur in a slab shape. Our study used computer modeling to show that our 3D method will work well in cumulus clouds, where older slab methods do not. Our method will inform us about these clouds and their role in our climate.
Zeen Zhu, Pavlos Kollias, and Fan Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3727–3737,Short summary
We show that large rain droplets, with large inertia, are unable to follow the rapid change of velocity field in a turbulent environment. A lack of consideration for this inertial effect leads to an artificial broadening of the Doppler spectrum from the conventional simulator. Based on the physics-based simulation, we propose a new approach to generate the radar Doppler spectra. This simulator provides a valuable tool to decode cloud microphysical and dynamical properties from radar observation.
Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, David P. Donovan, and Ping Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3631–3651,Short summary
The Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation (EarthCARE) satellite mission features the UV lidar ATLID. The ATLID FeatureMask algorithm provides a high-resolution detection probability mask which is used to guide smoothing strategies within the ATLID profile retrieval algorithm, one step further in the EarthCARE level-2 processing chain, in which the microphysical retrievals and target classification are performed.
Damao Zhang, Andrew Vogelmann, Fan Yang, Edward Luke, Pavlos Kollias, Zhien Wang, Peng Wu, William Gustafson Jr., Fan Mei, Susanne Glienke, Jason Tomlinson, and Neel Desai
Cloud droplet number concentration can be retrieved from remote sensing measurements. Aircraft measurements are used to validate four ground-based retrievals of cloud droplet number concentration. We demonstrate that retrieved cloud droplet number concentrations align well with aircraft measurements for overcast clouds, but they may substantially differ for broken clouds. The ensemble of various retrievals can help to quantify retrieval uncertainties and identify reliable retrieval scenarios.
Shannon L. Mason, Robin J. Hogan, Alessio Bozzo, and Nicola L. Pounder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3459–3486,Short summary
We present a method for accurately estimating the contents and properties of clouds, snow, rain, and aerosols through the atmosphere, using the combined measurements of the radar, lidar, and radiometer instruments aboard the upcoming EarthCARE satellite, and evaluate the performance of the retrieval, using test scenes simulated from a numerical forecast model. When EarthCARE is in operation, these quantities and their estimated uncertainties will be distributed in a data product called ACM-CAP.
Patrick Chazette and Jean-Christophe Raut
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The vertical profiles of effective radius of ice crystals and ice water content in Arctic semi-transparent stratiform clouds were assessed using quantitative ground-based lidar measurements. The field campaign was part of the Pollution in the ARCtic System (PARCS) project which took place from 13 to 26 May 2016 in Hammerfest (70° 39′ 48″ N, 23° 41′ 00″ E). We show that under certain cloud conditions, lidar measurement combined with a dedicated algorithmic approach is an efficient tool.
Artem G. Feofilov, Hélène Chepfer, Vincent Noël, and Frederic Szczap
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3363–3390,Short summary
The response of clouds to human-induced climate warming remains the largest source of uncertainty in model predictions of climate. We consider cloud retrievals from spaceborne observations, the existing CALIOP lidar and future ATLID lidar; show how they compare for the same scenes; and discuss the advantage of adding a new lidar for detecting cloud changes in the long run. We show that ATLID's advanced technology should allow for better detecting thinner clouds during daytime than before.
Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, Shuhei Matsugishi, Tomoe Nasuno, and Takuji Kubota
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3331–3344,Short summary
JAXA EarthCARE synthetic data (JAXA L1 data) were compiled using the global storm-resolving model (GSRM) NICAM (Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model) simulation with 3.5 km horizontal resolution and the Joint-Simulator. JAXA L1 data are intended to support the development of JAXA retrieval algorithms for the EarthCARE sensor before launch of the satellite. The expected orbit of EarthCARE and horizontal sampling of each sensor were used to simulate the signals.
Philipp Gregor, Tobias Zinner, Fabian Jakub, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3257–3271,Short summary
This work introduces MACIN, a model for short-term forecasting of direct irradiance for solar energy applications. MACIN exploits cloud images of multiple cameras to predict irradiance. The model is applied to artificial images of clouds from a weather model. The artificial cloud data allow for a more in-depth evaluation and attribution of errors compared with real data. Good performance of derived cloud information and significant forecast improvements over a baseline forecast were found.
Christian Matar, Céline Cornet, Frédéric Parol, Laurent C.-Labonnote, Frédérique Auriol, and Marc Nicolas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3221–3243,Short summary
The optimal estimation formalism is applied to OSIRIS airborne high-resolution multi-angular measurements to retrieve COT and Reff. The corresponding uncertainties related to measurement errors, which are up to 6 and 12 %, the non-retrieved parameters, which are less than 0.5 %, and the cloud model assumptions show that the heterogeneous vertical profiles and the 3D radiative transfer effects lead to average uncertainties of 5 and 4 % for COT and 13 and 9 % for Reff.
Yuichiro Hagihara, Yuichi Ohno, Hiroaki Horie, Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, and Takuji Kubota
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3211–3219,Short summary
The CPR on the EarthCARE satellite is the first satellite-borne Doppler radar. We evaluated the effectiveness of horizontal integration and the unfolding method for the reduction of the Doppler error (the standard deviation of the random error) in the CPR_ECO product. The error was higher in the tropics than in the other latitudes due to frequent rain echo occurrence and limitation of its unfolding correction. If we use low-mode operation (high PRF), the errors become small enough.
Kamil Mroz, Bernat Puidgomènech Treserras, Alessandro Battaglia, Pavlos Kollias, Aleksandra Tatarevic, and Frederic Tridon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2865–2888,Short summary
We present the theoretical basis of the algorithm that estimates the amount of water and size of particles in clouds and precipitation. The algorithm uses data collected by the Cloud Profiling Radar that was developed for the upcoming Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) satellite mission. After the satellite launch, the vertical distribution of cloud and precipitation properties will be delivered as the C-CLD product.
Anja Hünerbein, Sebastian Bley, Stefan Horn, Hartwig Deneke, and Andi Walther
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2821–2836,Short summary
The Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) on board the EarthCARE satellite will provide the information needed for describing the cloud and aerosol properties in the cross-track direction, complementing the measurements from the Cloud Profiling Radar, Atmospheric Lidar and Broad-Band Radiometer. The accurate discrimination between clear and cloudy pixels is an essential first step. Therefore, the cloud mask algorithm provides a cloud flag, cloud phase and cloud type product for the MSI observations.
Zhipeng Qu, Howard W. Barker, Jason N. S. Cole, and Mark W. Shephard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2319–2331,Short summary
This paper describes EarthCARE’s L2 product ACM-3D. It includes the scene construction algorithm (SCA) used to produce the indexes for reconstructing 3D atmospheric scene based on satellite nadir retrievals. It also provides the information about the buffer zone sizes of 3D assessment domains and the ranking scores for selecting the best 3D assessment domains. These output variables are needed to run 3D radiative transfer models for the radiative closure assessment of EarthCARE’s L2 retrievals.
Steven T. Massie, Heather Cronk, Aronne Merrelli, Sebastian Schmidt, and Steffen Mauceri
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2145–2166,Short summary
This paper provides insights into the effects of clouds on Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) measurements of CO2. Calculations are carried out that indicate the extent to which this satellite experiment underestimates CO2, due to these cloud effects, as a function of the distance between the surface observation footprint and the nearest cloud. The paper discusses how to lessen the influence of these cloud effects.
Armin Blanke, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Manuel Moser, and Silke Trömel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2089–2106,Short summary
We present an evaluation of current retrieval techniques in the ice phase applied to polarimetric radar measurements with collocated in situ observations of aircraft conducted over the Olympic Mountains, Washington State, during winter 2015. Radar estimates of ice properties agreed most with aircraft observations in regions with pronounced radar signatures, but uncertainties were identified that indicate issues of some retrievals, particularly in warmer temperature regimes.
Jesse Loveridge, Aviad Levis, Larry Di Girolamo, Vadim Holodovsky, Linda Forster, Anthony B. Davis, and Yoav Y. Schechner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1803–1847,Short summary
We describe a new method for measuring the 3D spatial variations in water within clouds using the reflected light of the Sun viewed at multiple different angles by satellites. This is a great improvement over older methods, which typically assume that clouds occur in a slab shape. Our study used computer modeling to show that our 3D method will work well in cumulus clouds, where older slab methods do not. Our method will inform us about these clouds and their role in our climate.
Leilei Kou, Zhengjian Lin, Haiyang Gao, Shujun Liao, and Piman Ding
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1723–1744,Short summary
Forward modeling of spaceborne millimeter-wave radar composed of eight submodules is presented. We quantify the uncertainties in radar reflectivity that may be caused by the physical model parameters via a sensitivity analysis. The simulations with improved and conventional settings are compared with CloudSat data, and the simulation results are evaluated and analyzed. The results are instructive to the optimization of forward modeling and microphysical parameter retrieval.
Heike Kalesse-Los, Anton Kötsche, Andreas Foth, Johannes Röttenbacher, Teresa Vogl, and Jonas Witthuhn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1683–1704,Short summary
The Virga-Sniffer, a new modular open-source Python package tool to characterize full precipitation evaporation (so-called virga) from ceilometer cloud base height and vertically pointing cloud radar reflectivity time–height fields, is described. Results of its first application to RV Meteor observations during the EUREC4A field experiment in January–February 2020 are shown. About half of all detected clouds with bases below the trade inversion height were found to produce virga.
Moritz Haarig, Anja Hünerbein, Ulla Wandinger, Nicole Docter, Sebastian Bley, David Donovan, and Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff
The atmospheric lidar (ATLID) and Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) will be carried by the EarthCARE satellite. The synergistic ATLID–MSI Column Products (AM-COL) algorithm described in the paper combines the strengths of ATLID in vertically-resolved profiles of aerosol and clouds (e.g., cloud top height) with the benefits of MSI in observing the complete scene besides the satellite track and to extend the lidar information to the swath. The algorithm is validated against simulated test scenes.
Yulan Hong, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, and Larry Di Girolamo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1391–1406,Short summary
Deep convective updrafts form overshooting tops (OTs) when they extend into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. An OT often indicates hazardous weather conditions. The global distribution of OTs is useful for understanding global severe weather conditions. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua and Terra satellites provides 2 decades of records on the Earth–atmosphere system with stable orbits, which are used in this study to derive 20-year OT climatology.
Pragya Vishwakarma, Julien Delanoë, Susana Jorquera, Pauline Martinet, Frederic Burnet, Alistair Bell, and Jean-Charles Dupont
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1211–1237,Short summary
Cloud observations are necessary to characterize the cloud properties at local and global scales. The observations must be translated to cloud geophysical parameters. This paper presents the estimation of liquid water content (LWC) using radar and microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements. Liquid water path from MWR scales LWC and retrieves the scaling factor (ln a). The retrievals are compared with in situ observations. A climatology of ln a is built to estimate LWC using only radar information.
Bhupendra A. Raut, Paytsar Muradyan, Rajesh Sankaran, Robert C. Jackson, Seongha Park, Sean A. Shahkarami, Dario Dematties, Yongho Kim, Joseph Swantek, Neal Conrad, Wolfgang Gerlach, Sergey Shemyakin, Pete Beckman, Nicola J. Ferrier, and Scott M. Collis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1195–1209,Short summary
We studied the stability of a blockwise phase correlation (PC) method to estimate cloud motion using a total sky imager (TSI). Shorter frame intervals and larger block sizes improve stability, while image resolution and color channels have minor effects. Raindrop contamination can be identified by the rotational motion of the TSI mirror. The correlations of cloud motion vectors (CMVs) from the PC method with wind data vary from 0.38 to 0.59. Optical flow vectors are more stable than PC vectors.
William K. Jones, Matthew W. Christensen, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1043–1059,Short summary
Geostationary weather satellites have been used to detect storm clouds since their earliest applications. However, this task remains difficult as imaging satellites cannot observe the strong vertical winds that are characteristic of storm clouds. Here we introduce a new method that allows us to detect the early development of storms and continue to track them throughout their lifetime, allowing us to study how their early behaviour affects subsequent weather.
Anja Hünerbein, Sebastian Bley, Hartwig Deneke, Jan Fokke Meirink, Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, and Andi Walther
The ESA cloud, aerosol and radiation mission EarthCARE will provide active profiling and passive imaging measurements from a single satellite platform. The passive multi-spectral imager (MSI) will add information in the across-track direction. We present the cloud optical and physical properties algorithm, which combine the visible to infrared MSI channels to determine the cloud top pressure, optical thickness, particle size, and water path.
Andrew M. Sayer, Luca Lelli, Brian Cairns, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Amir Ibrahim, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Sergey Korkin, and P. Jeremy Werdell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 969–996,Short summary
This paper presents a method to estimate the height of the top of clouds above Earth's surface using satellite measurements. It is based on light absorption by oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, which darkens the signal that a satellite will see at certain wavelengths of light. Clouds "shield" the satellite from some of this darkening, dependent on cloud height (and other factors), because clouds scatter light at these wavelengths. The method will be applied to the future NASA PACE mission.
Veronika Pörtge, Tobias Kölling, Anna Weber, Lea Volkmer, Claudia Emde, Tobias Zinner, Linda Forster, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 645–667,Short summary
In this work, we analyze polarized cloudbow observations by the airborne camera system specMACS to retrieve the cloud droplet size distribution defined by the effective radius (reff) and the effective variance (veff). Two case studies of trade-wind cumulus clouds observed during the EUREC4A field campaign are presented. The results are combined into maps of reff and veff with a very high spatial resolution (100 m × 100 m) that allow new insights into cloud microphysics.
Minrui Wang, Takashi Y. Nakajima, Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Kentaroh Suzuki, Takuji Kubota, and Mayumi Yoshida
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 603–623,Short summary
SMILE (a spectral misalignment in which a shift in the center wavelength appears as a distortion in the spectral image) was detected during our recent work. To evaluate how it affects the cloud retrieval products, we did a simulation of EarthCARE-MSI forward radiation, evaluating the error in simulated scenes from a global cloud system-resolving model and a satellite simulator. Our results indicated that the error from SMILE was generally small and negligible for oceanic scenes.
Ming Li, Husi Letu, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Shulei Li, Lei Liu, Takashi Y. Nakajima, Dabin Ji, Huazhe Shang, and Chong Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 331–353,Short summary
Influenced by the representativeness of ice crystal scattering models, the existing terahertz ice cloud remote sensing inversion algorithms still have significant uncertainties. We developed an ice cloud remote sensing retrieval algorithm of the ice water path and particle size from aircraft-based terahertz radiation measurements based on the Voronoi model. Validation revealed that the Voronoi model performs better than the sphere and hexagonal column models.
Yoonjin Lee, Christian D. Kummerow, and Milija Zupanski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7119–7136,Short summary
Vertical profiles of latent heating are derived from GOES-16 to be used in convective initialization. They are compared with other latent heating products derived from NEXRAD and GPM satellites, and the results show that their values are very similar to the radar-derived products. Finally, using latent heating derived from GOES-16 for convective initialization shows improvements in precipitation forecasts, which are comparable to the results using latent heating derived from NEXRAD.
Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Marc Crapeau, Thomas August, Tim Hultberg, Pierre François Coheur, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6653–6668,Short summary
With more than 15 years of measurements, the IASI radiance dataset is becoming a reference climate data record. Its exploitation for satellite applications requires an accurate and unbiased detection of cloud scenes. Here, we present a new cloud detection algorithm for IASI that is both sensitive and consistent over time. It is based on the use of a neural network, relying on IASI radiance information only and taking as a reference the last version of the operational IASI L2 cloud product.
Wenyu Wang, Zhenzhan Wang, Qiurui He, and Lanjie Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6489–6506,Short summary
This paper uses a neural network approach to retrieve the ice water path from FY-3B/MWHS polarimetric measurements, focusing on its unique 150 GHz quasi-polarized channels. The Level 2 product of CloudSat is used as the reference value for the neural network. The results show that the polarization information is helpful for the retrieval in scenes with thicker cloud ice, and the 150 GHz channels give a significant improvement compared to using only 183 GHz channels.
Miriam Latsch, Andreas Richter, Henk Eskes, Maarten Sneep, Ping Wang, Pepijn Veefkind, Ronny Lutz, Diego Loyola, Athina Argyrouli, Pieter Valks, Thomas Wagner, Holger Sihler, Michel van Roozendael, Nicolas Theys, Huan Yu, Richard Siddans, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6257–6283,Short summary
The article investigates different S5P TROPOMI cloud retrieval algorithms for tropospheric trace gas retrievals. The cloud products show differences primarily over snow and ice and for scenes under sun glint. Some issues regarding across-track dependence are found for the cloud fractions as well as for the cloud heights.
Han Ding, Haoran Li, and Liping Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6181–6200,Short summary
In this study, a framework for processing the Doppler spectra observations of a multi-mode pulse compression Ka–Ku cloud radar system is presented. We first proposed an approach to identify and remove the clutter signals in the Doppler spectrum. Then, we developed a new algorithm to remove the range sidelobe at the modes implementing the pulse compression technique. The radar observations from different modes were then merged using the shift-then-average method.
Andrew T. Prata, Roy G. Grainger, Isabelle A. Taylor, Adam C. Povey, Simon R. Proud, and Caroline A. Poulsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5985–6010,Short summary
Satellite observations are often used to track ash clouds and estimate their height, particle sizes and mass; however, satellite-based techniques are always associated with some uncertainty. We describe advances in a satellite-based technique that is used to estimate ash cloud properties for the June 2019 Raikoke (Russia) eruption. Our results are significant because ash warning centres increasingly require uncertainty information to correctly interpret, aggregate and utilise the data.
Adrià Amell, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5701–5717,Short summary
Geostationary satellites continuously image a given location on Earth, a feature that satellites designed to characterize atmospheric ice lack. However, the relationship between geostationary images and atmospheric ice is complex. Machine learning is used here to leverage such images to characterize atmospheric ice throughout the day in a probabilistic manner. Using structural information from the image improves the characterization, and this approach compares favourably to traditional methods.
Alistair Bell, Pauline Martinet, Olivier Caumont, Frédéric Burnet, Julien Delanoë, Susana Jorquera, Yann Seity, and Vinciane Unger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5415–5438,Short summary
Cloud radars and microwave radiometers offer the potential to improve fog forecasts when assimilated into a high-resolution model. As this process can be complex, a retrieval of model variables is sometimes made as a first step. In this work, results from a 1D-Var algorithm for the retrieval of temperature, humidity and cloud liquid water content are presented. The algorithm is applied first to a synthetic dataset and then to a dataset of real measurements from a recent field campaign.
Willi Schimmel, Heike Kalesse-Los, Maximilian Maahn, Teresa Vogl, Andreas Foth, Pablo Saavedra Garfias, and Patric Seifert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5343–5366,Short summary
This study introduces the novel Doppler radar spectra-based machine learning approach VOODOO (reVealing supercOOled liquiD beyOnd lidar attenuatiOn). VOODOO is a powerful probability-based extension to the existing Cloudnet hydrometeor target classification, enabling the detection of liquid-bearing cloud layers beyond complete lidar attenuation via user-defined p* threshold. VOODOO performs best for (multi-layer) stratiform and deep mixed-phase clouds with liquid water path > 100 g m−2.
Vikas Nataraja, Sebastian Schmidt, Hong Chen, Takanobu Yamaguchi, Jan Kazil, Graham Feingold, Kevin Wolf, and Hironobu Iwabuchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5181–5205,Short summary
A convolutional neural network (CNN) is introduced to retrieve cloud optical thickness (COT) from passive cloud imagery. The CNN, trained on large eddy simulations from the Sulu Sea, learns from spatial information at multiple scales to reduce cloud inhomogeneity effects. By considering the spatial context of a pixel, the CNN outperforms the traditional independent pixel approximation (IPA) across several cloud morphology metrics.
Rachel T. Pinker, Yingtao Ma, Wen Chen, Istvan Laszlo, Hongqing Liu, Hye-Yun Kim, and Jaime Daniels
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5077–5094,Short summary
Scene-dependent narrow-to-broadband transformations are developed to facilitate the use of observations from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), the primary instrument on GOES-R, to derive surface shortwave radiative fluxes. This is a first NOAA product at the high resolution of about 5 k over the contiguous United States (CONUS) region. The product is archived and can be downloaded from the NOAA Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS).
Mariko Oue, Stephen M. Saleeby, Peter J. Marinescu, Pavlos Kollias, and Susan C. van den Heever
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4931–4950,Short summary
This study provides an optimization of radar observation strategies to better capture convective cell evolution in clean and polluted environments as well as a technique for the optimization. The suggested optimized radar observation strategy is to better capture updrafts at middle and upper altitudes and precipitation particle evolution of isolated deep convective clouds. This study sheds light on the challenge of designing remote sensing observation strategies in pre-field campaign periods.
Jean-Marie Lalande, Guillaume Bourmaud, Pierre Minvielle, and Jean-François Giovannelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4411–4429,Short summary
In this paper we describe the implementation of an interpolation–prediction estimator applied to cloud properties derived from CloudSat observations. The objective is to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the estimated quantity. The model developed in this study can be valuable for satellite applications (GPS, telecommunication) as well as for cloud product comparisons. This paper is didactic and beneficial for anyone interested in kriging estimators.
Julia Fuchs, Hendrik Andersen, Jan Cermak, Eva Pauli, and Rob Roebeling
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4257–4270,Short summary
Two cloud-masking approaches, a local and a regional approach, using high-resolution satellite data are developed and validated for the region of Paris to improve applicability for analyses of urban effects on low clouds. We found that cloud masks obtained from the regional approach are more appropriate for the high-resolution analysis of locally induced cloud processes. Its applicability is tested for the analysis of typical fog conditions over different surface types.
Eleni Tetoni, Florian Ewald, Martin Hagen, Gregor Köcher, Tobias Zinner, and Silke Groß
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3969–3999,Short summary
We use the C-band POLDIRAD and the Ka-band MIRA-35 to perform snowfall dual-wavelength polarimetric radar measurements. We develop an ice microphysics retrieval for mass, apparent shape, and median size of the particle size distribution by comparing observations to T-matrix ice spheroid simulations while varying the mass–size relationship. We furthermore show how the polarimetric measurements from POLDIRAD help to narrow down ambiguities between ice particle shape and size.
Assia Arouf, Hélène Chepfer, Thibault Vaillant de Guélis, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Matthew D. Shupe, Rodrigo Guzman, Artem Feofilov, Patrick Raberanto, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Seiji Kato, and Michael R. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3893–3923,Short summary
We proposed new estimates of the surface longwave (LW) cloud radiative effect (CRE) derived from observations collected by a space-based lidar on board the CALIPSO satellite and radiative transfer computations. Our estimate appropriately captures the surface LW CRE annual variability over bright polar surfaces, and it provides a dataset more than 13 years long.
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Multiband thermal measurements of zenith sky radiance were used in a retrieval algorithm, to estimate cloud optical depth and effective particle diameter of thin ice clouds in the Canadian High Arctic. The retrieval technique was validated using a synergy lidar and radar data. Inversions were performed across three polar winters and results showed a significant correlation (R2 = 0.95) for cloud optical depth retrievals and an overall accuracy of 83 % for the classification of thin ice clouds.
Multiband thermal measurements of zenith sky radiance were used in a retrieval algorithm, to...