Articles | Volume 10, issue 10
05 Oct 2017
Research article | 05 Oct 2017
Analysis and evaluation of WRF microphysical schemes for deep moist convection over south-eastern South America (SESA) using microwave satellite observations and radiative transfer simulations
Victoria Sol Galligani et al.
V. S. Galligani, C. Prigent, E. Defer, C. Jimenez, P. Eriksson, J.-P. Pinty, and J.-P. Chaboureau
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1605–1616,
Benjamin Kitambo, Fabrice Papa, Adrien Paris, Raphael M. Tshimanga, Stephane Calmant, Ayan Santos Fleischmann, Frederic Frappart, Melanie Becker, Mohammad J. Tourian, Catherine Prigent, and Johary Andriambeloson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1857–1882,Short summary
This study presents a better characterization of surface hydrology variability in the Congo River basin, the second largest river system in the world. We jointly use a large record of in situ and satellite-derived observations to monitor the spatial distribution and different timings of the Congo River basin's annual flood dynamic, including its peculiar bimodal pattern.
Ronny Meier, Edouard L. Davin, Gordon B. Bonan, David M. Lawrence, Xiaolong Hu, Gregory Duveiller, Catherine Prigent, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2365–2393,Short summary
We revise the roughness of the land surface in the CESM climate model. Guided by observational data, we increase the surface roughness of forests and decrease that of bare soil, snow, ice, and crops. These modifications alter simulated temperatures and wind speeds at and above the land surface considerably, in particular over desert regions. The revised model represents the diurnal variability of the land surface temperature better compared to satellite observations over most regions.
Martina Klose, Oriol Jorba, María Gonçalves Ageitos, Jeronimo Escribano, Matthew L. Dawson, Vincenzo Obiso, Enza Di Tomaso, Sara Basart, Gilbert Montané Pinto, Francesca Macchia, Paul Ginoux, Juan Guerschman, Catherine Prigent, Yue Huang, Jasper F. Kok, Ron L. Miller, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6403–6444,Short summary
Mineral soil dust is a major atmospheric airborne particle type. We present and evaluate MONARCH, a model used for regional and global dust-weather prediction. An important feature of the model is that it allows different approximations to represent dust, ranging from more simplified to more complex treatments. Using these different treatments, MONARCH can help us better understand impacts of dust in the Earth system, such as its interactions with radiation.
Zhen Zhang, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Katherine Jensen, Kyle McDonald, Gustaf Hugelius, Thomas Gumbricht, Mark Carroll, Catherine Prigent, Annett Bartsch, and Benjamin Poulter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2001–2023,Short summary
The spatiotemporal distribution of wetlands is one of the important and yet uncertain factors determining the time and locations of methane fluxes. The Wetland Area and Dynamics for Methane Modeling (WAD2M) dataset describes the global data product used to quantify the areal dynamics of natural wetlands and how global wetlands are changing in response to climate.
Toby Richard Marthews, Simon J. Dadson, Douglas B. Clark, Eleanor M. Blyth, Garry Hayman, Dai Yamazaki, Olivia R. E. Becher, Alberto Martínez-de la Torre, Catherine Prigent, and Carlos Jiménez
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Reliable data on global inundated areas remain uncertain. By matching a leading global data product on inundation extents (GIEMS) against predictions from a global hydrodynamic model (CaMa-Flood), we found small but consistent and nonrandom biases in well-known tropical wetlands (Sudd, Pantanal, Amazon and Congo). These result from known limitations in the data and the models used, which shows us how to improve our ability to make critical predictions of inundation events in the future.
Lise Kilic, Catherine Prigent, Carlos Jimenez, and Craig Donlon
Ocean Sci., 17, 455–461,Short summary
The Copernicus Imaging Microwave Radiometer (CIMR) is one of the high-priority satellite missions of the Copernicus program within the European Space Agency. It is designed to respond to the European Union Arctic policy. Its channels, incidence angle, precisions, and spatial resolutions have been selected to observe the Arctic Ocean with the recommendations expressed by the user communities. In this note, we present the sensitivity analysis that has led to the choice of the CIMR channels.
Samuel Favrichon, Carlos Jimenez, and Catherine Prigent
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5481–5490,Short summary
Long-term monitoring of satellite-derived variables is necessary for a better understanding of the evolution of Earth parameters at global scale. However different instruments' observations used over the years need to be inter-calibrated with each other to provide meaningful information. This paper describes how a linear correction can improve the observations from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer over continental surfaces to be more consistent with more recent radiometers.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Altug Ekici, Hanna Lee, David M. Lawrence, Sean C. Swenson, and Catherine Prigent
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5291–5300,Short summary
Ice-rich permafrost thaw can create expanding thermokarst lakes as well as shrinking large wetlands. Such processes can have major biogeochemical implications and feedbacks to climate systems by altering the pathways and rates of permafrost carbon release. We developed a new model parameterization that allows a direct representation of surface water dynamics with subsidence. Our results show increased surface water fractions around western Siberian plains and northeastern territories of Canada.
Lise Kilic, Rasmus Tage Tonboe, Catherine Prigent, and Georg Heygster
The Cryosphere, 13, 1283–1296,Short summary
In this study, we develop and present simple algorithms to derive the snow depth, the snow–ice interface temperature, and the effective temperature of Arctic sea ice. This is achieved using satellite observations collocated with buoy measurements. The errors of the retrieved parameters are estimated and compared with independent data. These parameters are useful for sea ice concentration mapping, understanding sea ice properties and variability, and for atmospheric sounding applications.
Samuel Favrichon, Catherine Prigent, Carlos Jimenez, and Filipe Aires
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1531–1543,Short summary
Land surface parameters (such as temperature) can be extracted from passive microwave satellite observations, with less cloud contamination than in the infrared. A cloud contamination index is proposed to detect cloud contamination for multiple frequency ranges (from 10 to 190 GHz), to be applicable to the successive generations of MW instruments. Even with a reduced number of low-frequency channels over land, the index reaches an accuracy of ≥ 70 % in detecting contaminated observations.
Seyed Hamed Alemohammad, Jana Kolassa, Catherine Prigent, Filipe Aires, and Pierre Gentine
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5341–5356,Short summary
A new machine learning algorithm is developed to downscale satellite-based soil moisture estimates from their native spatial scale of 9 km to 2.25 km.
Seyed Hamed Alemohammad, Bin Fang, Alexandra G. Konings, Filipe Aires, Julia K. Green, Jana Kolassa, Diego Miralles, Catherine Prigent, and Pierre Gentine
Biogeosciences, 14, 4101–4124,Short summary
Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN) is a statistically based estimate of global surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and gross primary productivity. The retrieval uses six remotely sensed observations as input, including the solar-induced fluorescence. WECANN provides estimates on a 1° × 1° geographic grid and on a monthly time scale and outperforms other global products in capturing the seasonality of the fluxes when compared to eddy covariance tower data.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
V. S. Galligani, C. Prigent, E. Defer, C. Jimenez, P. Eriksson, J.-P. Pinty, and J.-P. Chaboureau
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1605–1616,
H. Norouzi, M. Temimi, C. Prigent, J. Turk, R. Khanbilvardi, Y. Tian, F. A. Furuzawa, and H. Masunaga
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1197–1205,
G. D. Hayman, F. M. O'Connor, M. Dalvi, D. B. Clark, N. Gedney, C. Huntingford, C. Prigent, M. Buchwitz, O. Schneising, J. P. Burrows, C. Wilson, N. Richards, and M. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13257–13280,Short summary
Globally, wetlands are a major source of methane, which is the second most important greenhouse gas. We find the JULES wetland methane scheme to perform well in general, although there is a tendency for it to overpredict emissions in the tropics and underpredict them in northern latitudes. Our study highlights novel uses of satellite data as a major tool to constrain land-atmosphere methane flux models in a warming world.
R. Briant, L. Menut, G. Siour, and C. Prigent
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
I. Pison, B. Ringeval, P. Bousquet, C. Prigent, and F. Papa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11609–11623,
V. Beck, C. Gerbig, T. Koch, M. M. Bela, K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, J. O. Kaplan, C. Prigent, P. Bergamaschi, and M. Heimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7961–7982,
R. Wania, J. R. Melton, E. L. Hodson, B. Poulter, B. Ringeval, R. Spahni, T. Bohn, C. A. Avis, G. Chen, A. V. Eliseev, P. O. Hopcroft, W. J. Riley, Z. M. Subin, H. Tian, P. M. van Bodegom, T. Kleinen, Z. C. Yu, J. S. Singarayer, S. Zürcher, D. P. Lettenmaier, D. J. Beerling, S. N. Denisov, C. Prigent, F. Papa, and J. O. Kaplan
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 617–641,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsEvaluating the consistency and continuity of pixel-scale cloud property data records from Aqua and SNPP (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership)Quality assessment of Second-generation Global Imager (SGLI)-observed cloud properties using SKYNET surface observation dataComparison of scattering ratio profiles retrieved from ALADIN/Aeolus and CALIOP/CALIPSO observations and preliminary estimates of cloud fraction profilesEvaluation of convective cloud microphysics in numerical weather prediction models with dual-wavelength polarimetric radar observations: methods and examplesSynergistic radar and sub-millimeter radiometer retrievals of ice hydrometeors in mid-latitude frontal cloud systemsThe impact of sampling strategy on the cloud droplet number concentration estimated from satellite dataHorizontal geometry of trade-wind cumuli – aircraft observations from shortwave infrared imager versus radar profilerEvaluation of satellite retrievals of liquid clouds from the GOES-13 imager and MODIS over the midlatitude North Atlantic during the NAAMES campaignEvaluation of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) neural network cloud detection against current operational cloud masksThe effect of low-level thin arctic clouds on shortwave irradiance: evaluation of estimates from spaceborne passive imagery with aircraft observationsValidation of the Sentinel-5 Precursor TROPOMI cloud data with Cloudnet, Aura OMI O2–O2, MODIS, and Suomi-NPP VIIRSDissecting effects of orbital drift of polar-orbiting satellites on accuracy and trends of climate data records of cloud fractional coverCalibration of global MODIS cloud amount using CALIOP cloud profilesEvaluation of the MODIS Collection 6 multilayer cloud detection algorithm through comparisons with CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar and CALIPSO CALIOP productsAn extended radar relative calibration adjustment (eRCA) technique for higher-frequency radars and range–height indicator (RHI) scansComparing lightning observations of the ground-based European lightning location system EUCLID and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS)Microwave and submillimeter wave scattering of oriented ice particlesShallow cumuli cover and its uncertainties from ground-based lidar–radar data and sky imagesUsing passive and active observations at microwave and sub-millimetre wavelengths to constrain ice particle modelsComparison of the cloud top heights retrieved from MODIS and AHI satellite data with ground-based Ka-band radarCross-comparison of cloud liquid water path derived from observations by two space-borne and one ground-based instrument in northern EuropeThe impact of neglecting ice phase on cloud optical depth retrievals from AERONET cloud mode observationsDiurnal and nocturnal cloud segmentation of all-sky imager (ASI) images using enhancement fully convolutional networksCan liquid cloud microphysical processes be used for vertically pointing cloud radar calibration?Calibration of a 35 GHz airborne cloud radar: lessons learned and intercomparisons with 94 GHz cloud radarsAirborne validation of radiative transfer modelling of ice clouds at millimetre and sub-millimetre wavelengthsAssessing the impact of different liquid water permittivity models on the fit between model and observationsCloud liquid water path in the sub-Arctic region of Europe as derived from ground-based and space-borne remote observationsCorrection of CCI cloud data over the Swiss Alps using ground-based radiation measurementsCloud heterogeneity on cloud and aerosol above cloud properties retrieved from simulated total and polarized reflectancesOrographic and convective gravity waves above the Alps and Andes Mountains during GPS radio occultation events – a case studyNeural network cloud top pressure and height for MODISPreliminary verification for application of a support vector machine-based cloud detection method to GOSAT-2 CAI-2Evaluation of Himawari-8 surface downwelling solar radiation by ground-based measurementsCharacterization of AVHRR global cloud detection sensitivity based on CALIPSO-CALIOP cloud optical thickness information: demonstration of results based on the CM SAF CLARA-A2 climate data recordAnalysis of lightning outliers in the EUCLID networkCharacterisation of the artificial neural network CiPS for cirrus cloud remote sensing with MSG/SEVIRIRemote sensing of multiple cloud layer heights using multi-angular measurementsDifferences in liquid cloud droplet effective radius and number concentration estimates between MODIS collections 5.1 and 6 over global oceansIn-operation field-of-view retrieval (IFR) for satellite and ground-based DOAS-type instruments applying coincident high-resolution imager dataMarine boundary layer cloud property retrievals from high-resolution ASTER observations: case studies and comparison with Terra MODISCoupling sky images with radiative transfer models: a new method to estimate cloud optical depthComparison of MODIS and VIIRS cloud properties with ARM ground-based observations over FinlandOrbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) cloud screening algorithms: validation against collocated MODIS and CALIOP dataNext-generation angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from CERES instruments: validationLidar multiple scattering factors inferred from CALIPSO lidar and IIR retrievals of semi-transparent cirrus cloud optical depths over oceansComparing satellite- to ground-based automated and manual cloud coverage observations – a case studyMeso-scale modelling and radiative transfer simulations of a snowfall event over France at microwaves for passive and active modes and evaluation with satellite observationsRemote sensing of cloud top pressure/height from SEVIRI: analysis of ten current retrieval algorithmsEvaluation of SCIAMACHY Oxygen A band cloud heights using Cloudnet measurements
Qing Yue, Eric J. Fetzer, Likun Wang, Brian H. Kahn, Nadia Smith, John M. Blaisdell, Kerry G. Meyer, Mathias Schreier, Bjorn Lambrigtsen, and Irina Tkatcheva
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2099–2123,Short summary
The self-consistency and continuity of cloud retrievals from infrared sounders and imagers aboard Aqua and SNPP (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership) are examined at the pixel scale. Cloud products are found to be consistent with each other. Differences between sounder products are mainly due to cloud clearing and the treatment of clouds in scenes with unsuccessful atmospheric retrievals. The impact of algorithm and instrument differences is clearly seen in the imager cloud retrievals.
Pradeep Khatri, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Hitoshi Irie, Husi Letu, Takashi Y. Nakajima, Hiroshi Ishimoto, and Tamio Takamura
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1967–1982,Short summary
Cloud properties observed by the Second-generation Global Imager (SGLI) onboard the Global Change Observation Mission – Climate (GCOM-C) satellite are evaluated using surface observation data. The study finds that SGLI-observed cloud properties are qualitative enough, although water cloud properties are suggested to be more qualitative, and both water and ice cloud properties can reproduce surface irradiance quite satisfactorily. Thus, SGLI cloud products are very useful for different studies.
Artem G. Feofilov, Hélène Chepfer, Vincent Noël, Rodrigo Guzman, Cyprien Gindre, Po-Lun Ma, and Marjolaine Chiriaco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1055–1074,Short summary
Space-borne lidars have been providing invaluable information of atmospheric optical properties since 2006, and new lidar missions are on the way to ensure continuous observations. In this work, we compare the clouds estimated from space-borne ALADIN and CALIOP lidar observations. The analysis of collocated data shows that the agreement between the retrieved clouds is good up to 3 km height. Above that, ALADIN detects 40 % less clouds than CALIOP, except for polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs).
Gregor Köcher, Tobias Zinner, Christoph Knote, Eleni Tetoni, Florian Ewald, and Martin Hagen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1033–1054,Short summary
We present a setup for systematic characterization of differences between numerical weather models and radar observations for convective weather situations. Radar observations providing dual-wavelength and polarimetric variables to infer information about hydrometeor shapes and sizes are compared against simulations using microphysics schemes of varying complexity. Differences are found in ice and liquid phase, pointing towards issues of some schemes in reproducing particle size distributions.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Stuart Fox, Patrick Eriksson, David Duncan, Stefan A. Buehler, Manfred Brath, Richard Cotton, and Florian Ewald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 677–699,Short summary
We test a novel method to remotely measure ice particles in clouds. This is important because such measurements are required to improve climate and weather models. The method combines a radar with newly developed sensors measuring microwave radiation at very short wavelengths. We use observations made from aircraft flying above the cloud and compare them to real measurements from inside the cloud. This works well given that one can model the ice particles in the cloud sufficiently well.
Edward Gryspeerdt, Daniel T. McCoy, Ewan Crosbie, Richard H. Moore, Graeme J. Nott, David Painemal, Jennifer Small-Griswold, Armin Sorooshian, and Luke Ziemba
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The droplet number concentration is a key property of clouds, influencing a variety of cloud processes. It is also used for estimating the cloud response to aerosols. The satellite retrieval depends on a number of assumptions – different sampling strategies are used to select cases where these assumptions are most likely to hold. Here we investigate the impact of these strategies on the agreement with insitu data, the droplet number climatology and on estimates of the indirect radiative forcing.
Henning Dorff, Heike Konow, and Felix Ament
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
This study elaborates how aircraft-based horizontal geometries of trade-wind cumuli differ whether an one-dimensional profiling radar or a two-dimensional imager is used. Cloud size distributions are examined in terms of sensitivity to sample size, resolution and instrument field of view. While the radar cannot reproduce the double power-law distribution due to coarse resolution and restriction to vertical transects, the imager also reveals the elliptic cloud structure enhancing with wind speed.
David Painemal, Douglas Spangenberg, William L. Smith Jr., Patrick Minnis, Brian Cairns, Richard H. Moore, Ewan Crosbie, Claire Robinson, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, and Luke Ziemba
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6633–6646,Short summary
Cloud properties derived from satellite sensors are critical for the global monitoring of climate. This study evaluates satellite-based cloud properties over the North Atlantic using airborne data collected during NAAMES. Satellite observations of droplet size and cloud optical depth tend to compare well with NAAMES data. The analysis indicates that the satellite pixel resolution and the specific viewing geometry need to be taken into account in research applications.
Charles H. White, Andrew K. Heidinger, and Steven A. Ackerman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3371–3394,Short summary
Automated detection of clouds in satellite imagery is an important practice that is useful for predicting and understanding both weather and climate. Cloud detection is often difficult at night and over cold surfaces. In this paper, we discuss how a complex statistical model (a neural network) can more accurately detect clouds compared to currently used approaches. Overall, our results suggest that our approach could result in more reliable assessments of global cloud cover.
Hong Chen, Sebastian Schmidt, Michael D. King, Galina Wind, Anthony Bucholtz, Elizabeth A. Reid, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, William L. Smith, Patrick C. Taylor, Seiji Kato, and Peter Pilewskie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2673–2697,Short summary
In this paper, we accessed the shortwave irradiance derived from MODIS cloud optical properties by using aircraft measurements. We developed a data aggregation technique to parameterize spectral surface albedo by snow fraction in the Arctic. We found that undetected clouds have the most significant impact on the imagery-derived irradiance. This study suggests that passive imagery cloud detection could be improved through a multi-pixel approach that would make it more dependable in the Arctic.
Steven Compernolle, Athina Argyrouli, Ronny Lutz, Maarten Sneep, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Ann Mari Fjæraa, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Diego Loyola, Ewan O'Connor, Fabian Romahn, Piet Stammes, Tijl Verhoelst, and Ping Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2451–2476,Short summary
The high-resolution satellite Sentinel-5p TROPOMI observes several atmospheric gases. To account for cloud interference with the observations, S5P cloud data products (CLOUD OCRA/ROCINN_CAL, OCRA/ROCINN_CRB, and FRESCO) provide vital input: cloud fraction, cloud height, and cloud optical thickness. Here, S5P cloud parameters are validated by comparing with other satellite sensors (VIIRS, MODIS, and OMI) and with ground-based CloudNet data. The agreement depends on product type and cloud height.
Jędrzej S. Bojanowski and Jan P. Musiał
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6771–6788,Short summary
Satellites such as NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer can uniquely observe changes in cloud cover but are affected by orbital drift that results in shifted image acquisition times, which in turn lead to spurious trends in cloud cover detected during climatological analyses. Providing a detailed quantification of these trends, we show that climate data records must be analysed with caution, as for some periods and regions they do not comply with the requirements for climate data.
Andrzej Z. Kotarba
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4995–5012,Short summary
This paper evaluates the operational approach for producing global (Level 3) cloud amount based on MODIS cloud masks (Level 2). Using CALIPSO we calculate the actual cloud fractions for each cloud mask category, which are 21.5 %, 27.7 %, 66.6 %, and 94.7 % instead of assumed 0 %, 0 %, 100 %, and 100 %. Consequently we find the operational procedure unreliable, especially on a regional/local scale. A method of how to correct and calibrate MODIS global data using CALIPSO detections is suggested.
Benjamin Marchant, Steven Platnick, Kerry Meyer, and Galina Wind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3263–3275,Short summary
Multilayer cloud scenes (such as an ice cloud overlapping a liquid cloud) are common in the Earth's atmosphere and are quite difficult to detect from space. The detection of multilayer clouds is important to better understand how they interact with the light and their impact on the climate. So, for the instrument MODIS an algorithm has been developed to detect those clouds, and this paper presents an evaluation of this algorithm by comparing it with other instruments.
Alexis Hunzinger, Joseph C. Hardin, Nitin Bharadwaj, Adam Varble, and Alyssa Matthews
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3147–3166,Short summary
The calibration of weather radars is one of the most dominant sources of errors hindering their use. This work takes a technique for tracking the changes in radar calibration using the radar clutter from the ground and extends it to higher-frequency research radars. It demonstrates that after modifications the technique is successful but that special care needs to be taken in its application at high frequencies. The technique is verified using data from multiple DOE ARM field campaigns.
Dieter R. Poelman and Wolfgang Schulz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2965–2977,Short summary
The objective of this work is to quantify the similarities and contrasts between the lightning observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS) and the ground-based European Cooperation for Lightning Detection (EUCLID) network. This work is timely, given that the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), which has a lightning imager (LI) on board, is going to be launched in 2 years.
Manfred Brath, Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, Oliver Lemke, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2309–2333,Short summary
Microwave dual-polarization observations consistently show that larger atmospheric ice particles tend to have a preferred orientation. We provide a publicly available database of microwave and submillimeter wave scattering properties of oriented ice particles based on discrete dipole approximation scattering calculations. Detailed radiative transfer simulations, recreating observed polarization patterns, are additionally presented in this study.
Erin A. Riley, Jessica M. Kleiss, Laura D. Riihimaki, Charles N. Long, Larry K. Berg, and Evgueni Kassianov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2099–2117,Short summary
Discrepancies in hourly shallow cumuli cover estimates can be substantial. Instrument detection differences contribute to long-term bias in shallow cumuli cover estimates, whereas narrow field-of-view configurations impact measurement uncertainty as averaging time decreases. A new tool is introduced to visually assess both impacts on sub-hourly cloud cover estimates. Accurate shallow cumuli cover estimation is needed for model–observation comparisons and studying cloud-surface interactions.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 501–520,Short summary
Atmospheric ice particles (e.g. snow and ice crystals) are an important part of weather, climate, and the hydrological cycle. This study investigates whether combined satellite measurements by radar and radiometers at microwave wavelengths can be used to find the most likely shape of such ice particles. The method was limited when using only currently operating sensors (CloudSat radar and the GPM Microwave Imager) but shows promise if the upcoming Ice Cloud Imager is also considered.
Juan Huo, Daren Lu, Shu Duan, Yongheng Bi, and Bo Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1–11,Short summary
Cloud top height (CTH) is one of the important cloud parameters providing information about the vertical structure of cloud water content. To better understand the accuracy of CTH derived from passive satellite data, 2 years of ground-based Ka-band radar measurements are compared with CTH inferred from Terra/Aqua MODIS and Himawari AHI. It is found that MODIS and AHI underestimate CTH relative to radar by −1.10 km. Both MODIS and AHI CTH retrieval accuracy depend strongly on cloud depth.
Vladimir S. Kostsov, Anke Kniffka, Martin Stengel, and Dmitry V. Ionov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5927–5946,Short summary
Cloud liquid water path (LWP) is one of the target atmospheric parameters retrieved remotely from ground-based and space-borne platforms. The LWP data delivered by the satellite instruments SEVIRI and AVHRR together with the data provided by the ground-based radiometer RPG-HATPRO near St. Petersburg, Russia, have been compared. Our study revealed considerable differences between LWP data from SEVIRI and AVHRR in winter over ice-covered relatively small water bodies in this region.
Jonathan K. P. Shonk, Jui-Yuan Christine Chiu, Alexander Marshak, David M. Giles, Chiung-Huei Huang, Gerald G. Mace, Sally Benson, Ilya Slutsker, and Brent N. Holben
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5087–5099,Short summary
Retrievals of cloud optical depth made using AERONET radiometers in “cloud mode” rely on the assumption that all cloud is liquid. The presence of ice cloud therefore introduces errors in the retrieved optical depth, which can be over 25 in optically thick ice clouds. However, such clouds are not frequent and the long-term mean optical depth error is about 3 for a sample of real clouds. A correction equation could improve the retrieval further, although this would require extra instrumentation.
Chaojun Shi, Yatong Zhou, Bo Qiu, Jingfei He, Mu Ding, and Shiya Wei
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4713–4724,Short summary
Cloud segmentation plays a very important role in astronomical observatory site selection. At present, few researchers segment cloud in nocturnal all-sky imager (ASI) images. We propose a new automatic cloud segmentation algorithm to segment cloud pixels from diurnal and nocturnal ASI images called an enhancement fully convolutional network (EFCN). Experiments showed that the proposed EFCN was much more accurate in cloud segmentation for diurnal and nocturnal ASI images.
Maximilian Maahn, Fabian Hoffmann, Matthew D. Shupe, Gijs de Boer, Sergey Y. Matrosov, and Edward P. Luke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3151–3171,Short summary
Cloud radars are unique instruments for observing cloud processes, but uncertainties in radar calibration have frequently limited data quality. Here, we present three novel methods for calibrating vertically pointing cloud radars. These calibration methods are based on microphysical processes of liquid clouds, such as the transition of cloud droplets to drizzle drops. We successfully apply the methods to cloud radar data from the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Oliktok Point (OLI) ARM sites.
Florian Ewald, Silke Groß, Martin Hagen, Lutz Hirsch, Julien Delanoë, and Matthias Bauer-Pfundstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1815–1839,Short summary
This study gives a summary of lessons learned during the absolute calibration of the airborne, high-power Ka-band cloud radar HAMP MIRA on board the German research aircraft HALO. The first part covers the internal calibration of the instrument where individual instrument components are characterized in the laboratory. In the second part, the internal calibration is validated with external reference sources like the ocean surface backscatter and different air- and spaceborne cloud radars.
Stuart Fox, Jana Mendrok, Patrick Eriksson, Robin Ekelund, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Keith N. Bower, Anthony J. Baran, R. Chawn Harlow, and Juliet C. Pickering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1599–1617,Short summary
Airborne observations of ice clouds are used to validate radiative transfer simulations using a state-of-the-art database of cloud ice optical properties. Simulations at these wavelengths are required to make use of future satellite instruments such as the Ice Cloud Imager. We show that they can generally reproduce observed cloud signals, but for a given total ice mass there is considerable sensitivity to the cloud microphysics, including the particle shape and distribution of ice mass.
Katrin Lonitz and Alan J. Geer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 405–429,Short summary
Permittivity models for microwave frequencies of liquid water below 0°C are poorly constrained due to limited laboratory experiments and observations, especially for high microwave frequencies. This uncertainty translates directly into errors in retrieved liquid water paths of up to 80 %. This study investigates the effect of different liquid water permittivity models including models based on the most recent observations.
Vladimir S. Kostsov, Anke Kniffka, and Dmitry V. Ionov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5439–5460,Short summary
Clouds are a very important component of the climate system and of the hydrological cycle in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. A joint analysis of the cloud parameters obtained remotely from satellite and ground-based observations near St Petersburg, Russia, has been made. Our study has revealed considerable differences between the cloud properties over land and over water areas in the region under investigation.
Fanny Jeanneret, Giovanni Martucci, Simon Pinnock, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4153–4170,Short summary
Above mountainous regions, satellites may have difficulty in discriminating snow from clouds: this study proposes a new method that combines different ground-based measurements to assess the sky cloudiness with high temporal resolution. The method's output is used as input to a model capable of identifying false satellite cloud detections. Results show that 62 ± 13 % of these false detections can be identified by the model when applied to the AVHRR-PM and MODIS Aqua data sets of the Cloud_cci.
Céline Cornet, Laurent C.-Labonnote, Fabien Waquet, Frédéric Szczap, Lucia Deaconu, Frédéric Parol, Claudine Vanbauce, François Thieuleux, and Jérôme Riédi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3627–3643,Short summary
Simulations of total and polarized cloud reflectance angular signatures such as the ones measured by the multi-angular and polarized radiometer POLDER3/PARASOL are used to evaluate cloud heterogeneity effects on cloud parameter retrievals. Effects on optical thickness, albedo of the cloudy scenes, effective radius and variance of the cloud droplet size distribution, cloud top pressure and aerosol above cloud are analyzed.
Rodrigo Hierro, Andrea K. Steiner, Alejandro de la Torre, Peter Alexander, Pablo Llamedo, and Pablo Cremades
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3523–3539,Short summary
This paper analyzed the collocated GPS radio occultation profiles near the convective systems identified from ISCCP over two orographic regions of the Alps and Andes. Gravity wave (GW) analysis over both selected regions was also carried out. The gravity wave signature from the two case studies were investigated using mesoscale WRF simulations, ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and measured RO temperature profiles. The absence of fronts or jets during both case studies reveals similar relevant GWs.
Nina Håkansson, Claudia Adok, Anke Thoss, Ronald Scheirer, and Sara Hörnquist
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3177–3196,Short summary
In this paper a new algorithm for cloud top height retrieval from imager instruments like MODIS is presented. It uses artificial neural networks and reduces the mean absolute error by 32 % compared to two other operational cloud height algorithms. This means that improved cloud height retrieval for nowcasting, as input to models and in cloud climatologies is possible.
Yu Oishi, Haruma Ishida, Takashi Y. Nakajima, Ryosuke Nakamura, and Tsuneo Matsunaga
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2863–2878,Short summary
Preparations are continuing for the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite 2 (GOSAT-2) in the fiscal year 2018. To improve the accuracy of the estimates of greenhouse gases concentrations, we need to refine the existing cloud discrimination algorithm. In this paper we showed a new cloud discrimination algorithm of pre-launch version for GOSAT-2, and compared the existing algorithm with the new algorithm.
Alessandro Damiani, Hitoshi Irie, Takashi Horio, Tamio Takamura, Pradeep Khatri, Hideaki Takenaka, Takashi Nagao, Takashi Y. Nakajima, and Raul R. Cordero
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2501–2521,Short summary
The Tohoku Earthquake of March 2011 stressed the need for energy source diversity, and the governmental policy in Japan has been stimulating a broader use of renewable energy. Solar power is potentially able to mitigate climate change triggered by greenhouse gas emissions, but its instability caused by cloudiness is a critical issue for suppliers. To develop an appropriate control system, surface solar radiation data must be made available as accurately as possible.
Karl-Göran Karlsson and Nina Håkansson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 633–649,Short summary
Data from the high-sensitivity CALIOP cloud lidar onboard the CALIPSO satellite have been used to evaluate cloud amounts estimated from satellite imagery and, specifically, from the climate data record CLARA-A2. The main purpose has been to study the limit of how thin clouds that can be detected efficiently (i.e., detected at the 50 % level) in CLARA-A2 data and how this limit varies globally. The study revealed very large geographical differences in the cloud detection efficiency.
Dieter R. Poelman, Wolfgang Schulz, Rudolf Kaltenboeck, and Laurent Delobbe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4561–4572,Short summary
Lightning data as observed by the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection network EUCLID are used in combination with radar data to retrieve the temporal and spatial behavior of lightning outliers, i.e. discharges located in a wrong place, over a 5-year period from 2011 to 2016 in Belgium and Austria.
Johan Strandgren, Jennifer Fricker, and Luca Bugliaro
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4317–4339,Short summary
We characterise the the performance of a set of artificial neural networks used for the remote sensing of cirrus clouds from the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites. The retrievals show little interference with the underlying land surface type as well as with possible liquid water clouds or aerosol layers below the cirrus cloud. We also characterise the retrievals as a funtion of optical thickness and top height and gain better understanding of the retrival uncertainties of CiPS
Kenneth Sinclair, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Brian Cairns, John Yorks, Andrzej Wasilewski, and Matthew McGill
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2361–2375,Short summary
We present a multi-angular contrast approach to retrieve cloud top height (CTH) using photogrammetry. We demonstrate the method’s ability to retrieve heights of multiple cloud layers within single footprints, using the multiple views available for each footprint. This paper provides an in-depth description and performance analysis of the CTH retrieval technique and the retrieved cloud heights are evaluated using collocated data from the Cloud Physics Lidar.
John Rausch, Kerry Meyer, Ralf Bennartz, and Steven Platnick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2105–2116,Short summary
This paper documents the observed differences in the aggregated (Level-3) cloud droplet effective radius and droplet number concentration estimates inferred from the Aqua–MODIS cloud product collections 5.1 and 6 for warm oceanic cloud scenes over the year 2008. We note significant differences in effective radius and droplet concentration between the two products and discuss the algorithmic and calibration changes which may contribute to observed results.
Holger Sihler, Peter Lübcke, Rüdiger Lang, Steffen Beirle, Martin de Graaf, Christoph Hörmann, Johannes Lampel, Marloes Penning de Vries, Julia Remmers, Ed Trollope, Yang Wang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 881–903,Short summary
This paper presents the independent and simple IFR method to retrieve the FOV of an instrument, i.e. the two-dimensional sensitivity distribution. IFR relies on correlated measurements featuring a higher spatial resolution and was applied to two satellite instruments, GOME-2 and OMI, and a DOAS instrument integrated in an SO2 camera. Our results confirm the commonly applied FOV distributions. IFR is applicable for verification exercises as well as degradation monitoring in the field.
Frank Werner, Galina Wind, Zhibo Zhang, Steven Platnick, Larry Di Girolamo, Guangyu Zhao, Nandana Amarasinghe, and Kerry Meyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5869–5894,Short summary
A research–level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. This yields reliable estimates of important cloud variables at a horizontal resolution of 30 m. Comparisons of the ASTER retrieval results with the operational cloud products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) show a high agreement for 48 example cloud fields.
Felipe A. Mejia, Ben Kurtz, Keenan Murray, Laura M. Hinkelman, Manajit Sengupta, Yu Xie, and Jan Kleissl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4151–4165,Short summary
A method for retrieving cloud optical depth using a sky imager is presented. The method is applied to images taken at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site and validated against measurements from a microwave radiometer (MWR), output from the Min method for overcast skies, and τc retrieved by Beer's law from direct normal irradiance (DNI) measurements.
Moa K. Sporre, Ewan J. O'Connor, Nina Håkansson, Anke Thoss, Erik Swietlicki, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3193–3203,Short summary
Satellite measurements of cloud top height and liquid water path are compared to ground-based remote sensing to evaluate the satellite retrievals. The overall performance of the satellite retrievals of cloud top height are good, but they become more problematic when several layers of clouds are present. The liquid water path retrievals also agree well, and the average differences are within the estimated measurement uncertainties.
Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, Christian Frankenberg, Philip T. Partain, Heather Q. Cronk, Andrey Savtchenko, Robert R. Nelson, Emily J. Rosenthal, Albert Y. Chang, Brenden Fisher, Gregory B. Osterman, Randy H. Pollock, David Crisp, Annmarie Eldering, and Michael R. Gunson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 973–989,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is providing approximately 1 million soundings per day of the total column of carbon dioxide (XCO2). The retrieval of XCO2 can only be performed for soundings sufficiently free of cloud and aerosol. This work highlights comparisons of OCO-2 cloud screening algorithms to the MODIS cloud mask product. We find agreement approximately 85 % of the time with some significant spatial and small seasonal dependencies.
W. Su, J. Corbett, Z. Eitzen, and L. Liang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3297–3313,
A. Garnier, J. Pelon, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. R. Trepte, and P. Dubuisson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2759–2774,Short summary
Cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 microns are compared to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 microns from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over oceans made by the space-borne CALIPSO IIR infrared radiometer and CALIOP lidar. A new relationship describing the temperature-dependent effect of multiple scattering in the CALIOP retrievals is derived and discussed.
A. Werkmeister, M. Lockhoff, M. Schrempf, K. Tohsing, B. Liley, and G. Seckmeyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2001–2015,
V. S. Galligani, C. Prigent, E. Defer, C. Jimenez, P. Eriksson, J.-P. Pinty, and J.-P. Chaboureau
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1605–1616,
U. Hamann, A. Walther, B. Baum, R. Bennartz, L. Bugliaro, M. Derrien, P. N. Francis, A. Heidinger, S. Joro, A. Kniffka, H. Le Gléau, M. Lockhoff, H.-J. Lutz, J. F. Meirink, P. Minnis, R. Palikonda, R. Roebeling, A. Thoss, S. Platnick, P. Watts, and G. Wind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2839–2867,
P. Wang and P. Stammes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1331–1350,
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Three meteorological events with deep convection and severe weather, characteristic of the SESA region, are considered. High-resolution models, a powerful tool to study convection, can be operated with different microphysics schemes (predict the development of hydrometeors, their interactions, growth, precipitation). We present a systematic evaluation of the microphysical schemes available in the WRF model by a direct comparison between satellite-based simulated and observed microwave radiances.
Three meteorological events with deep convection and severe weather, characteristic of the SESA...